The Pallium or Pall (derived from the Roman pallium or palla, a woollen cloak) is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church, originally peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries bestowed by him on metropolitans and primates as a symbol of the jurisdiction delegated to them by the Holy See. A cloak is a type of loose Garment that is worn over indoor Clothing and serves the same purpose as an Overcoat &mdashit protects the wearer from the cold Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions especially the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholics History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and In Hierarchical Christian churches the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the Diocesan bishop or Primate (from the Latin Primus, "first" is a title or rank bestowed on some Bishops in certain Christian churches The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic
The pallium, in its present form, is a narrow band, "three fingers broad," woven of white lamb's wool from sheep raised by Trappist monks, with a loop in the centre resting on the shoulders over the chasuble, and two dependent lappets, before and behind; so that when seen from front or back the ornament resembles the letter Y. Trappist redirects here This article is about the Cistercian order The chasuble is the outermost liturgical Vestment worn by Clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian It is decorated with six black crosses, one on each tail and four on the loop, is doubled on the left shoulder, and is garnished, back and front, with three jewelled gold pins. The two latter characteristics seem to be survivals of the time when the Roman pallium was a simple scarf doubled and pinned on the left shoulder.
In origin the pallium and the omophorion are the same vestment. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) The omophorion is a wide band of cloth, much larger than the modern pallium, worn by all Eastern Orthodox bishops and Eastern Catholic bishops of the Byzantine Rite. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called the Rite of Constantinople or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used currently (in various languages The theory that explains its origin in connection with the figure of the Good Shepherd carrying the lamb on his shoulders, so common in early Christian art, is obviously an explanation a posteriori. "A priori" redirects here For other uses see A priori. The ceremonial connected with the preparation of the pallium and its bestowal upon the Pope at his coronation, however, suggests some such symbolism. The lambs whose wool is destined for the making of the pallia are solemnly presented at the altar by the nuns of the convent of Saint Agnes. Saint Agnes (291–304 feast day January 21) is a Virgin Martyr Saint of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches
The awarding of the pallium became controversial in the Middle Ages, because popes charged a fee from those receiving them, earning hundreds of millions of gold florins for the papacy and bringing the award of the pallium into disrepute. This process was condemned by the Council of Basle in 1432, which referred to it as "the most usurious contrivance ever invented by the papacy. The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church " The fee was later abandoned amid charges of simony. Simony is the Ecclesiastical crime of paying for Holy offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church named after Simon Magus, who appears in the
For his formal inauguration Pope Benedict XVI reverted to an earlier form of the pallium, from a period when it and the omophorion were virtually identical. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger It is wider than the modern pallium although not as wide as the modern omophorion, made of wool with black silk ends, and decorated with five red crosses, three of which are pierced with pins, symbolic of Christ's five wounds and the three nails. Only the Papal pallium takes this distinctive form.
