The Papal States, State(s) of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii) were one of the major historical states of Italy before the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (after which the Papal States, in less territorially extensive form, continued to exist until 1870). Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national Capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist the capital was moved or the capital Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Stephen was a priest of Rome elected Pope in March of 752 to succeed St Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Events By Place Asia July 31 — The oldest recorded eruption of Mt The Roman Republic (Repubblica Romana was proclaimed on February 15, 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Italy until the present era was a conglomeration of city-states and small independent nations Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the The Papal States comprised those territories over which the Pope was the ruler in a civil as well as a spiritual sense before 1870. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This governing power is commonly called the temporal power of the Pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. The temporal power of the Popes is the political and governmental activity of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual
The plural Papal States is usually preferred; the singular Papal State (equally correct since it was not a mere personal union) is rather used (normally with lower-case letters) for the modern State of Vatican City, an enclave within Italy's national capital, Rome. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Vatican City was founded in 1929, again allowing the Holy See the practical benefits of territorial sovereignty. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself
The Christian Church spent its first three centuries as an outlawed organization and was thus unable to hold or transfer property. The Duchy of Rome (Ducatus Romanus was a Byzantine district in the Exarchate of Ravenna. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Early Christian churches congregated in the audience halls of well-to-do individuals, and a number of Early Christian churches built round the edges of Ancient Rome were ascribed to patrons who held the property in custody for the Church: see titulus. There are more than 900 Churches in Rome. Most but not all of these are Roman Catholic, with some notable Roman Catholic Marian churches. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC You may be looking for Titulus (inscription. In Christian archeology a titulus is one of a set number of Early Christian churches After the ban was lifted by the Emperor Constantine I, the Church's private property grew quickly through the donations of the pious and the wealthy; the Lateran Palace was the first significant donation, a gift of Constantine himself. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The Lateran Palace, sometimes more formally known as the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran (Italian Palazzo Laterano) is an ancient Palace of the Roman Other donations soon followed, mainly in mainland Italy but also in the provinces, but the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest When in the fifth century the Italian peninsula passed under the control of first Odoacer and then the Ostrogoths, the church organization in Italy, and the bishop of Rome as its head, submitted to their sovereign authority while beginning to assert spiritual supremacy. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the sixth century. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Eastern Roman (or Byzantine) government in Constantinople launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated the country's political and economic structures; just as those wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from By the seventh century, Byzantine authority was largely limited to a diagonal band running roughly from Ravenna, where the Emperor's representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the Bishop of Rome, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that Byzantines were unable to project to the area around the city of Rome. While the Bishops of Rome — now beginning to be referred to as the Popes — remained de jure Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area roughly equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the Church. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central
The Church's relative independence, combined with popular support for the Papacy in Italy, enabled various Popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor; Pope Gregory II even excommunicated emperor Leo III the Isaurian. Pope Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Leo III the Isaurian ' or the Syrian ' ( Greek: Λέων Γ΄ Leōn III) (c Nevertheless the Pope and the Exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy. As Byzantine power weakened, though, the Papacy took an ever larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards, usually through diplomacy, threats and bribery. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on the Exarch and Ravenna. A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri (728) to Pope Gregory II . The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Liutprand was the king of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728 and his long reign which brought him into a series The Donation of Sutri was an agreement reached at Sutri by Liutprand King of the Lombards and Pope Gregory II in 728. Pope
When the Exarchate finally fell to the Lombards in 751, the Duchy of Rome was completely cut off from the Byzantine Empire, of which it was theoretically still a part. See also Donation of Constantine The "Donation of Pepin" in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended This article is about Byzantine governors and ecclesiastical ranks Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility marking the end of the Pope Stephen II acted to neutralize the Lombard threat by courting the de facto Frankish ruler, Pepin the Short. In sources prior to the 1960s this pope is sometimes called Stephen III and Pope-elect Stephen is sometimes called Stephen II. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was With the urging of Pope Zachary to depose the Merovingian figurehead Childeric III, Pepin was crowned in 751 by Saint Boniface. The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin Childeric III (died about 753 was the last King of the Franks in the Merovingian dynasty from 743 to his deposition in 751 Saint Boniface ( Latin: Bonifacius c 672 – June 5, 754) the Apostle of the Germans, born Winfrid or Wynfrith at Stephen later granted Pepin the title Patrician of the Romans. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and Pepin led a Frankish army into Italy in 754 and 756. Events By Place Asia Al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Caliph, starts to rule Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short defeats the Lombards of northern Italy, who have threatened Pope Stephen Pepin defeated the Lombard's taking control of northern Italy and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the Pope. See also Donation of Constantine The "Donation of Pepin" in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended In 781, Charlemagne codified the regions over which the Pope would be temporal sovereign: the Duchy of Rome was key, but the territory was expanded to include Ravenna, the Pentapolis, parts of the Duchy of Benevento, Tuscany, Corsica, Lombardy and a number of Italian cities. Events By Place Asia July 31 — The oldest recorded eruption of Mt Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his A pentapolis, from the Greek words penta 'five' and Polis 'city(-state' is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities The Duchy and later Principality of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the The cooperation between the Papacy and the Carolingian dynasty climaxed in 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne the first "Emperor of the Romans" ('Augustus Romanorum'). Events By Place Europe September 15 - Oldest known mention of Monkey. Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816 Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome he subsequently strengthened
However, the precise nature of the relationship between the Popes and Emperors — and between the Papal States and the Empire — was not clear. Was the Pope a sovereign ruler of a separate realm in central Italy, or were the Papal States just a part of the Frankish Empire over which the Popes had administrative control? Events in the 9th century postponed the conflict: the Frankish Empire collapsed as it was subdivided among Charlemagne's grandchildren, and the papacy's prestige declined, with the tyranny of the local Roman nobility in the tenth century, into the condition later dubbed the pornocracy, or "rule by harlots". The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Pornocracy (from Greek porne, a prostitute, and kratein, to rule or Rule of the Harlots was a period in the History  In practice, the Popes were unable to exercise effective sovereignty over the extensive and mountainous territories of the Papal States, and the region preserved its old Lombard system of government, with many small countships and marquisates, each centered upon a fortified rocca.
Over several campaigns in the mid-tenth century, the German ruler Otto I conquered northern Italy; Pope John XII crowned him emperor (the first so crowned in more than forty years), and the two of them ratified the Diploma Ottonianum, which guaranteed the independence of the Papal States. Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke John XII (c 937&ndash May 14, 964) was Pope from December 16, 955 to May 14, 964. The Diploma Ottonianum was a document co-signed during the darkest days of the Papacy by Pope John XII and Otto I, King of the Germans it confirmed Yet over the next two centuries, Popes and Emperors squabbled over a variety of issues, and the German rulers routinely treated the Papal States as part of their realms on those occasions when they projected power into Italy. A major motivation for the Gregorian Reform was to free the administration of the Papal States from imperial interference, and after the extirpation of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, the German emperors rarely interfered in Italian affairs. The Gregorian Reform was a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050&ndash1080 which dealt with the By 1300, the Papal States, along with the rest of the Italian principalities, were effectively independent.
