A parody (pronounced [ˈpɛɹədiː]), in contemporary usage, is a work created to mock, comment on, or poke fun at an original work, its subject, or author, by means of humorous or satiric imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon (2000: 7) puts it, "parody … is , not always at the expense of the parodied text. Linda Hutcheon (born 1947 is a Canadian academic literary theorist and feminist " Another critic, Simon Dentith (2000: 9), defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice. Polemics (pəˈlɛmɪks/ /poʊ- is the practice of disputing or controverting religious, philosophical, or political matters "
Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music, and cinema. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Parodies are colloquially referred to as spoofs or lampoons.
According to Aristotle (Poetics, ii. 5) Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody; by slightly altering the wording in well-known poems he transformed the sublime into the ridiculous. Hegemon of Thasos (ήγεμών ό Θάσος was a Greek Writer of the Old Comedy. In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treat light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects" (Denith, 10). Greek literature refers to those writings autochthonic to the areas of Greek influence typically though not necessarily in one of the Greek dialects throughout the An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Indeed, the apparent Greek roots of the word are par- (which can mean beside, counter, or against) and -ody (song, as in an ode). Thus, the original Greek word has sometimes been taken to mean counter-song, an imitation that is set against the original. The Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect" (quoted in Hutcheon, 32). Because par- also has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule" (Hutcheon, 32).
Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC In French Neoclassical literature, parody was also a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another for humorous effect. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and
Use in classical music
In reference to 15th- to 18th-century music, parody means a reworking of one kind of composition into another (e. g. , a motet into a keyboard work as Girolamo Cavazzoni, Antonio de Cabezón, and Alonso Mudarra all did to Josquin motets. In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions Girolamo Cavazzoni (1525-1560 was an Italian Organist who wrote organ masses hymns and Ricercari. Antonio de Cabezón (1510 &ndash March 26, 1566) was a Spanish composer and Organist of the Renaissance. Alonso Mudarra (c 1510 &ndash April 1, 1580) was a Spanish composer and vihuelist of the Renaissance. Josquin des Prez (c 1450 to 1455 &ndash August 27 1521 often referred to simply as Josquin, was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions ) More commonly, a parody mass (missa parodia) used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets; Victoria, Palestrina, Lassus, and other notable composers of the 16th century used this technique, also called marichu chollu. In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes spelled 'da Vittoria' (1548 &ndash August 20, 1611) was a Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526 - 2 February 1594 was an Italian Composer of the Renaissance. Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530 &ndash June Song parodies can be filled with mishearings known as mondegreens. A mondegreen is the mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase typically a standardized phrase such as a line in a poem or a lyric in a song due to near homophony. See also the main article on musical parody. Parody music, or musical parody, involves changing or recycling existing (usually very well known musical ideas or lyrics - or copying the peculiar style of a composer or artist
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English Benjamin Jonson ( c 11 June 1572 &ndash 6 August 1637) was an English Renaissance Dramatist " The next notable citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who also appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was not in common use. John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England
Modernist and post-modernist parody
In the broader sense of Greek parodia, parody can occur when whole elements of one work are lifted out of their context and reused, not necessarily to be ridiculed. Hutcheon argues that this sense of parody has again become prevalent in the Twentieth Century, as artists have sought to connect with the past while registering differences brought by modernity. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Modernity is a term that refers to the Modern era. It is distinct from Modernism, and in different contexts refers to cultural and intellectual movements of the Major modernist examples of this recontextualizing parody include James Joyce's Ulysses, which incorporates elements of Homer's Odyssey in a Twentieth-Century Irish context, and T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land, which incorporates and recontextualizes elements of a vast range of prior texts. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. The Waste Land ( 1922) is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T
blank parody, in which an artist takes the skeletal form of another art work and places it in a new context without ridiculing it, is common. Pastiche is a closely related genre, and parody can also occur when characters or settings belonging to one work are used in a humorous or ironic way in another, such as the transformation of minor characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern from Shakespeare's drama Hamlet into the principal characters in a comedic perspective on the same events in the play (and film) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic Genre. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Fictional characters from William Shakespeare 's tragedy Hamlet. William Shakespeare ( baptised Hamlet is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601 Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is an absurdist, existentialist Tragicomedy by Tom Stoppard, first staged at the Edinburgh In Flann O'Brien's novel At Swim-Two-Birds, for example, mad King Sweeney, Finn MacCool, a pookah, and an assortment of cowboys all assemble in an inn in Dublin: the mixture of mythic characters, characters from genre fiction, and a quotidian setting combine for a humor that is not directed at any of the characters or their authors. Brian O'Nolan (Brian Ó Nualláin (5 October 1911 – 1 April 1966 was an Irish novelist and satirist best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At At Swim-Two-Birds is a 1939 novel by Irish author Brian O'Nolan, writing under the pseudonym Flann O'Brien The Buile Shuibhne (translates as "The Madness of Sweeney" or "Sweeney's Frenzy" is the tale of Sweeney (or Suibhne) a legendary king of Dál nAraidi Fionn mac Cumhaill (ˈɸʲiːn̪ˠ mˠak ˈkũw̃aːlʲ in Irish, ˈfɪn mə ˈkuːl in English) (earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac The Púca ( Old Irish) (also Pwwka Pooka Puka Phouka Púka Pwca in Welsh, Bucca in Cornish, pouque in Dgèrnésiais A cowboy is an animal Herder who tends Cattle on Ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback and often performs a multitude of Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set This combination of established and identifiable characters in a new setting is not the same as the post-modernist habit of using historical characters in fiction out of context to provide a metaphoric element.
