Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the Paralysis can cause loss of feeling in the affected area.
Paralysis is most often caused by damage to the nervous system or brain, especially the spinal cord. The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain The spinal cord is a long thin tubular bundle of Nerves that is an extension of the Central nervous system from the brain and is enclosed in and protected Partial paralysis can also occur in the REM stage of sleep. Major causes are stroke, trauma, poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain Treatment of physical trauma is described here and in First aid. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral Infectious disease spread from person to person primarily via Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS, sometimes called Maladie de Charcot, or in the United States Lou Gehrig's Disease) is a progressive Botulism ( Latin, botulus, "sausage" is a rare but serious Paralytic illness caused by Botulin Toxin. Spina bifida ( Latin: "split spine" is a developmental Birth defect involving the Neural tube: incomplete closure of the Embryonic neural Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an autoimmune condition in which the Guillain-Barré syndrome ( GBS) (in French ɡilɛ̃ baˈʁe in English ˈɡiːlæn ˈbɑreɪ /ɡiːˈæn bəˈreɪ/ etc Poisons that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. In Neurophysiology, the action potential is a self-regenerating Wave of Electrochemical activity that allows Nerve cells to carry a signal Curare ''rah'' ree is a common name for various Arrow poisons originating from South America Many causes of this are varied, and could also be unknown.
Paralysis may be localized, or generalized, or it may follow a certain pattern. For example, localized paralysis occurs in Bell's palsy where one side of the face may be paralyzed due to inflammation of the facial nerve on that side. Bell's Palsy is a paralysis of the Facial nerve resulting in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side The facial nerve is the seventh (VII of twelve paired Cranial nerves. Patients with stroke may be weak throughout their body (global paralysis) or have hemiplegia (weakness on one side of the body) or other patterns of paralysis depending on the area of damage in the brain. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain Hemiplegia is a condition in which one-half of a patient's body is paralyzed. Other patterns of paralysis arise due to different lesions and their sequelae. A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism usually damaged by disease or trauma A sequela, (sɨˈkwiːlə plural sequelæ) is a Pathological condition resulting from a Disease, Injury, or other trauma. For example, lower spinal cord damage from a severe back injury may result in paraplegia, while an injury higher up on the spinal cord, such as a neck injury, can cause quadriplegia. The spinal cord is a long thin tubular bundle of Nerves that is an extension of the Central nervous system from the brain and is enclosed in and protected Paraplegia is an impairment in motor and/or sensory function of the lower extremities Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a Symptom in which a human experiences Paralysis affecting all four limbs although not necessarily total paralysis Patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia often use equipment such as a wheelchair or standing frame for mobility and to regain some independence. Paraplegia is an impairment in motor and/or sensory function of the lower extremities Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a Symptom in which a human experiences Paralysis affecting all four limbs although not necessarily total paralysis A wheelchair is a wheeled Mobility device in which the user sits A standing frame (also known as a stand, stander, standing technology, standing aid, standing device, standing box,
Most paralyses caused by nervous system damage are constant in nature; however, there are forms of periodic paralysis, including sleep paralysis, which are caused by other factors. Periodic paralysis is a group of rare genetic diseases that lead to weakness or paralysis (rarely death from common triggers such as cold heat high Carbohydrate meals not Sleep paralysis is a common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and Areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less
Many species of animals use paralyzing toxins in order to capture prey, evade predation, or both. One famous example is the tetrodotoxin of fish species such as Takifugu rubripes, the famously lethal pufferfish of Japanese fugu. Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin tetrodonic acid TTX is a potent Neurotoxin with no known antidote which blocks Action potentials in Nerves This article is about the genus of pufferfish Takifugu; for the Japanese dish see Fugu. Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish is the Japanese word for Pufferfish and is also a Japanese dish prepared from the meat of Pufferfish (normally species of Takifugu, Lagocephalus This toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells' proper function. Sodium channels are Integral membrane proteins that form Ion channels, conducting sodium ions ( Na+) through a cell's Plasma membrane A non-lethal dose of this toxin results in temporary paralysis. This toxin is also present in many other species ranging from toads to nemerteans. Nemertea is a Phylum of Invertebrate Animals also known as ribbon worms or proboscis worms   Another interesting use of paralysis in the natural world is the behavior of some species of wasp. A wasp is any Insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a Bee nor Ant. In order to complete the reproductive cycle, the female wasp first paralyzes a prey item such as a grasshopper and then places it into her nest. Eggs are then laid on the paralyzed insect, which is devoured by the larvae after they hatch. In Roman mythology, the larvae or lemures (singular lemur) were the spectres or spirits of the dead they were the malignant version of the Many snakes also exhibit powerful neurotoxins that can cause non-permanent paralysis or death. A neurotoxin is a Toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells ( Neurons, usually by interacting with Membrane proteins such as Ion channels Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific
Paralysis can be seen in breeds of dogs that are chondrodysplastic. These dogs have short legs, and may also have short muzzles. Their intervertebral disc material can calcify and become more brittle. In such cases, the disc may rupture, with disc material ending up in the spinal canal, or rupturing more laterally to press on spinal nerves. A minor rupture may only result in paresis, but a major rupture can cause enough damage to result in complete paralysis. Paresis is a condition typified by partial loss of movement or impaired movement If no signs of pain can be elicited, surgery should be performed within 24 hours of the incident, to remove the disc material and relieve pressure on the spinal cord. The spinal cord is a long thin tubular bundle of Nerves that is an extension of the Central nervous system from the brain and is enclosed in and protected After 24 hours, the chance of recovery declines rapidly, since with continued pressure, the spinal cord tissue deteriorates and dies.
Another type of paralysis is caused by a fibrocartilaginous embolism. This is a microscopic piece of disc material that breaks off and becomes lodged in a spinal artery. Nerves served by the artery will die when deprived of blood. The German Shepherd is especially prone to developing degenerative myelopathy. The German Shepherd Dog ( GSD) (Deutscher Schäferhund is a breed of large-sized dog that originates from Germany. Spinal cord injury causes myelopathy or damage to white matter or myelinated fiber tracts that carry sensation and motor signals to and from the brain This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become gradually weaker in the hind legs as nerves die off. Eventually their hind legs become useless. They often also exhibit fecal and urinary incontinence. As the disease progresses, the paresis and paralysis gradually move forward. This disease also affects other large breeds of dogs. It is suspected to be an autoimmune problem.
Cats with heart murmurs may develop blood clots which travel through arteries. Murmurs are abnormal Heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow which is sufficient to produce audible noise If the clot is large enough to block one or both femoral arteries, there may be hind leg paralysis because the major source of blood flow to the hind leg is blocked.