At present only the Pope and metropolitan archbishops wear the pallium, and a metropolitan has to receive the pallium before exercising his office in his ecclesiastical province, even if he was previously metropolitan elsewhere. In Hierarchical Christian churches the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the Diocesan bishop or An ecclesiastical province is a large jurisdiction of religious government so named by analogy with a secular Province, existing in certain hierarchical Christian No other bishops, even non-metropolitan archbishops or retired metropolitans, are allowed to wear the pallium unless they have special permission. For example, Angelo Cardinal Sodano, the newly elected Dean of the College of Cardinals, received the privilege of wearing the pallium for the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia on 29 June 2005. Angelo Sodano (born 23 November 1927 is the Dean of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. The Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals is the President of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church, and as such always holds the rank The seven suburbicarian dioceses are Roman Catholic Dioceses located in the Suburbs that surround Rome, reserved for the highest order of The Bishop of Ostia is the ecclesiastical head of the Catholic Diocese of Ostia, one of the seven Suburbicarian sees of Rome Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
It is impossible to indicate exactly when the pallium was first introduced. According to the Liber Pontificalis, it was first used in the first half of the fourth century. The Liber Pontificalis ( Latin for Book of the Popes) is a book of biographies of Popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century This book relates, in the life of Pope Marcus (†336), that he conferred the right of wearing the pallium on the Bishop of Ostia, because the consecration of the pope appertained to him. Pope The Bishop of Ostia is the ecclesiastical head of the Catholic Diocese of Ostia, one of the seven Suburbicarian sees of Rome Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service usually religious At any rate, the wearing of the pallium was usual in the fifth century; this is indicated by the above-mentioned reference contained in the life of St. Marcus which dates from the beginning of the sixth century, as well as by the conferring of the pallium on St. Cæsarius of Arles by Pope Symmachus in 513. For others with this name see Caesarius. Saint Caesarius of Arles (468/470&ndash 27 August 542) sometimes called "of Pope Saint Symmachus was Pope from 498 to 514 He was born on Sardinia, the son of Fortunatus Besides, in numerous other references of the sixth century, the pallium is mentioned as a long-customary vestment. It seems that, from the beginning, the pope alone had the absolute right of wearing the pallium. Its use by others was tolerated only by virtue of the permission of the pope. We hear of the pallium being conferred on others, as a mark of distinction, as early as the sixth century. The honour was usually conferred on metropolitans, especially those nominated vicars by the pope, but it was sometimes conferred on simple bishops (e. In the broadest sense a vicar (from the Latin Vicarius) is a representative anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior g. , on Syagrius of Autun, Donus of Messina, and John of Syracuse by Pope Gregory I).
The use of the pallium among metropolitans did not become general until the ninth century, when the obligation was laid upon all Western metropolitans of forwarding a petition for the pallium accompanied by a solemn profession of faith, all consecrations being forbidden them before the reception of the pallium. For Profession of faith (public avowal of faith according to a traditional formula see Creed. The object of this rule was to bring the metropolitans into more intimate connection with the seat of unity and the source of all metropolitan prerogatives, the Holy See, to counteract the aspirations of various autonomy-seeking metropolitans, which were incompatible with the Roman understanding of the church, and to counteract the disharmony arising therefrom: the rule was intended, not to kill, but to revivify metropolitan jurisdiction. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic The oath of allegiance which the recipient of the pallium takes today originated, apparently, in the eleventh century. An oath of allegiance is an Oath whereby a subject or Citizen acknowledges his/her duty of Allegiance and swears loyalty to his Monarch It is met with during the reign of Paschal II (1099–118), and replaced the profession of faith. Paschal II, born Ranierius, (died January 21, 1118) was Pope from August 13, 1099 until his death It is certain that a tribute was paid for the reception of the pallium as early as the sixth century. A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or as was often case in historical contexts of submission This was abrogated by Pope Gregory I in the Roman Synod of 595, but was reintroduced later as partial maintenance of the Holy See. These pallium contributions have often been, since the Middle Ages, the subject of embittered controversies.
There are many different opinions concerning the origin of the pallium. Some trace it to an investiture by Constantine I (or one of his successors); others consider it an imitation of the Hebrew ephod, the humeral garment of the High Priest. The Donation of Constantine ( Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750 and 775, the Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine An ephod (pronounced either \ē´fod\ or \ef´od\ was a type of object in ancient Israelite culture and was closely connected with oracular practices Kohen Gadol or Kohen ha-Gadol ( Heb כהן גדול "Great Priest" is the title of High Priest of early Israelite Others again declare that its origin is traceable to a mantle of St. Peter, which was symbolical of his office as supreme pastor. A fourth hypothesis finds its origin in a liturgical mantle, which, it is asserted, was used by the early popes, and which in the course of time was folded into the shape of a band; a fifth says its origin dates from the custom of folding the ordinary mantle-pallium, an outer garment in use in imperial times; a sixth declares that it was introduced immediately as a papal liturgical garment, which, however, was not at first a narrow strip of cloth, but, as the name suggests, a broad, oblong, and folded cloth. A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. A robe is distinguished from a Cape or Cloak by the fact that it usually has Sleeves The English  To trace it to an investiture of the emperor, to the ephod of the Jewish High Priest, or to a fabled mantle of St. Peter, is entirely inadmissible. The correct view may well be that the pallium was introduced as a liturgical badge of the pope, and it does not seem improbable that it was adopted in imitation of its counterpart, the pontifical omophorion, already in vogue in the Eastern Church.
