|Northern Ireland 1921-72|
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|Governor of Northern Ireland|
|Prime Minister of Northern Ireland|
|Parliament of Northern Ireland|
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|Government of Ireland Act 1920|
Elections in Northern Ireland
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The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which existed from 22 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended. The Northern Ireland Assembly ( Irish: Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann Semmlie) is the devolved Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It was subsequently abolished under the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973. The Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973 (c 36 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which received the Royal Assent on July
The Parliament of Northern Ireland was bicameral, consisting of a House of Commons with 52 seats, and an indirectly-elected Senate with 26 seats. In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral The House of Commons of Northern Ireland was the lower house of the Parliament of Northern Ireland created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. The Senate of Northern Ireland was the upper house of the Parliament of Northern Ireland created by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. The Sovereign was represented by the Governor, who granted Royal Assent to Acts of Parliament in Northern Ireland, but executive power rested with the Prime Minister, the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy The Governor of Northern Ireland was the principal officer and representative in Northern Ireland of the British monarch. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the De facto head of the Government of Northern Ireland.
The House of Commons had 52 members, of which 48 were for territorial seats and four were for graduates of Queen's University, Belfast (until 1969, when the four university seats were replaced by an additional 4 territorial seats). The House of Commons of Northern Ireland was the lower house of the Parliament of Northern Ireland created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Queen's University of Belfast was a University constituency in both the United Kingdom Parliament (from 1918 until 1950) and the Parliament The Government of Ireland Act prescribed that elections to the House of Commons should be by single transferable vote (STV), though the Parliament was given power to alter the electoral system from three years after its first meeting. Single transferable vote (STV is a preferential Voting system designed to minimize Wasted votes and provide Proportional representation The STV system was the subject of criticism from grassroots Unionists but because the three-year period ended during the Labour government of 1924, the Stormont government decided not to provoke the known egalitarian sympathies of many Labour backbenchers and held the second election on the same basis. Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Executive Committee of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland was the government of Northern Ireland created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have The loss of eight Unionist seats in that election caused great acrimony and in 1929 the system was changed to first-past-the-post for all territorial constituencies, though STV was retained for the university seats. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The boundary changes were not made by an impartial boundary commission but by the Unionist government, for which it was accused of gerrymandering. Gerrymandering is a form of redistribution in which electoral district or Constituency boundaries are manipulated for electoral advantage The charges that the Stormont seats (as opposed to local council wards) were gerrymandered against Nationalists is disputed by historians (since the number of Nationalists elected under the two systems barely changed), though it is agreed that losses under the change to single-member constituency boundaries were suffered by independent unionists, the Liberals and the Northern Ireland Labour Party. The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party See also Labour Party of Northern Ireland The Northern Ireland Labour Party was a political party which operated from 1924 until 1987 Population movements were so small that these boundaries were used almost everywhere until the Parliament was dissolved in 1972. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1968 the government abolished the Queen's University constituency (long after university constituencies had been abolished at Westminster) and created four new constituencies in the outskirts of Belfast where populations had grown. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A university constituency is a Constituency, used in elections to a Legislature, that represents a University rather than a geographical area The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories This change helped the Unionists, as they held only two of the University seats but won all four of the newly-created seats. There had, however, long been calls from outside Unionism to abolish the graduate franchise (and other anomalies) and to have "one person one vote".
of Northern Ireland
|Lord Craigavon (1922–1940)|
|John Miller Andrews (1940–1943)|
|Lord Brookeborough (1943–1963)|
|Captain Terence O'Neill (1963–1969)|
|James Chichester-Clark (1969–1971)|
|Brian Faulkner (1971–1972)|
The Senate was a last-minute addition to the Parliament, after the original plans for a single Senate covering both the Stormont and Dublin Parliaments were overtaken by events. James Craig 1st Viscount Craigavon, Bart, PC ( 8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist John Miller Andrews CH ( July 17, 1871 &ndash August 5, 1956) was the second Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. Basil Stanlake Brooke 1st Viscount Brookeborough, Bt, KG, CBE, MC, PC, HML ( June 9 1888 &ndash Terence Marne O'Neill Baron O'Neill of the Maine, PC ( 10 September 1914 &ndash 12 June 1990) was the fourth Prime Minister James Dawson Chichester-Clark Baron Moyola, PC, DL ( February 12, 1923 &ndash May 17, 2002) was the penultimate Arthur Brian Deane Faulkner Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick, PC ( February 18, 1921 - March 3, 1977) was the sixth and last The Senate of Northern Ireland was the upper house of the Parliament of Northern Ireland created by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland.
Twenty-four senators were elected by the House of Commons using the single transferable vote. The elections were carried out after each general election, with 12 members elected for two parliaments each time. The other two seats were held ex officio by the Lord Mayor of Belfast and the Mayor of Derry. The Lord Mayor of Belfast is a ceremonial position held by a member of Belfast City Council and annually elected by that council The Mayor of Derry, legally the Mayor of Londonderry is an honorary position bestowed upon a Citizen of Derry in Northern Ireland, who is in practice a The Senate generally had the same party balance as the House of Commons, though abstaining parties and very small parties were not represented. Because of this, and its dependence on the House of Commons for election, it had virtually no political impact.
Initially the Parliament met in Belfast's City Hall but moved immediately to the Presbyterian Church's Assembly's College (later Union Theological College), where it remained during the period 1921-32. Union Theological College is the Theological college The Commons met in the College's Gamble Library and the Senate in the Chapel. In 1932, Parliament moved to the new purpose-built Parliament Buildings, designed by Arnold Thornley, at Stormont, on the eastern outskirts of the city. Parliament Buildings, known as Stormont because of its location in the Stormont area of Belfast, served as the seat of the Parliament of Northern Ireland The city boundaries were extended slightly to include Stormont within the capital city. "Stormont" came to be a nickname referring both to the Parliament itself and to the Northern Ireland government.
The British monarch was meant to have been represented in both Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Southern Ireland (Deisceart Éireann was the short lived autonomous region (or Constituent country) of the United Kingdom established on 3 May The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (Ard-Leifteanant na hÉireann ( Plural: Lords Lieutenant) also known as the Judiciar in the early Mediaeval period However the replacement of Southern Ireland by the Irish Free State led to the abolition of the post of Lord Lieutenant. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Instead, a new office - Governor of Northern Ireland - was created on 12 December 1922. The Governor of Northern Ireland was the principal officer and representative in Northern Ireland of the British monarch. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
Stormont was given power to legislate over almost all aspects of Northern Ireland life, with only a few matters excluded from its remit: succession to the Crown, making of peace or war, armed forces, honours, naturalisation, some central taxes and postal services were the most important (a full list is in section 4 of the Government of Ireland Act 1920). An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act The Parliament did not try to infringe the terms of the Government of Ireland Act; on only one occasion did the United Kingdom government advise the King to withhold Royal Assent. This was the Local Government Act (Northern Ireland) which abolished proportional representation in local government elections; the issue was referred to London and Royal Assent was eventually given. The output of legislation was high for a devolved Parliament, though some of the Acts were adaptations of recently-passed acts by the United Kingdom parliament. Stormont was an innovator in much of its legislation. It was nominally prohibited by section 16 of the Schedule to the Irish Free State (Agreement) Act 1922 from making any law which directly or indirectly discriminated against a religion, although this provision had little effect. The Irish Free State (Agreement Act 1922 (12 & 13 Geo 5 c4 was an Act of the British Parliament passed on 31 March 1922.
The 1921 general election was explicitly fought on the issue of partition, being in effect a referendum on approval of the concept of a Northern Ireland administration. The Northern Ireland general election 1921 was held on 24 May 1921. The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Thereafter general election timing was up to the Prime Minister. Elections almost always took place at a time when the issue of partition had been raised in a new crisis. This generally guaranteed the loyalty of Protestant voters to the Unionist Party. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Independent Unionist candidates and the Northern Ireland Labour Party were usually accused of being splitters or dupes of the Nationalists. See also Labour Party of Northern Ireland The Northern Ireland Labour Party was a political party which operated from 1924 until 1987 Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and
The 1925 general election was called in order to tie in with the expected report of the Boundary Commission required by the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1922. The Northern Ireland general election 1925 was held on 3 April 1925. The Boundary Commission was established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War in 1921 The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty The Boundary Commission was expected to recommend the transfer of many border areas to the Irish Free State, and the Unionist election slogan was "Not an Inch!". The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by They lost eight seats in Belfast and County Antrim, where the issue of the border had far less resonance. County Antrim ( Contae Aontroma or simply Aontroim in Irish) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, and one of nine counties Sinn Féin had fought in 1921 but by 1925 was suffering the effects of its split over the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970 Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty Éamon de Valera's Sinn Féin fought as Republicans but won only two seats. Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970 Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent Republic The border was never changed.
A minor row erupted in 1925 when the elections for the Senate took place. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Eleven Unionists and one Labour Senator were elected, despite there being a block of three composed of two non-abstaining Nationalists and a dissident Unionist. The latter three had mailed their votes, but due to a public holiday and the practices of the postal service, they arrived an hour after the election. Requests for a recount were denied. (It is doubtful whether the three votes would have been sufficient to elect a Senator under the election system, since they would not have achieved a complete single transferable vote quota alone and the Unionist votes were likely to transfer so heavily to each other that the Nationalist candidate would not reach quota throughout the rounds of counting. Single transferable vote (STV is a preferential Voting system designed to minimize Wasted votes and provide Proportional representation ) From later in 1925 to 1927, the Nationalist Party members took their seats for the first time. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Nationalist Party was a term commonly used to describe a number of parliamentary political parties and constituency organisations supportive of Home Rule for Ireland from
With the 1929 general election the Unionists dumped the hated proportional representation system blamed for their bad performance in 1925. The Northern Ireland general election 1929 was held on 22 May 1929. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes The new boundaries set the pattern for politics until Stormont was abolished; the Unionists never fell below 33 seats. The 1938 general election was called when the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Neville Chamberlain was negotiating a settlement of outstanding disputes with Éamon de Valera, whose new constitution laid claim to Northern Ireland, and the 1949 election was called when the Irish government declared itself a republic. The Northern Ireland general election 1938 was held on 9 February 1938. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 &ndash 9 November 1940 was a British Conservative Politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann came into force on 29 December 1937 after having been passed by a national plebiscite the previous July The Northern Ireland general election 1949 was held on 19 February 1949. The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe.
During the Second World War, the Stormont government called on Westminster to introduce conscription several times, as this was already the case in Great Britain. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The British government consistently refused, remembering how a similar attempt in 1918 had backfired dramatically as nationalist opposition made it unworkable. Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and Much of the population of serving age were either in essential jobs or had already joined up voluntarily, making the potential yield of conscription low.
1965 saw a significant change in that the Nationalists accepted office as the Official Opposition. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government particularly in a Westminster -based Parliamentary system This was intended as a reward for the attempts made by Terence O'Neill to end discrimination against Roman Catholics and normalise relations with the Republic. Terence Marne O'Neill Baron O'Neill of the Maine, PC ( 10 September 1914 &ndash 12 June 1990) was the fourth Prime Minister However, the Unionists split over O'Neill's tentative reforms at the 1969 general election and Ian Paisley's Protestant Unionist Party began to win by-elections. The Northern Ireland general election 1969 was held on Monday 24 February 1969. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926 styled The Rt Hon The Protestant Unionist Party ( PUP) was a unionist Political party operating in Northern Ireland from 1966 to 1971. A by-election or bye-election (called special election in the United States) is an Election held to fill a political office that has become vacant The new nationalist party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party, withdrew from Stormont in July 1971 over the refusal of an inquiry into Royal Ulster Constabulary actions in Derry. The Social Democratic and Labour Party ( SDLP; Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre is one of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The Royal Ulster Constabulary GC was the name of the Police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001
Stormont was abolished just six weeks after Bloody Sunday when the Unionist government refused to hand over responsibility for law and order to Westminster. Bloody Sunday (Domhnach na Fola is the term used to describe an incident in Derry, Northern Ireland, on 30 January 1972 in which 26 Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. In its 50-year history, only one piece of legislation was passed that originated from the Nationalists (concerning wildlife). In October 1971, as the Troubles worsened, Gerard Newe had been appointed as a junior minister at Stormont, in an attempt to improve community relations. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Dr Gerard Newe (1907 – 1982 was the first Roman Catholic to be appointed a minister in the Government of Northern Ireland Fifty years after it came into existence, Newe was the first Catholic to serve in a Northern Ireland government, but due to the fact that he was neither an MP nor a Senator his appointment could last only six months.
Northern Ireland, Mexico, Liberia and Sweden are alone in the democratic world in having spent more than half the 20th century under one-party rule. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The influence of the Orange Order in the governance of Northern Ireland was far-reaching. The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly All of the six prime ministers of Northern Ireland were members of the Order, as were all but three cabinet ministers until 1969. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Three of the ministers later left the Order, one because his daughter married a Catholic, one to become Minister of Community Relations in 1970, and the third was expelled for attending a Catholic religious ceremony. Of the 95 Stormont MPs who did not become cabinet ministers, 87 were Orangemen. Every unionist senator, with one exception, between 1921 and 1969 was an Orangeman. One of these senators, James Gyle, was suspended from the Order for seven years for visiting nationalist MP Joe Devlin on his deathbed. Joseph Devlin, also known as Joe Devlin ( 13 February 1871 &ndash 18 January 1934) was an Irish Journalist, influential
A fully digitised copy of the parliament's debates (187,000 printed pages of Parliamentary Debates) is available online.