Pasha or pacha, formerly bashaw, (Turkish: paşa پاشا) (Persian: پاشا) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government As an honorary title, "Pasha" in one of its various ranks is equivalent to the British title of "Lord". An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person
Etymologists variously derive the word pasha from the from the Turkish baş ağa (in some dialects pash), "head lord", "tribal chief" etc. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a Tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government (more likely for an officer). Old Turkish had no fixed distinction between /b/ and /p/. As first used in western Europe, the title appeared in writing with the initial "b". The English forms bashaw, bassaw, bucha etc. , general in the 16th and 17th century, derive through the medieval Latin and Italian word bassa. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy.
Role in Ottoman political system
The Ottoman sultan of Turkey and (by delegation) the viceroyal khedive of Egypt had the right to bestow the title of Pasha. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches For the HMS Khedive, see ''USS'' Cordova. Khedive (from Persian for "lord" was a title first The title appears, originally, to have applied exclusively to military commanders, but subsequently it could distinguish any high official, and also unofficial persons whom the court desired to honour.
It was also part of the official style of the Kapudan Pasha (Great Admiral of the entire Ottoman fleet). Kaptan Pasha ( Ottoman Turkish: کاپیتان پاشا Kaptan Pasha) or کاپیتان دریا Kaptan-ı Derya (literally Captain of the Sea
Pashas ranked above Beys and Aghas, but below Khedives and Viziers. Bey is a Turkish title for "chieftain" traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups For the HMS Khedive, see ''USS'' Cordova. Khedive (from Persian for "lord" was a title first A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian
Three grades of Pasha existed, distinguished by the number of yak- or horse-tails (three, two and one respectively; a symbol of Turco-Mongol tradition) or peacock tails, which the bearers were entitled to display on their standard as a symbol of military authority when on campaign. Only the Sultan himself was entitled to four tails, as sovereign commander in chief.
The following military ranks entitled the holder to the style Pasha (lower ranks were styled Bey or merely Effendi):
- The Vizier-i-Azam (Grand Vizier, the prime minister, but also often taking the field as Generalissimo instead of the Sultan)
- Mushir (Field marshall)
- Ferik (army Lieutenant-general or navy Vice-admiral)
- Lewa=Liva (major general or Rear-admiral)
- The Kizlar Agha (chief black eunuch, the highest officer in the Topkapı Palace; three tails, as commander of the baltacı corps of the halberdiers in the imperial army
- Istanbul's Shaikh ul-Islam, the highest Muslim clergyman, of cabinet rank. A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian A Mushir (مشير ( Marshal) is the highest rank in most militaries of the Middle East. Liva is the first live Album released by the Norwegian band Gåte, and was recorded on December 30, 2005 at Rockefeller A seraglio (also serraglio) is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and Concubines in a Turkish household from an Italian variant of The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in Ottoman: طوبكابي بالاذيis a palace in Istanbul, Turkey, which was the official and Sheikh ul-Islam ( Shaykh al-Islam, Sheikhul Islam, Shaikh al-Islam, Şeyhülislam) is a Title of superior authority in the issues of
If a Pasha governed a provincial territory, it could be called a pashaluk after his military title, besides the administrative term for the type of jurisdiction, e. Types of administrative and/or political territories include Many types of legally administered territories, each of which is a non-sovereign geographic area The subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire were Administrative divisions of the State organisation of the Ottoman Empire based on military administration but g. eyalet, vilayet. The subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire were Administrative divisions of the State organisation of the Ottoman Empire based on military administration but A wilāyah (ولاية or vilâyet (in Persian and Ottoman Turkish) is an administrative division usually Both Beylerbeys (governors-general) and Valis (the most common type of Governor) were entitled to the style of Pasha (typically with two tails). " Beylerbeyi " redirects here Beylerbey (from Beylerbeyi, Ottoman Turkish for " Bey of Beys" meaning "Commander Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya ' أولياء) is an Arabic word meaning trusted one or friend generally denoting The word pashalik designated any province or other jurisdiction of a Pasha. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division.
Ottoman authorities conferred the title upon both Muslims and Christians without distinction. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth They also frequently gave it to foreigners in the service of the Turks or of the Egyptians, e. The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group g. Hobart Pasha. Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden ( 1 April 1822 – 19 June 1886) was an English naval captain and Ottoman Turkish admiral
In usage, the title followed the given name. Although the word serves as a non-hereditary title, English speakers have commonly used the word pasha as if it formed part of a personal name, as for instance in Ibrahim Pasha or Emin Pasha, similar to the practice of referring to a British Peer as Lord X, since in both cases it substitutes for a more precise rank title. Mehmet Emin Pasha ( March 28, 1840 &ndash October 23, 1892) born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer, baptized (c The Peerage is a system of Titles of Nobility in the United Kingdom, part of the British honours system.
The sons of a Pasha were styled Pashazada or Pasha-zade, which means just that.
In modern Egyptian and (to a lesser extent) Levantine Arabic, it is used as an honorific closer to "Sir" than "Lord," especially by older people. Levantine Arabic (Arabic شامي (Shami and sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic varieties spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean
List of notable pashas
- This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Abbas I ( July 1 1813 - July 16 1854) ( عباس الأول) Wāli of Egypt and Sudan, was Abbas II (also known as Abbas Hilmi Pasha) (عباس حلمي باشا ( July 14, 1874, Alexandria &ndash 19 December Claude Alexandre Comte de Bonneval ( 14 July 1675 - 23 March 1747)was a French army officer who later went into the service of the Ali Pasha ( ? - October 7th, 1571)(or Muezzinzade Ali Pasha) (Müezzinzâde Ali Paşa was an Ottoman official and general and finally Ali Pasha of Tepelen or of Yannina, the "Lion of Yannina" (1741 &ndash January 24, 1822) was the ruler ( Pasha) of the western Colonel Ahmed Orabi or Ahmed Urabi ( Egyptian Arabic: ʻorābi ˈʕoɾɑːˌbi ( April 1, 1841 - September 21, 1911) ( Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha ( Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the CağaloğluHamamıjpg|thumb|right|200px| Cağaloğlu Hamam (Turkish bath in İstanbul's Cağaloğlu quarter built by and named after Yusuf Sinan Pasha (source&permission www Mehmet Emin Pasha ( March 28, 1840 &ndash October 23, 1892) born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer, baptized (c İsmail Enver ( Ottoman Turkish: اسماعيل انور ( November 22, 1881 in Constantinople - August 4 Esad Pashë Toptani (1863 &ndash June 13, 1920) primarily known as Essad Pasha, was a leading Albanian politician in the early twentieth century Fakhri Pasha or Umar Fakhr ud-Din Pasha was the commander of Ottoman army and governor of Medina from 1916 to 1919 Fuad Pasha (1815 &ndash 1869 was a Turkish statesman known for his leadership during the Crimean War and in the Westernization movement within the Ottoman Empire Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, better known as Glubb Pasha (born 16 April Major-General, CB ( 28 January 1833 &ndash 26 January 1885) known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha Hagop Kazazian Pasha (alternative spelling Agop Kazazyan) (1833–1891 was a high-ranking Ottoman official of Armenian origin who served as the Minister Mustafa İsmet İnönü ( September 24 1884 &ndash December 25, 1973) was a Turkish Army General, Prime Minister Jafar Pasha al-Askari (جعفر العسكري (1887&ndash1936 served twice as prime minister of Iraq: from November 22 1923, to Hagop Kazazian Pasha (alternative spelling Agop Kazazyan) (1833–1891 was a high-ranking Ottoman official of Armenian origin who served as the Minister Uluj Ali ( Turkish: Uluç Ali Reis, later Uluç Ali Paşa and finally Kılıç Ali Paşa; born Giovanni Dionigi Galeni; 1519 "Köprülü" is also the Turkish name of a town in the Republic of Macedonia known as Veles ( Velissa in Greek) Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa (Born 1634/1635 &ndash December 25, 1683) was an Ottoman military leader and Grand vizier who was a central character Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha (or simply Lala Mustafa Pasha) (c 1500-1580 was an Ottoman general and statesman Generalleutnant Otto Liman von Sanders ( February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser Mehmet Ali may refer to Mehmet (Muhammad Ali (1769–1849 viceroy of Egypt Mehemed Emin Aali Pasha (1815–1871 Turkish statesman Biography Early years Little is known for certain about Mehmed's birth and early life Antoine Ignace Melling (1763–1831 was a painter architect and voyager who is counted among the “ Levantine Artists ” MidhatPashaVanityFairjpg|thumb|Mithat Pasha on the cover of Vanity Fair, June 30, 1877. Mustafa Reşid Pasha ( 13 March 1800 – 17 December 1858) was an Ottoman Statesman and Diplomat. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman Nubar Pasha (بوغوص نوبار باشا (January 1825 İzmir, Ottoman Empire - January 14, 1899, Paris) was an Egyptian Osman Nuri Paşa also Gazi Osman Pasha ( 1832 - April 5 1900) was an Ottoman Turkish Field marshal and the hero of the Piyale Pasha (c 1515-1578 also known as Piale Pasha in the West or Pialí Bajá in Spain Turkish: Piyale Paşa) was an Ottoman-Turkish Riyad Pasha (born 1835 or 1836 died 1911 was an Egyptian statesman This article is about an Ottoman grand vizier An Ottoman viceroy to Egypt Sa'id of Egypt, is also commonly called Said Pasha Küçük Mehmet Sait Sinan Pasha ( 1506 - April 3, 1596) was an Albanian born Ottoman military commander ( Pasha) and statesman For other uses see Suleiman Pasha (disambiguation Sulejman Pasha was a Feudal lord and general of the Ottoman Empire Family Sultan al-Atrash was born in Al-Qrayya, a village 20 km south of Sweida known for the famous Druze family of Al-Atrash, which had nominally Mehmed Talat (Mehmet Tâlât (1874-1921 also known as Talat Pasha was one of the first important members of the Committee of Union and Progress. Tewfik Pasha (Tawfiq of Egypt (1852-1892 (محمد توفيق باشا was Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, and the sixth ruler from the Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1839 ? - 1927 was an ethnic-Albanian politician of the Ottoman Empire and later Prime minister of the independent Albania Tusun Pasha (Tosun Paşa (1794-1816 was the elder son of Muhammad Ali Pasha, Wali of Egypt between 1805-1849 Valentine Baker (also known as Baker Pasha) (1827—1887 British soldier was a younger brother of Sir Samuel Baker. Henry Felix Woods, KCVO was an Admiral and a Pasha in the Imperial Ottoman Naval Service Yusuf (ibn Ali Karamanli, Qaramanli or al-Qaramanli or Caramanli (most commonly Yusuf Karamanli) (1766-1838 was the best-known Pasha The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish There were many Titles of nobility in the Ottoman Empire, but as in many oriental traditions nobility was generally not hereditary as in the west except for the ruling house The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
- AllAboutTurkey. com - The Ottoman harem
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- former title -above bey- for (generally military) state officers in the Ottoman Empire, actually conferred in three ranks, denoted by the number of horse tails attached to their banner
- its holder; commonly applied in the West to any Ottoman provincial governor, regardless of the actual title (often Vali) and the fact that not all incumbents held the rank of pasha.
- roughly equivalent title in certain (post-)Ottoman successor/ (nominal) satellite states, such as khedival Egypt
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