There is a decided difference between the form of the modern pallium and that used in early Christian times, as portrayed in the Ravenna mosaics. Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic The pallium of the sixth century was a long, moderately wide, white band of wool, ornamented at its extremity with a black or red cross, and finished off with tassels; it was draped around the neck, shoulders, and breast in such a manner that it formed a V in front, and the ends hung down from the left shoulder, one in front and one behind.
In the eighth century it became customary to let the ends fall down, one in the middle of the breast and the other in the middle of the back, and to fasten them there with pins, the pallium thus becoming Y-shaped. A further development took place during the ninth century (according to pictorial representations, at first outside of Rome where ancient traditions were not maintained so strictly): the band, which had hitherto been kept in place by the pins, was sewn Y-shaped, without, however, being cut.
The present circular form originated in the tenth or eleventh century. Two excellent early examples of this form, belonging respectively to Archbishop St. Heribert (1021) and Archbishop St. Anno (d. Saint Heribert (c 970 &ndash 16 March 1021) was Archbishop of Cologne and Chancellor of Emperor Otto III, and was canonized c 1075), are preserved in Siegburg, Archdiocese of Cologne. Siegburg (ie Fort on the Sieg river) is a city in the district of Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany The two vertical bands of the circular pallium were very long until the fifteenth century, but were later repeatedly shortened until they now have a length of only about twelve inches. At first the only decorations on the pallium were two crosses near the extremities. This is proved by the mosaics at Ravenna and Rome. It appears that the ornamentation of the pallium with a greater number of crosses did not become customary until the ninth century, when small crosses were sewn on the pallium, especially over the shoulders. There was, however, during the Middle Ages no definite rule regulating the number of crosses, nor was there any precept determining their colour. They were generally dark, but sometimes red. The pins, which at first served to keep the pallium in place, were retained as ornaments even after the pallium was sewn in the proper shape, although they no longer had any practical object. That the insertion of small leaden weights in the vertical ends of the pallium was usual as early as the thirteenth century is proved by the discovery in 1605 of the pallium enveloping the body of Boniface VIII, and by the fragments of the pallium found in the tomb of Clement IV.
The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, worn about the neck, breast and shoulders. Pope It has two pendants, one hanging down in front and one behind, which are about two inches wide and twelve inches long, and are weighted with small pieces of lead covered with black silk. The remainder of the pallium is made of white wool, part of which is supplied by two lambs presented annually as a tax by the Lateran Canons Regular to the Chapter of St. John on the feast of Saint Agnes (January 21, her name is similar to the Latin word "agnus", meaning lamb), solemnly blessed on the high altar of that church after the pontifical Mass, and then offered to the pope. Saint Agnes (291–304 feast day January 21) is a Virgin Martyr Saint of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches In the context of the Tridentine Mass of the Roman Catholic Church, a Pontifical High Mass, also called Solemn Pontifical Mass, is a Solemn or High The ornamentation of the pallium consists of six small black crosses -- one each on the breast and back, one on each shoulder and one on each pendant. The crosses on the breast, back and left shoulder are provided with a loop for the reception of a gold pin set with a precious stone. The pallium is worn over the chasuble. The chasuble is the outermost liturgical Vestment worn by Clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian
The use of the pallium is reserved to the pope and archbishops who are metropolitans, but the latter may not use it until it is conferred upon them by the pope, normally at the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul in June. The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, or properly the Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul, is a feast commemorating the Martyrdom at Rome of the Apostles The pallium is also conferred upon the Latin Rite Patriarch of Jerusalem. Previous traditions that allowed some other bishops to use the pallium were ended by Pope Paul VI in a motu proprio in 1978. A motu proprio ( Latin "on his own impulse" is a document issued by the Pope on his own initiative and personally signed by him  A metropolitan archbishop may wear his pallium as a mark of his jurisdiction not only in his own archdiocese but anywhere in his ecclesiastical province whenever he celebrates Mass (Canon 437, Code of Canon Law, 1983).