From 1305 to 1378, the Popes lived in Avignon, in what is now France, and were under the influence of the French kings in what was known as the 'Babylonian Captivity'. Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune During this Avignon Papacy, however, much of the Papal States in Italy remained only formally under Papal control; in fact, 1357 marks a watershed in the legal history of the Papal States, when Cardinal Albornoz promulgated the Constitutiones Sanctæ Matris Ecclesiæ, which replaced the mosaic of local law and accumulated traditional 'liberties' with a uniform code of civil law. In the History of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven Popes all French, resided in Avignon Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz ( Italian: Egidio Albornoz; 1310 - August 23 1367) was a Spanish cardinal and The Constitutiones Sanctæ Matris Ecclesiæ ( English: Constitutions of the Holy Mother Church) informally known as the Constitutiones Aegidianae (English The promulgation of the Constitutiones Egidiane followed the military progress of Albornoz and his condottieri heading a small mercenary army. Condottieri (singular condottiero, rarely condottiero) were Mercenary leaders employed by the Italian City-states from the Late Middle Having received the support of the archbishop of Milan and Giovanni Visconti, he defeated Giovanni di Vico, lord of Viterbo, moving against Galeotto Malatesta of Rimini and the Ordelaffi of Forlì, the Montefeltro of Urbino and the da Polenta of Ravenna, and against the cities of Senigallia and Ancona. Visconti was the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. Giovanni di Vico (died 1366 was an Italian Ghibelline leader lord of Viterbo, Vetralla, Orvieto, Narni and numerous other lands The Ordelaffi were a family of Italian Condottieri and rulers of Forlì in the Late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Montefeltro is a historical-geographic region in the Marche, which was historically part of Romagna. Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region in Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Senigallia or Sinigaglia is a Comune and port town on Italy 's Adriatic coast 25 km by rail north of Ancona in the Marche region Ancona (Ankon is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101909 (2005 The last holdouts against full papal control were Giovanni Manfredi of Faenza and Francesco II Ordelaffi of Forlì. Giovanni Manfredi (1324 - 1373 was lord of Faenza from 1341 until September 13 1356, as well as of numerous other minor fiefs in Romagna. Francesco II Ordelaffi (also known as Cecco II, c 1300 &ndash 1374 was a lord of Forlì, the son of Sinibaldo Ordelaffi (died 1337 brother of Scarpetta Albornoz, at the point of being recalled in 1357, in a meeting with all the Papal vicars, 29 April 1357, issued the Constitutiones; they remained in effect until 1816.
During this period the city of Avignon itself was added to the Papal States; it remained a papal possession even after the popes returned to Rome, only passing back to France during the French Revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
During the Renaissance, the papal territory expanded greatly, notably under Popes Alexander VI and Julius II. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Pope Alexander VI ( 1 January 1431 &ndash 18 August 1503) born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja ( Pope Julius II (5 December 1443 &ndash 21 February 1513 born Giuliano Della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513 The Pope became one of Italy's most important secular rulers as well as the head of the Church, signing treaties with other sovereigns and fighting wars. In practice, though, most of the Papal States was still only nominally controlled by the Pope, and much of the territory was ruled by minor princes. Control was always contested; indeed it took until the 16th century for the Pope to have any genuine control over all his territories.
At its greatest extent, in the 18th century, the Papal States included most of Central Italy — Latium, Umbria, Marche and the Legations of Ravenna, Ferrara and Bologna extending north into the Romagna. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Latium was a region of ancient Italy, home to the original Latin people. Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. The Marche (plural originally from le marche de Ancona, referring to the March of Ancona) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The term Papal Legation, in a territorial sense refers to certain northern administrative regions of the erstwhile Papal States: specifically the "Legations" of Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Romagna is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. It also included the small enclaves of Benevento and Pontecorvo in southern Italy and the larger Comtat Venaissin around Avignon in southern France. Benevento is a town and Comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the Province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. Pontecorvo is a town in the Province of Frosinone, Lazio, Italy. The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short (lo Comtat Venaicin la Comtat is the former name of the region around the city of Avignon in what is now Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune
The French Revolution proved as disastrous for the temporal territories of the Papacy as it was for the Catholic Church in general. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an In 1791 the Comtat Venaissin and Avignon were annexed by France. Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short (lo Comtat Venaicin la Comtat is the former name of the region around the city of Avignon in what is now Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune Later, with the French invasion of Italy in 1796, the Legations were seized and became part of the revolutionary Cisalpine Republic. Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Cisalpine Republic ( Repubblica Cisalpina) was a French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802. Two years later, the Papal States as a whole were invaded by French forces, who declared a Roman Republic. The Roman Republic (Repubblica Romana was proclaimed on February 15, 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded Pope Pius VI died in exile in France in 1799. Pope Pius VI (December 27 1717 &ndash August 29 1799 born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, Pope from 1775 to 1799 was born at Cesena. Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Papal States were restored in June of 1800 and Pope Pius VII returned, but the French again invaded in 1808, and this time the remainder of the States of the Church were annexed to France, forming the départements of Tibre and Trasimène. Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14 1740&mdashAugust 20 1823 born Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope from March 14 1800 to August Year 1808 ( MDCCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative Rome is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Italy. Trasimène is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Italy.
With the fall of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the Papal States were restored. Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common From 1814 until the death of Pope Gregory XVI in 1846, the Popes followed a harshly reactionary policy in the Papal States. Pope Gregory XVI ( September 18 1765 &ndash June 1 1846) born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Reactionary (also reactionist) is a derogatory term usually used by the Left wing in regards to movements which oppose radical change in society and seeks a return For instance, the city of Rome maintained the last Jewish ghetto in Western Europe. The Roman (Jewish Ghetto was located in the rione Sant'Angelo, in the area surrounded by today's Via del Portico d'Ottavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci There were hopes that this would change when Pope Pius IX was elected to succeed Gregory and began to introduce liberal reforms. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878
Italian nationalism had been stoked during the Napoleonic period but dashed by the settlement of the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which left Italy divided and largely under Habsburg Austrian domination. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich In 1848, nationalist and liberal revolutions began to break out across Europe; in 1849, a Roman Republic was declared and the Pope fled the city. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common See also Roman Republic, Roman Republic (18th century The Roman Republic was a short-lived (four months state established on February 8 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, recently elected president of the newly declared French Second Republic, saw an opportunity to assuage conservative Catholic opinion in France, and in cooperation with Austria sent troops to restore Papal rule in Rome. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President History Revolution of 1848 See also Mid-nineteenth century France The industrial population of the Faubourgs After some hard fighting (in which Giuseppe Garibaldi distinguished himself on the Italian side), Pius was returned to Rome, and repenting of his previous liberal tendencies pursued a harsh, conservative policy even more repressive than that of his predecessors. Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. However, Pius did continue to build railroads, telegraphs, and gas lights.
In the years that followed, Italian nationalists — both those who wished to unify the country under the Kingdom of Sardinia and its ruling House of Savoy and those who favored a republican solution — saw the Papal States as the chief obstacle to Italian unity. Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Louis Napoleon, who had now seized control of France as Emperor Napoleon III, tried to play a double game, simultaneously forming an alliance with Sardinia and playing on his famous uncle's nationalist credentials on the one hand and maintaining French troops in Rome to protect the Pope's rights on the other. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President
After the Second Italian War of Independence, much of northern Italy was unified under the House of Savoy's government; in the aftermath, Garibaldi's expedition of the Thousand overthrew the Bourbon monarchy in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia The Expedition of the Thousand was a military campaign led by the revolutionary general Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860, in which a force of volunteers defeated the The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. Afraid that Garibaldi would set up a republican government in the south, the Sardinians petitioned Napoleon for permission to send troops through the Papal States to gain control of the Two Sicilies, which was granted on the condition that Rome was left undisturbed. In 1860, with much of the region already in rebellion against Papal rule, Sardinia conquered the eastern two-thirds of the Papal States and cemented its hold on the south. Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting Bologna, Ferrara, Umbria, the Marches, Benevento and Pontecorvo were all formally annexed by November of the same year, and a unified Kingdom of Italy was declared. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Papal States were reduced to the Latium region surrounding Rome, raising the Roman Question. Latium was a region of ancient Italy, home to the original Latin people. The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929
Rome was declared the capital of Italy in March 1861, when the first Italian Parliament met in the kingdom's old capital Turin in Piedmont. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 However, the Italian Government could not take possession of its capital, because Napoleon III kept a French garrison in Rome protecting Pope Pius IX. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 The opportunity to eliminate the last vestige of the Papal States came when the Franco-Prussian War began in July 1870. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Emperor Napoleon III had to recall his garrison from Rome for France's own defence and could no longer protect the pope. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Following the collapse of the Second French Empire at the battle of Sedan, widespread public demonstrations demanded that the Italian Government take Rome. The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War on 1 September 1870 King Victor Emmanuel II sent Count Ponza di San Martino to Pius IX with a personal letter offering a face-saving proposal that would have allowed the peaceful entry of the Italian Army into Rome, under the guise of offering protection to the pope. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of
On September 10, Italy declared war on the Papal States, and the Italian Army, commanded by General Raffaele Cadorna, crossed the papal frontier on 11 September and advanced slowly toward Rome, hoping that a peaceful entry could be negotiated. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Count Raffaele Cadorna ( February 9, 1815 - February 6, 1897) was an Italian general who served as one of the major Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul The Italian Army reached the Aurelian Walls on 19 September and placed Rome under a state of siege. The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane were City walls built between 271 and 275 in Rome during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Although the pope's tiny army was incapable of defending the city, Pius IX ordered it to put up at least a token resistance to emphasize that Italy was acquiring Rome by force and not consent. The city was captured on September 20, 1870. The Capture of Rome (20 September 1870 was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, which finally unified the Italian Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Rome and Latium were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy after a plebiscite held in the following October. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita
According to Raffaele De Cesare:
This event, described in Italian history books as a liberation, was taken very bitterly by the Pope. The Italian government had offered to allow the Pope to retain control of the Leonine City on the west bank of the Tiber, but Pius rejected the overture. The Leonine City (in Latin Civitas Leonina) is that part of the city of Rome around which Pope Leo IV commissioned the construction of the Leonine The Tiber ( Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest River in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains Early the following year, the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. The Pope, whose previous residence, the Quirinal Palace, had become the royal palace of the Kings of Italy, withdrew in protest into the Vatican, where he lived as a self-proclaimed "prisoner", refusing to leave or to set foot in St. Peter's Square, and forbidding (Non Expedit) Catholics on pain of excommunication to participate in elections in the new Italian state. The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Palazzo del Quirinale or simply the Quirinale) is the Official residence of the President A prisoner in the Vatican is what Pope Pius IX claimed to be after the army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome ( September 20 Saint Peter's Square, or Saint Peter's Piazza ( Italian: Piazza San Pietro) is located directly in front of St Non Expedit (Latin for "It is not expedient" were the words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the policy of abstention from the polls in parliamentary elections Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community
However the new Italian control of Rome did not wither, nor did the Catholic world come to the Pope's aid, as Pius IX had expected. In the 1920s, the papacy — then Pius XI — renounced the bulk of the Papal States and signed the Lateran Treaty (or Concordat with Rome) of 1929, which created the State of the Vatican City, forming the sovereign territory of the Holy See (which is also a subject under international law in its own right). The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Pope Pius XI ( Latin: Pius PP XI; Italian: Pio XI; May 31 1857 &ndash February 10 1939) born The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy A concordat usually refers to an agreement between the Apostolic See and a Government of a certain country on religious matters although it is also used Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Vatican City can be seen as the modern descendent of the Papal States.
In the History of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven Popes all French, resided in Avignon The Donation of Constantine ( Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750 and 775, the The History of the city of Rome spans 2800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory A prisoner in the Vatican is what Pope Pius IX claimed to be after the army of the Kingdom of Italy entered Rome ( September 20 The War of the Eight Saints (1375-1378 was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the