Sometimes the reputation of a parody outlasts the reputation of what is being parodied. For example, Don Quixote, which mocks the traditional knight errant tales, is much better known than the novel that inspired it, Amadis de Gaula (although Amadis is mentioned in the book). es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don A knight-errant (plural knights-errant) is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature. Amadis de Gaula (original Castilian Spanish version ( English: Amadis of Gaul, Spanish: Amadís de Gaula Another notable case is the novel Shamela by Henry Fielding (1742), which was a parody of the gloomy epistolary novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) by Samuel Richardson. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story An Apology for the Life of Mrs Shamela Andrews, or Shamela, as it is more commonly known is a satirical Novel written by Henry Fielding Henry Fielding ( April 22, 1707 &ndash October 8, 1754) was an English Novelist and Dramatist known for his Year 1742 ( MDCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a An epistolary novel German Briefroman ---> is a Novel written as a series of documents Pamela or Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary Novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. Year 1740 ( MDCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap Samuel Richardson (19 August 1689 &ndash 4 July 1761 was an 18th-century English Writer and printer. Many of Lewis Carroll's parodies, such as "You Are Old, Father William", are much better known than the originals. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (ˈdɒdsən (27 January 1832 &ndash 14 January 1898 better known by the Pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/ was an English In more recent times, the television sitcom 'Allo 'Allo! is much better known than the drama Secret Army that originated it. 'Allo 'Allo! was a long-running British sitcom broadcast on BBC1 from 1982 to 1992 comprising eighty-five episodes Secret Army is a BBC television drama series created by Gerard Glaister.
Also, some artists carve out careers by making parodies. One of the best-known examples is that of "Weird Al" Yankovic. Alfred Matthew "Weird Al" Yankovic (ˈjæŋkəvɪk born October 23 1959 is a Grammy Award winning American singer Musician, actor satirist His career of parodying other musical acts and their songs has outlasted many of the artists or bands he has parodied. It is worth mentioning that while he is not required under law to get permission to parody, as a personal rule, however, he does seek permission to parody a person's song before recording it. This is to help maintain good relations with others in the music industry, and has become something of a badge of honor for other artists, since many artists parodied by Yankovic felt that he would not choose to create a parody of a song or genre that was not successful. There was, however, one incident in which "Weird Al" did not get full permission. This was because of a misunderstanding that Al had with the agent of another music artist.
The point that in most cases a parody of a work constitutes fair use was upheld in the case of Rick Dees, who decided to use 29 seconds of the music from the song When Sonny Gets Blue to parody Johnny Mathis singing style even after being refused permission. Rick Dees is an American comedic performer entertainer and radio personality best known for his #1 internationally syndicated radio show The Rick Dees Weekly Top 40 Countdown John Royce "Johnny" Mathis (born September 30, 1935) is an American Singer of Popular music. An appeals court upheld the trial court's decision that this type of parody represents fair use. Fisher v. Dees 794 F.2d 432 (9th Cir. Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past Court cases either in special series of books called reporters 1986)
New technology, such as MP3 and the internet, have offered new avenues for parody. MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a Digital audio encoding format using a form of Lossy data compression The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks JibJab, for instance, published a critical video of George W. Bush. JibJab is a digital entertainment studio based in Los Angeles California. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.
Some genre theorists, following Bakhtin, see parody as a natural development in the life cycle of any genre; this idea has proven especially fruitful for genre film theorists. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin ( Russian: Михаил Михайлович Бахти́н mʲɪxʌˈil mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪʨ bʌxˈtʲin ( November 17, 1895 A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Such theorists note that Western movies, for example, after the classic stage defined the conventions of the genre, underwent a parody stage, in which those same conventions were ridiculed and critiqued. The Western is a fiction Genre seen in Film, Television, Radio, Literature, Painting and other Visual arts. Because audiences had seen these classic Westerns, they had expectations for any new Westerns, and when these expectations were inverted, the audience laughed. A subset of parody is self-parody in which artists satirize themselves (as in Ricky Gervais's Extras) or their work (such as Antonio Banderas's Puss in Boots in Shrek 2), or an artist or genre repeats elements of earlier works to the point that originality is lost. A self-parody is a Parody of oneself or one's own work As an artist accomplishes it by imitating his or her own characteristics a self-parody is potentially difficult to distinguish Ricky Dene Gervais (dʒɜːˈveɪz born 25 June 1961 is an English Actor, Comedian, Writer, director, Producer and former Extras is a British television sitcom about extras working on Film sets and in Theatre. José Antonio Domínguez Banderas (born August 10, 1960) better known as Antonio Banderas, is a Spanish film Actor and Singer Puss in Boots is a fictional cat from the Shrek film series voiced in English and both Spanish versions by Antonio Banderas. Shrek 2, released in the United States on 19 May 2004, is the 2004 Academy Award nominated Sequel to the
Although a parody can be considered a derivative work under United States Copyright Law, it can be protected from claims by the copyright owner of the original work under the fair use doctrine, which is codified in 17 USC § 107. In Copyright law, a derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major basic copyrighted aspects of an original previously created first work United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders such as use for The Supreme Court of the United States stated that parody "is the use of some elements of a prior author's composition to create a new one that, at least in part, comments on that author's works. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. " That commentary function provides some justification for use of the older work. See Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc.
In 2001, the United States Court of Appeals, 11th Circuit, in Suntrust v. Houghton Mifflin, upheld the right of Alice Randall to publish a parody of Gone with the Wind called The Wind Done Gone, which told the same story from the point of view of Scarlett O'Hara's slaves, who were glad to be rid of her. Campbell v Acuff-Rose Music, 510 US 569 ( 1994) was a United States Supreme Court Copyright law case that stands for the proposition The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit is a federal court with Appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following Alice Randall (born Detroit Michigan) is an American author and Songwriter. This is about the 1936 American Novel. For the film see Gone with the Wind (film Gone with the Wind is a 1936 American The Wind Done Gone ( 2001) is the first Novel written by Alice Randall. Scarlett O'Hara (full name Katie Scarlett O'Hara Hamilton Kennedy Butler) is the Protagonist in Margaret Mitchell 's 1936 novel Gone with
Parodying music is legal in the U. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. K, America and Canada.
Social and political uses
Parody is closely related to satire and is often used in conjunction with it to make social and political points. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Examples include Swift's A Modest Proposal, which satirizes English neglect of Ireland by parodying emotionally disengaged political tracts, and, in contemporary culture, The Daily Show and The Colbert Report, which parody a news broadcast and a talk show, respectively, to satirize political and social trends and events. Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 A Modest Proposal For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public, The Daily Show (known in its current incarnation as The Daily Show The Colbert Report (/kolˈbɛr rəˈpɔr/&mdashthe t is silent in "Colbert" is a Peabody Award and Emmy Award winning American Some events, such as a national tragedy, can be difficult to handle. Chet Clem, Editorial Manager of the news parody publication The Onion, told Wikinews in an interview the questions that are raised when addressing difficult topics:
|“||I know the September 11 issue was an obviously very large challenge to approach. For the vegetable see Onion. The Onion is an American " fake news " organization Wikinews is a free-content News source Wiki and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. Do we even put out an issue? What is funny at this time in American history? Where are the jokes? Do people want jokes right now? Is the nation ready to laugh again? Who knows. There will always be some level of division in the back room. It’s also what keeps us on our toes. ||”|
However, satire is usually used when someone is earnestly trying to push for change. Parodies are sometimes done with respect and appreciation of the subject involved, while not being a heedless sarcastic attack.
Parody has also been used to facilitate dialogue between cultures or subcultures. Sociolinguist Mary Louise Pratt identifies parody as one of the "arts of the contact zone," through which marginalized or oppressed groups "selectively appropriate," or imitate and take over, aspects of more empowered cultures. Mary Louise Pratt is a Silver Professor and Professor of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Literatures at New York University.  Similarly, Henry Louis Gates and Gene Caponi regard parody as an important technique of signifying, the African-American rhetoric of indirect criticism and semantic innovation. Henry Louis “Skip” Gates Jr (born September 16, 1950) is an American literary critic, educator scholar writer editor and Public intellectual Signifyin' (slang is an African-American Rhetorical device featuring indirect Communication or Persuasion and the creating of new meanings for Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice
Shakespeare often uses a series of parodies to convey his meaning. In the social context of his era the best example can be seen in King Lear were the fool is introduced with his coxcomb to be a parody of the king. King Lear is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1603 and 1606 and is considered one of his greatest works
Parody is an important element of student writing, David Bartholomae argues, because students imitate and alter academic forms in an attempt to master those forms.
Also, parody arguably sometimes makes canonical works accessible to larger audiences by presenting them humorously; see, for example, parodies of Poe's "The Raven" and "The Tell-Tale Heart" on The Simpsons. Canonical is an Adjective derived from canon. Canon comes from the Greek word kanon, "rule" (perhaps originally from Edgar Allan Poe (January 19 1809 – October 7 1849 was an American poet, short-story Writer, editor and Literary critic, " The Raven " is a narrative poem by the American writer Edgar Allan Poe, first published in January 1845 " The Tell-Tale Heart " is a Short story by Edgar Allan Poe first published in 1843
- Sir Thopas in Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer
- Don Quixote by Miguel Cervantes
- Beware the Cat by William Baldwin
- The Knight of the Burning Pestle by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher
- Dragon of Wantley, an anonymous 17th century ballad
- Hudibras by Samuel Butler
- "MacFlecknoe", by John Dryden
- A Tale of a Tub by Jonathan Swift
- The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope
- Namby Pamby by Henry Carey
- Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift
- The Dunciad by Alexander Pope
- The Memoirs of Martinus Scribblerus by John Gay, Alexander Pope, John Arbuthnot, Earl of Oxford, et al. Intertextuality is the shaping of texts' meanings by other texts A literary technique or literary device is an identifiable Rule of thumb, convention or Structure that is employed in Literature A parody advertisement is a fictional advertisement for a non-existent product either done within another advertisement for an actual product or done simply as parody of Parody music, or musical parody, involves changing or recycling existing (usually very well known musical ideas or lyrics - or copying the peculiar style of a composer or artist A parody religion or mock religion is either a Parody of a Religion, Sect or Cult, or a relatively unserious religion that many Parody science, sometimes called spoof science is a Parody of Science. Subvertising refers to the practice of making spoofs or parodies of corporate and political advertisements in order to make a statement Sir Thopas is Chaucer's tale in The Canterbury Tales (1387 In Canterbury Tales, there is a character named Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in Prose, the rest in verse) Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist William "Billy" Baldwin (born February 21, 1963) is an American Actor, known for his starring roles in such films as The Knight of the Burning Pestle is a play by Francis Beaumont, first performed in 1607 and first published in a quarto in 1613. Francis Beaumont (1584 &ndash March 6 1616) was a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John John Fletcher (1579 &ndash 1625 was a Jacobean Playwright. Following William Shakespeare as house playwright for the King's Men, he was The Dragon of Wantley is a 17th century satirical verse Parody about a dragon and a brave knight Hudibras is a Mock heroic Narrative poem from the 17th century written by Samuel Butler. Samuel Butler ( 8 February, 1612 &ndash 25 September, 1680) was a poet and satirist Mac Flecknoe is a verse Mock-heroic Satire written by John Dryden. John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England A Tale of a Tub was the first major work written by Jonathan Swift, composed between 1694 and 1697 and published in 1704 Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 The Rape of the Lock is a Mock-heroic Narrative poem written by Alexander Pope, first published anonymously in Lintot's Miscellany Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744 is generally regarded as the greatest English Poet of the eighteenth century best known for his Satirical Namby Pamby is a term for affected weak and maudlin speech/verse Henry Carey may refer to Henry Charles Carey (1793&ndash1879 American economist Henry Carey (writer (1687&ndash1743 dramatist and Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts The Dunciad (ˈdʌnsiˌæd is a landmark literary Satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744 is generally regarded as the greatest English Poet of the eighteenth century best known for his Satirical John Gay ( 30 June, 1685 - 4 December, 1732) was an English Poet and Dramatist. John Arbuthnot, often known simply as Dr Arbuthnot, ( baptised 29 April, 1667 &ndash 27 February, 1735) was a physician Robert Harley may refer to Robert Harley (1579-1656 Robert Harley 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer Robert Harley (c
- Kat Kongby Dav Pilkey
- The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia [sic] by Samuel Johnson
- Mozart's A Musical Joke (Ein musikalischer Spaß), K. Sue Denim redirects here For the member of Robots in Disguise, see Sue Denim (musician. The History of Rasselas Prince of Abissinia, often Sic is a Latin word meaning "thus" "so" "as such" or "just as that" Samuel Johnson (often referred to as Dr Johnson) (18 September A Musical Joke (in German Ein Musikalischer Spaß) K 522 ( Divertimento for two horns and strings is a composition by Wolfgang Amadeus 522 (1787) - parody of incompetent contemporaries of Mozart, as assumed by some theorists
- Sartor Resartus by Thomas Carlysle
- Ways and Means, or The aged, aged man, by Lewis Carroll. Thomas Carlyle 's major work Sartor Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881 was a Scottish essayist satirist and historian whose work was highly influential during the Victorian era. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (ˈdɒdsən (27 January 1832 &ndash 14 January 1898 better known by the Pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/ was an English Much of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass is parodic of Victorian schooling. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865 is a novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson better known under the Pseudonym Lewis Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There ( 1871) is a work of Children's literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities
- Batrachomuomachia (battle between frogs and mice) , an Iliad parody by an unknown ancient Greek author
- A Sonnet by J K Stephen, an example of parody as serious literary criticism in that it draws attention to both the weaknesses and the strengths of the body of work it lampoons. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient James Kenneth Stephen ( February 25, 1859 &ndash February 3, 1892) was an English poet and tutor to Prince Albert, son of Albert
- Britannia Sitting On An Egg a machine-printed illustrated envelope published by the stationer W. An envelope is a Packaging product usually made of flat planar material such as Paper or cardboard and designed to contain a flat object which in a postal-service R. Hume of Leith, Scotland, parodying the machine-printed illustrated envelope (commissioned by Rowland Hill (postal reformer) and designed by the artist William Mulready) used to launch the British postal service reforms of 1840. Sir Rowland Hill KCB FRS ( December 3, 1795 - August 27, 1879) was a British teacher and social reformer William Mulready ( April 1 1786 &ndash July 7, 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London.
- Swiss Family Guy Robinson - A Canadian play by impressionist Brian Froud that parodies "The Swiss Family Robinson" and "Family Guy". Swiss Family Guy Robinson premiered at the Toronto Fringe Festival on July 8, 2006. An impressionist is a performer whose act consists of giving the "impression" of being someone else by imitating the other person's voice and mannerisms Brian Froud (born 1973 in Hamilton Ontario) is a Canadian Actor, Voice actor and Comedian. For the 1960 film produced by Disney see Swiss Family Robinson (film The Swiss Family Robinson (German Der Schweizerische Family Guy is an animated American television sitcom created by Seth MacFarlane that airs on Fox and regularly on other 20th Century Fox issued the show a cease and desist order over the telephone after mistakenly asserting that it relied on copyrighted material from "Family Guy". A cease and desist (also called C & D) is an order or request to halt an activity or else face legal action Family Guy is an animated American television sitcom created by Seth MacFarlane that airs on Fox and regularly on other
- Aurora Parody - various parodies including ruby by kaisers:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZdMPOJxA-98 and also Mr Brightside by the Killers: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZ-EbvStfv4
- Stan Freberg's, "Weird Al" Yankovic's, Tom Lehrer's, Cledus T. Judd's, Bob Rivers', Art Paul Schlosser's, Allan Sherman's and Steve Goodie's innumerable song parodies
- Mel Brooks films such as Spaceballs, Robin Hood: Men In Tights, and Blazing Saddles
- Christopher Guest's mockumentary films such as Waiting for Guffman (parodying theater documentaries) Best In Show (parodying dog shows) and A Mighty Wind (parodying music documentaries)
- Airplane! - parody of airplane disaster movies (namely Zero Hour!). Stanley Victor Freberg (b August 7, 1926, Los Angeles, California) is an American author recording artist Animation Alfred Matthew "Weird Al" Yankovic (ˈjæŋkəvɪk born October 23 1959 is a Grammy Award winning American singer Musician, actor satirist Thomas Andrew "Tom" Lehrer (born April 9 1928)is an American Singer-songwriter, satirist, Pianist, and mathematician Cledus T Judd (born Barry Poole, December 18, 1964, in Marietta Georgia) is an American Country music artist Bob Rivers is a well known American Rock and roll Radio on air personality in the Pacific Northwest as well as a prolific producer Art Paul Schlosser (born in Chicago January 4, 1960) grew up listening to Novelty music like Allen Sherman and Tiny Tim Allan Sherman (November 30 1924 – November 20 1973 was an American Musician, parodist, satirist, and Television producer A song is a Musical composition. Songs contain vocal parts that are performed 'sung' and generally feature Words ( Lyrics) commonly followed Mel Brooks (born Melvin Kaminsky; June 28, 1926) is an American director, Writer, Composer, Lyricist Spaceballs is a 1987 Science fiction Parody film of Star Wars co-written directed by and starring Mel Brooks. Robin Hood Men in Tights is a 1993 Comedy of the story of Robin Hood (primarily parodying Robin Hood Prince of Thieves Blazing Saddles ( 1974) is a satiric Western Comedy film directed by Mel Brooks. Christopher Guest (born February 5 1948 is an Emmy Award-winning writer Grammy Award-winning composer/musician director and comic actor Waiting for Guffman is a musical Mockumentary starring co-written and directed by Christopher Guest that was released in 1997 Best in Show ( 2000) is a Mockumentary that follows five entrants in a prestigious dog show. A Mighty Wind is a 2003 pseudo-documentary about a Folk music reunion concert and the three groups that must come together to perform on national television Airplane! is a 1980 American Comedy film directed and written by David Zucker Jim Abrahams and Jerry Zucker. Zero Hour! is a 1957 movie written by Arthur Hailey, starring Dana Andrews, Linda Darnell, and Sterling Hayden.
- Austin Powers series - parodies of spy films, especially the James Bond series, and a broad range of popular culture. Sir Austin Danger Powers, KBE, is a Fictional character from the Austin Powers series of films James Bond 007 is a Fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve Novels and two Short story Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance —
- National Lampoon magazine - numerous parodies in several different media
- The Boomer Bible - a book by R. The Boomer Bible is a Book written by R F Laird. In structure the book is based on the Christian Bible, but it is neither a simple Parody F. Laird, which parodies contemporary society and mores.
- The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Abridged) – a parody of all of the plays of William Shakespeare. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Abridged (also known as The Complete Wrks of Wllm Shkspr (Abridged) is a Parody of the plays written William Shakespeare ( baptised
- CNNNN - an Australian parody of 24 hours cable news networks, such as CNN and Fox News. CNNNN ( C haser N o N -stop N ews N etwork Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner
- The Daily Show - satirical news show on Comedy Central hosted by Jon Stewart. The Daily Show (known in its current incarnation as The Daily Show
- The Colbert Report - a parody of pundit programs, particularly The O'Reilly Factor. The Colbert Report (/kolˈbɛr rəˈpɔr/&mdashthe t is silent in "Colbert" is a Peabody Award and Emmy Award winning American A pundit is someone who offers to mass-media his/her opinion or commentary on a particular subject area (most typically political analysis, the Social sciences The O'Reilly Factor is an American Talk show on the Fox News Channel hosted by commentator Bill O'Reilly, who discusses
- Dead Ringers - Is a BBC satirical radio and tv impressionist show. Dead Ringers was a UK Radio and Television Comedy impressions show which first broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and
- Don't Be A Menace To South Central While Drinking Your Juice In The Hood - A parody of coming-of-age 'hood movies' such as Juice, South Central, Higher Learning, Do The Right Thing, Menace II Society, Poetic Justice, New Jack City, Dead Presidents, and most prominently Boyz N the Hood. Don't Be a Menace to South Central While Drinking Your Juice in the Hood is a 1995 film Juice is a 1992 crime Drama film that has gained a certain classic status South Central is a 1992 Drama Film, written and directed by Steve Anderson Higher Learning is a 1995 Drama film, starring an Ensemble cast. "Do the Right Thing" is also an Australian anti-litter campaign Menace II Society is a 1993 hood film and the directorial debut of twin brothers Allen and Albert Hughes. Poetic justice is a literary device in which Virtue is ultimately Rewarded or Vice punished, often in modern literature by an New Jack City is a 1991 Crime - thriller / Neo-noir film starring Wesley Snipes, Ice T This article is about the American action film For the American hip hop group see Dead Prez. Boyz N the Hood is an Academy Award -nominated 1991 Film written and directed by John Singleton.
- Drawn Together - parodies the various genres of animation, along with TV reality shows. Drawn Together is an American Animated television series, which ran on Comedy Central from October 27, 2004 to November The bouncing ball animation (below consists of these 6 frames Reality television is a genre of Television programming which presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations documents actual events and usually features ordinary
- Facelift (TV series) - parodies of NZ Celebs, politicians, sports-people , advertisements and tv shows. Facelift is a half-hour topical comedy show produced for New Zealand 's TV One by the Gibson Group.
- Hot Shots! - A parody about the war film Top Gun (film) and other movies. Hot Shots! is a 1991 comedy spoof starring Charlie Sheen, Cary Elwes, Valeria Golino, Lloyd Bridges, Kevin Dunn Top Gun is a 1986 American Film directed by Tony Scott and produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer in association with
- The Institute of Internet History - a parody of Internet history and, more generally, the veracity of information on the Internet.
- The Kentucky Fried Movie - A parody of kung-fu movies, courtroom TV shows, women-in-prison movies, pornography, etc. The Kentucky Fried Movie is an American Comedy film, released in 1977 and directed by John Landis.
- Kung Fu Hustle - a movie by Steven Chow parodying Chinese wuxia films, as well as gangster films in general
- Landover Baptist Church - Parody of Southern Baptist hyper-religiosity. Kung Fu Hustle ( is a 2004 Hong Kong martial arts Comedy film co-written co-produced directed by and starring Stephen Chow Stephen Chow Sing-Chi, born June 22 1962 is a Hong Kong Scriptwriter, Film director, producer and actor Wuxia or Wǔxiá ( Mandarin ùɕiɑ̌ Hanyu Pinyin: Wǔxiá, Cantonese Pinyin: mou5 hap6 Taiwanese/Hokkien bu hiap The Landover Baptist Church is a fictional Baptist church based in the fictional town of Freehold Iowa.
- MAD Magazine - magazine that features parodies of movies, music, video games, and television shows. Mad is a monthly American Humor Magazine founded by editor Harvey Kurtzman and publisher William Gaines in 1952
- MADtv - an american show which parodies tv shows, celebs, inventions and everyday life problems
- Chris Morris's The Day Today and Brass Eye - parodies of high paced self-important genre of TV news programmes
- The Naked Gun series - A parody of police movies and TV shows (based upon the Police Squad! TV series). MADtv, is an American Sketch comedy television series based on the humor magazine Mad. Christopher Morris (born 5 September 1965 in Bristol) is an English Comedian, Writer, director, producer, The Day Today is a surreal British Parody of television News programmes It is an adaptation of the radio programme On The Hour Brass Eye is a UK television series of satirical spoof documentaries which aired on Channel 4 in 1997 and was re-run in 2001 A news program, news programme, news show, or newscast is a regularly scheduled radio or Television program that reports Current The Naked Gun series is a series of three comedy films from 1988 to 1994 written and produced by the Comedy filmmaking trio Zucker Abrahams and Zucker Police Squad! is a Television Comedy series first broadcast in 1982.
- Not Another Teen Movie, a movie that parodies teen flicks such as She's All That, American Pie, The Breakfast Club, Bring It On and various others. Not Another Teen Movie is a 2001 Comedy film released on December 14, 2001 by Columbia Pictures. She's All That is a 1999 Romantic comedy film, directed by Robert Iscove, and is a modern remake of George Bernard Shaw 's American Pie is a 1999 teen comedy Film directed by Paul Weitz and Chris Weitz, and written by Adam The Breakfast Club is a 1985 American Teen film widely considered as the definitive work in the genre
- The Onion - parody of newspaper and magazine journalism
- The Regal Seagull - parody of news based on the strangeness of Utah politics, people, and events journalism
- Parodius - parody of the side-scrolling video game Gradius as well as other Konami franchises
- Perfect Hair Forever- an anime parody on adult swim. For the vegetable see Onion. The Onion is an American " fake news " organization Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people This article concerns the first Parodius game For a general overview of the series see Parodius (series. is a horizontally-scrolling Shoot 'em up released by Konami in 1985 for Video arcades It was originally released in Europe as () is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys Trading cards, Anime, Tokusatsu, Slot machines Perfect Hair Forever is an American comedy Animated television series which is and is a parody of Anime. Adult Swim, (usually stylized swim with its signature square Brackets, is an adult-oriented Television network sharing channel space with Cartoon
- El Privilegio de Mandar - is a Mexican politic parody. El Privilegio de Mandar ( The Privilege to Rule) was a successful Mexican political parody broadcast by Televisa on XEW-TV Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions It's also the most popular parody in the country.
- Radio Active - BBC parody of poorly funded rural local commercial radio
- Real Stories - a parody of Australian current affairs television. Real Stories was an Australian comedy television series which screened on Network Ten in the latter half of 2006
- Reno 911! - a parody of the reality series COPS (TV series). Reno 911! is an American Comedy television series on Comedy Central that debuted in 2003. COPS is an American Documentary television series that follows Police officers and Sheriff 's deputies during patrols and other police
- Eating Media Lunch - a parody of New Zealand current affairs television. Eating Media Lunch is a satirical New Zealand News show hosted by Jeremy Wells.
- Restart - theatrical parody of British politics by the UK's Komedy Kollective. In a Computer or Data transmission system to reset means is to clear any pending errors or events and bring a system to normal condition or initial state usually
- The Rutles - parody of The Beatles
- Scream a parody of the slasher horror genre
- Scary Movie (Quadrilogy) - Parodies of horror movies such as Scream, I Know What You Did Last Summer, The Exorcist, The Haunting, Signs, The Ring, The Grudge, Saw etc. The Rutles was a fictional band created by Eric Idle and Neil Innes as a Pastiche of The Beatles. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 Scream is a 1996 film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. Scary Movie is a 2000 film directed by Keenen Ivory Wayans. It is an American Dark comedy which parodies the horror and mystery genres Scream is a 1996 film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. I Know What You Did Last Summer is a Thriller / Horror film released in 1997. The Exorcist is a 1973 American Horror film, adapted from the 1971 novel of the same name by William Peter Blatty, The Haunting is a 1999 remake of the 1963 Horror film of the same name. Signs is a 2002 Science fiction Thriller film written produced and directed by M The Ring is a 2002 American remake of the 1998 Japanese horror film of the same name (also known as Ringu) The Grudge is the 2004 American Remake of the Japanese film Ju-on The Grudge. A saw is a Tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials Followed by Epic Movie and Date Movie
- Second City Television - parody of North American network television programming. Epic Movie is a 2007 American Film directed and written by Jason Friedberg and Aaron Seltzer Date Movie is a 2006 romantic comedy film which was directed and written by Jason Friedberg and Aaron Seltzer Second City Television (SCTV was a Canadian television Sketch comedy show offshoot from Toronto's The Second City troupe that ran between
- Attack of the Killer Tomatoes - A cult favorite parody of monster movies and musicals that spawned three sequels, a video game, and a TV series
- Soap - soap-opera parody
- The Twelfth Man - Australian parody of Nine Network Cricket TV coverage. Attack of the Killer Tomatoes is a 1978 Comedy film directed by John De Bello and starring David Miller. Soap is an American Sitcom that originally ran on ABC from 1977 to 1981 The Twelfth Man (also known as The 12th Man) is the name for a series of comedy productions by Australian Satirist Billy Birmingham. The Nine Network, or Channel Nine, is an Australian television network based in Willoughby, a suburb on the North Shore of Sydney Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries
- The Sunday Format - BBC radio parody of vacuous lifestyle journalism
- This Is Spinal Tap, a spoof of the heavy metal music business, by Rob Reiner
- Underneath the Bunker, a parody of a European literary journal
- Uncyclopedia, a spoof of Wikipedia by Wikia. The Sunday Format, " BBC Radio 4 's first high-quality weekend Broadsheet Newspaper " is a British satirical Radio comedy This Is Spın̈al Tap (officially spelled with a non-functional umlaut over the letter 'n' and dotless 'i' is a 1984 mock Rockumentary Robert "Rob" Reiner (born March 6, 1947) is an American Actor, director, producer, Writer, and ***************************************************************************************** * * Wikia (originally Wikicities) is a selective Free web hosting service for Wikis (or Wiki farm) operated by Wikia Inc
- National Lampoon - series of movies.
- Paral & Piped - French songs parodies.
- The Discworld series by Terry Prattchet parodies many different genre, from adventure to fantasy, to fairytales, detective police stories, to ancient myths
- Get Smart parodies the spy genre
- Excel Saga - a parody anime series that mocks a wide variety of genres. Discworld is a comedic Fantasy Book series by the British author Terry Pratchett, set on the Discworld, a flat Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948 is an English fantasy, Science fiction, and children's author. Get Smart is an American comedy television series that satirized the secret agent genre is a comedy Manga series by Koushi Rikudou, and a TV Anime series directed by Shinichi Watanabe (anime in Japanese, One thing is an anime show Puni Puni Pooamy played in the background of an episode, which itself was made into a movie latter on, and is also a more in your face parody, that admits to it outright.
Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci
. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer
Original painting from circa 1503 – 1507. Oil on poplar.
Duchamp's parody of the Mona Lisa
adds a goatee
. Mona Lisa (also known as La Gioconda) is a 16th century portrait painted in oil on a Poplar panel by In the traditional taxonomy of facial hair a goatee is a Beard formed by a tuft of hair on the chin For the Swedish heavy metal band see Mustasch. A moustache (or mustache) is Facial hair grown on the upper Lip.
Marcel Duchamp's Dadaist readymade L.H.O.O.Q. parodies DaVinci's Mona Lisa by marring it with a goatee and moustache. Marcel Duchamp (maʀsɛl dyˈʃɑ̃ (28 July 1887 &ndash 2 October 1968 was a French artist whose work is most often associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist For other meanings see Dada (disambiguation DaDa is a Concept album by Alice Cooper, released The term found art &mdashmore commonly found object (objet trouvé or readymade &mdashdescribes Art created from the undisguised but often modified Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Mona Lisa (also known as La Gioconda) is a 16th century portrait painted in oil on a Poplar panel by In keeping with his Dadaist practices, which called artistic conventions and aesthetic assumptions into question, Duchamp paired his visual parody with a low pun; in French, when the letters "L. H. O. O. Q. " are pronounced one after the other, the phrase sounds like "elle a chaud au cul", or "her ass is hot".
- ^ An interview with The Onion, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 25, 2007. Wikinews is a free-content News source Wiki and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.
- Bakhtin, Mikhail (1981). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1981. ISBN 0-292-71527-7.
- Caponi, Gena Dagel (1999). Signifyin(g), Sanctifyin', & Slam Dunking: A Reader in African American Expressive Culture. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-183-X.
- Dentith, Simon. Parody (The New Critical Idiom). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18221-2.
- Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (1988) The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503463-5.
- Gray, Jonathan. (2006) Watching with The Simpsons: Television, Parody, and Intertextuality. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-4153-6202-4.
- Harries, Dan. (2000) Film Parody. London: BFI. ISBN 0-851-70802-1.
- Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms' (1985). New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-252-06938-2.
- Pratt, Mary Louise. "Arts of the Contact Zone"
- Rose, Margaret. (1993) Parody: Ancient, Modern and Post-Modern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41860-7.
- Tnuva Spoof
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
- A work or performance that imitates another work or performance with ridicule or irony.
- To make a parody of something.
network: | |