Although the pallium is now reserved, by law and liturgical norms, to metropolitans, a single standing exception has seemed to become customary: Pope John Paul II conferred a pallium on then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger when Ratzinger became dean of the College of Cardinals and therefore also Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, a purely honorary title and one without an archbishopric or metropolitanate attached. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. The Bishop of Ostia is the ecclesiastical head of the Catholic Diocese of Ostia, one of the seven Suburbicarian sees of Rome When Ratzinger was elected Pope Benedict XVI, he continued that exception without comment by conferring the pallium on Cardinal Angelo Sodano, the new dean. 
Worn by the pope, the pallium symbolizes the plenitudo pontificalis officii (i. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger e. , the "plenitude of pontifical office"); worn by archbishops, it typifies their participation in the supreme pastoral power of the pope, who concedes it to them for their proper church provinces. An archbishop who has not received the pallium may therefore not exercise any of his functions as metropolitan, nor any metropolitan prerogatives whatever. Similarly, after his resignation, he may not use the pallium; should he be transferred to another archdiocese, he must again petition the Holy Father for a new pallium. The new pallia are solemnly blessed after the Second Vespers on the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, and are then kept in a special silver-gilt casket near the Confessio Petri (tomb of St. The confession of one's Sins is a religious practice important to many faiths e Peter) until required. The pallium was formerly conferred in Rome by a cardinal deacon, and outside of Rome by a bishop; in both cases the ceremony took place after the celebration of Mass and the administration of an oath. Since the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), the liturgy for the conferral of the pallium as it appears in the liturgical books is to take place at the beginning of the Mass in which the archbishop takes possession of his see; however, the practice of Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI has actually been to summon all new archbishops to Rome to receive the pallium directly from the hands of the pope on the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. A liturgical book is a book published by the authority of a Church, that contains the text and directions for the Liturgy of its official Religious services
As early as the sixth century the pallium was considered a liturgical vestment to be used only in the church, and indeed only during Mass, unless a special privilege determined otherwise. This is proved conclusively by the correspondence between Gregory I and John of Ravenna concerning the use of the pallium. The rules regulating the original use of the pallium cannot be determined with certainty, but its use, even before the sixth century, seems to have had a definite liturgical character. From early times more or less extensive restrictions limited the use of the pallium to certain days. Its indiscriminate use, permitted to Hincmar of Reims by Leo IV (851) and to Bruno of Cologne by Agapetus II (954) was contrary to the general custom. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, just as today, the general rule was to limit the use of the pallium to a few festivals and some other extraordinary occasions. The symbolic character now attached to the pallium dates back to the time when it was made an obligation for all metropolitans to petition the Holy See for permission to use it. The evolution of this character was complete about the end of the eleventh century; thenceforth the pallium is always designated in the papal bulls as the symbol of plenitudo pontificalis officii. In the sixth century the pallium was the symbol of the papal office and the papal power, and for this reason Pope Felix transmitted his pallium to his archdeacon, when, contrary to custom, he nominated him his successor. On the other hand, when used by metropolitans, the pallium originally signified simply union with the Apostolic See, and was the symbol of the ornaments of virtue which should adorn the life of the wearer.
This article incorporates text from the entry Pallium in the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia