History of South Asia
|Stone Age||70,000–3300 BCE|
|• Mehrgarh Culture||• 7000–3300 BCE|
|Indus Valley Civilization||3300–1700 BCE|
|Late Harappan Culture||1700–1300 BCE|
|Vedic period||1500–500 BCE|
|Iron Age||1200–300 BCE|
|• Maha Janapadas||• 700–300 BCE|
|• Magadha Empire||• 545 BCE - 550|
|• Maurya Empire||• 321–184 BCE|
|Middle Kingdoms||250 BCE–1279 CE|
|• Chola Empire||• 250 BCE–1070 CE|
|• Satavahana||• 230 BCE–220 CE|
|• Kushan Empire||• 60–240 CE|
|• Gupta Empire||• 280–550 CE|
|• Pala Empire||• 750–1174 CE|
|• Chalukya Dynasty||• 543–753 CE|
|• Rashtrakuta||• 753–982 CE|
|• Western Chalukya Empire||• 973–1189 CE|
|• Hoysala Empire||1040–1346|
|• Kakatiya Empire||1083–1323|
|• Delhi Sultanate||• 1206–1526|
|• Deccan Sultanates||• 1490–1596|
|British East India Company||1757–1858|
Bangladesh • Bhutan • Republic of India
Maldives • Nepal • Pakistan • Sri Lanka
Assam • Balochistan • Bengal
Himachal Pradesh • Orissa • Pakistani Regions
North India • South India • Tibet
Coinage • Dynasties • Economy
Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime
Military • Science and Technology • Timeline
The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bengal and Bihar regions, from the 8th to the 12th century. This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The name Pala (Modern Bengali পাল pal) means "protector" and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs.
The founder of the empire was Gopala. "Gopala" redirects here For the mathematician see Gopala (mathematician. He was the first independent Buddhist king of Bengal and came to power in 750 in Gaur by democratic election, which was unique at the time. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people Events By Geography Asia Gopala is proclaimed as the first ruler of the Pala Empire. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Gaur, or Gour, as it is spelt mostly in modern times or Lakhnauti is a ruined city in the Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office He reigned from 750-770 and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. Events By Place Asia Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. His successors Dharmapala (r. Dharamapala (ধর্মপাল Dhôrmopal) (rule 770 AD - 810 AD was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal. 770-810) and Devapala (r. For the area code see Area code 810 Events By Place Byzantine Empire October 1 — A man with a Sword makes Devapala (rule 810 AD - 850 AD was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. 810-850) expanded the empire across the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent. Events By Place Asia Emperor Montoku succeeds Emperor Nimmyō as Emperor of Japan. The Pala Empire eventually disintegrated in the 12th century under the attack of the Sena dynasty. The Sena dynasty ( Bengali সেন Shen) ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries.
The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Vajrayana Buddhism is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices They often intermarried with the Gahadvalas of the Kannauj region. The Gahadvala or Gaherwar were a Hindu Rajput dynasty who ruled the kingdom of Kannauj for around a hundred years beginning the late 11th century WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Kannauj ( Hindi कन्नौज Urdu: کنوج) also spelt Kanauj, They created many temples and works of art and supported the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. Nālandā is the name of an ancient University in Bihar, India. University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India along with University during the Pala dynasty. Their proselytism was at the origin of the establishment of Buddhism in Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European
The origin of the Palas is not clearly stated in any of the numerous Pala records. It is also very curious to note that whereas the identity of the Kamboja Pala rulers of Bengal has been referred to twice and is indisputably connected to the Kamboja ethnicity, that of the Palas has nowhere been specifically stated in any of the Pala traditions in numerous of their Grants, Charters and Inscriptions (Dr D. C. Sircar). According to Manjuśree Mūlakalpa, Gopala I was a Śudra  . Shudra ( IAST: Śūdra is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society Balla-Carita says that the "The Palas were low-born Ksatriyas". Tibetan Historian Taranatha Lama, in his "History of Buddhism in India" and Ghanarama, in his "Dharma Mangala", (both of 16th century CE), also give the same story  . Arabic accounts tell us that Palas were not kings of noble origin. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language According to Abu Fazal (Ain-i-Akbari), Palas were Kayasthas . Shaikh Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak ( Persian:ابو الفضل also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami ( January 14 The Ain-i-Akbari or the "Institutes of Akbar" is a 16th century detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbar 's empire written by his Vizier Khalimpur Plate of Dharmapala, son of Gopala I (the founder of the dynasty), states that Gopala was a son of a warrior (Khanditarat) Vapyata and grandson of a highly educated (Saryavidyavadat) Dayitavishnu . Ramachrita of Sandhyakaranandi attests Pala king Ramapala as a Kshatriya  , but in another portion of the same text, Dharmapala is described as Smudrakula-dipa i. e of the ocean race , though, the reason why the origin of the Palas has been ascribed to the Sea remains obsecure . In the Udaya-sundari-katha, a Champu-Kavya, written by Soddhala in the eleventh century, Pala king Dharmapala is said to have belonged to the family of Mandhata of the Ikshvaku line which is known to belong to solar race . In Vajrayana Buddhism a dharmapāla ( Tibetan chos-kyong) is a type of Wrathful deity. Godarpura, Mandhata or Omkarji is a centre of Pilgrimage in Madhya Pradesh, India. This article is about king Ikshvaku For other uses see Ikshvaku. . In a commentary of Astasāhasrika-Prajňāpāramitā of Haribhadra, Pala king Dharmapala is described as Rajabhatādibamspatita, which some writers have tried to interpret as Rajvatt-Vamsa-Patit, and therefore, try to relate Dharamapala to Rajvatt, the son of Devakhadga of the Khadga dynasty of Bengal. But there is sharp difference of opinion about the real meaning of the expression    and it has not been met with approval among the scholar community. It has also been proposed that the ancestor of the Palas were born of a Ksatriya mother .
The Kamauli Copper Plate inscription of king Vaidyadeva of Kamarupa (Assam)  indisputably connects the Palas to the Kshatriyas of "Mihirasya vamsa" (Surya lineage). Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Kshatriya (क्षत्रिय kṣatriya from क्षत्र kṣatra) is one of the four varnas (social orders in Hinduism .
Since Mihira means Sun or Sun worshipper, the expression Mihirasya implies connected with or relating to the Sun or Sun Worship (Sanskrit Mitra, Persian Mithira == > Mihira = Sun). Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical According to Bhavishya Purana, the Mihira lineage originated from the union of Nishkubha, daughter of Rsi Rijihva and the Sun (Mihira) . From this wedlock was born a sage called Zarashata, who apparently is Zoroaster of the Iranian traditions. Zoroaster ( Latinized from Greek variants) or Zarathushtra (from Avestan Zaraθuštra) also referred to as Zartosht (زرتشت For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Mihirasya Vamsa means Mihira Vamsa which is also found written as Mihirkula i. e lineage of the Sun-worshippers. The reference to Mihirasya vamsa as being the lineage of the Palas of Bengal as attested independently by the Kamauli Grant of king Vaidyadeva of Assam holds a probable clue that the Palas may have come from the Sun-Worshipping lineage i. Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city e Iranian or Zoroastrian line of the Kambojas. Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings  .
The fact that Gopala I, the founder of the so-called Pala dynasty has also been branded as Śudra, may also carry a clue to their connections to the Kamboja lineage as the Kambojas have also been branded as Vrishalas (fallen Kshatriyas or Śudras) in Hindu texts like Manu Smriti, Mahabharata, Harivamsha and numerous Puranas . "Gopala" redirects here For the mathematician see Gopala (mathematician. The Manu Smriti ( Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति is a work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society The Harivamsha (also Harivamsa; Sanskrit Harivaṃśa sa हरिवंश "the lineage of Hari ( Vishnu)" is an important For other meanings see Purana (disambiguation. The Puranas ( Sanskrit: sa पुराण purāṇa, "of ancient times" Also from the fact that Gopala's grandfather was a highly learned man, and his father a warrior, and further as Gopala I is said to have been elected to the throne of Bengal, he therefore, was definitely not initially of a royal blood of Bengal. Some surmise that he may have been from a Brahmin lineage  but since the Palas are called Śudras as well as Ksatriyas, these references qualify them more as the Indo-Iranian Kambojas than of any other lineage. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. Shudra ( IAST: Śūdra is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society Kshatriya (क्षत्रिय kṣatriya from क्षत्र kṣatra) is one of the four varnas (social orders in Hinduism Moreover, ancient Indian traditions sufficiently attest the scholarship and learning of the Kambojas who excelled in education and produced many outstanding teachers and sages in ancient and medieval times. See: Brahmanism of the Kambojas
Ramachrita of Sandhyakaranandi also attests that Varendri or North Bengal was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas. In the Bangarh copper plate inscription of Mahipala, it has been stated that Mahipala recovered his Fatherland (Rajyam Pitram) from his enemies which apparently was North Bengal that was occupied by the Kambojas . Indian copper plate inscriptions play an important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. Mahipala I (c 995 - 1043 CE is considered the second founder of the Pala dynasty But if the Palas and Kamboja-Palas were same family, then this may have totally different interpretation and meaning  .
One section of scholars like Dr N. G. Majumdar , Chandra Chakrabarty  etc consider that the so-called Pala Rulers of Bengal actually belonged to the Kamboja lineage. Dr N. G. Majumdar, the original editor of Irda Copper plate, had initially thought that the Pala Dynasty and the Kambboja Pala dynasty were two separate dynasties, but later on, modified his views in light of new discoveries which demonstrated that king Rajyapala-II of the so-called Pala dynasty, like king Rajyapala of the Irda Copper Plate, was found as adorned with religious epithet of Parama-saugata (devoted Buddhist) as well as imperial title of Maharajadhiraja. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices  Based on this new evidence and the earlier similarities, Dr N. G. Majumdar, had accordingly changed his views and got inclined to identify the Pala Dynasty of Bengal with the Kambojas, thereby, also dispelling the earlier views on the origin of the Pala kings of Bengal .
Dr H. C. Ray however, has advised a policy of 'wait' till the discovery of more powerful evidence before we can say that the Pala dynasty belonged to Kamboja race. He oberserved: "I can only suggest that we must wait for more definite proof before we can say that the Palas were Kambojas" . Dr Ramananda Chatterjee writes that "as regards the Kamboja origin of the Pala, one cannot be definite in the present state of our knowledge" . Dr J. L. Kamboj cautions that if we identify Rajyapala of the Pala Dynasty with the Rajyapala of the 'Irda Copper Plate', then we will have no option other than to accept that the Pala Dynasty of Bengal had sprang from the Kamboja race . The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bengal and Bihar regions from the 8th to Rajyapala of Kamboja-Vamsa-Tilaka was the founder of the Kamboja Pala dynasty of Bengal. Dr R. C. Majumdar advises that if we identify the Kamboja-vamsa-tilaka Rajyapala of the Irda Copper plate with the Rajyapala of the Pala dynasty, then we must also accept that after Rajyapla, the Pala empire had split up into two . Dr R. C. Majumdar further advises that "although the presumption about the identity (of the Palas with the Kambojas) is certainly a reasonable one, the evidence in favor of it can not be regarded as conclusive. . " .
See: Pala Dynasty vs Kamboja-Pala Dynasty' in Kamboja Dynasty of Bengal
It is plausible that the ancestors of the Palas may have settled settled in Vanga and later moved to Varendra (North Bengal) or Varendra which became the capital of the newly born empire during the reign of Gopala. Rajshahi Division (রাজশাহী বিভাগ is one of the six administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
After Shashanka Bengal was shrouded in obscurity and was shattered by repeated invasions. Shashanka (শশাঙ্ক Shôshangko) Shashanka the first important king of ancient Bengal, occupies a prominent place in history of the region Jayavardhana of the Shaila Dynasty from Central India invaded Bengal and killed the king of Pundra (730 CE). The Central India Agency was a political unit of British India, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state Events By Place Europe Charles Martel defeats the last independent dukedom of the Alamanni, and launches raids on the Saxons Yasovarmana (725-752) of Kanauj killed the king of Magadha and Gauda. Events By Place Europe Bede publishes On the reckoning of time ( De temporum ratione) calculating dates Events By Place Europe Cuthred of Wessex leads a successful rebellion against Aethelbald of Mercia at Battle Edge, WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Kannauj ( Hindi कन्नौज Urdu: کنوج) also spelt Kanauj, Magadha (मगध formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas ( Sanskrit, "great countries" or regions in ancient India. Later Lalitaditya (724-760) of Kashmir who defeated Yasovarmana invaded Bengal. Lalitaditya Muktapida was the emperor of Kashmir from 724 to 760 under the Karkota dynasty. For the area code see Area code 724 Events By Place Asia Emperor Shōmu succeeds Empress Genshō Events By Place Americas The Maya city of Dos Pilas is abandoned This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir Sri Harsha of Kamarupa conquered Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Odra. Anga was a kingdom ruled by non Vedic rulers Anga king Lomapada was a friend of Kosala king Dasaratha. Vanga (also known as Banga was a kingdom located in the eastern part of the Indian sub-continent and comprised of modern West Bengal and what is now Bangladesh Kalinga was a Kingdom in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state Odra was a country located in the northern Orissa. This kingdom was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. The social and political structure of Bengal was devastated. According to Lama Taranath: Every single Brahman, every Kshatriya, every Elite became all powerful in their areas and surrounding regions. Brahman ( bráhman-, Nominative bráhma sa ब्रह्म is a concept of Hinduism. Kshatriya (क्षत्रिय kṣatriya from क्षत्र kṣatra) is one of the four varnas (social orders in Hinduism This condition has been described by Taranath as Matsyanyam (Eating of small fish by the big fish) or the Dark Age of Bengal. This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe Disgusted at the situation the desperate people of Bengal made a bold move which marked a glorious period in the history of the sub-continent. They elected Gopala, a popular military leader, as their king by a Democratic Election which was probably the only democratic election in medieval India. Govinda and Gopāla are Names of Krishna, referring to his youthful occupation as a Cowherd. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office
After Harsha Vardhana, Buddhism faced the possibility of extinction. Nālandā is the name of an ancient University in Bihar, India. Harsha or Harshavardhana (हर्षवर्धन or "Harsha vardhan" ( 590 &ndash 647) was an Indian emperor who ruled Northern India Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Buddhists were persecuted all over India and Buddhism was gradually being absorbed by Hinduism. The Palas emerged as the champion of Buddhism, and they patronized Mahayana Buddhism. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for The Pala universities of Vikramashila and Nalanda became seats of learning for East Asia. University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India along with University during the Pala dynasty. Nālandā is the name of an ancient University in Bihar, India. The famous university of Nalanda reached its height during the Pala empire. Nālandā is the name of an ancient University in Bihar, India. The Palas were responsible for the spread of Mahayana Buddhism in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and the Indonesian archipelago, and the fame of Bengal spread in the Buddhist world for the cultivation of Buddhist religion, culture and other knowledge in the various centres that grew under the patronage of the Pala rulers. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The Kingdom of Bhutan (buːˈtɑːn is a Landlocked nation in South Asia. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Buddhist scholars from the Pala empire travelled from Bengal to the Far-East and propagated Buddhism. The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. A few outstanding ones among them are Shantarakshit, Padmanava, Dansree, Bimalamitra, Jinamitra, Muktimitra, Sugatasree, Dansheel, Sambhogabajra, Virachan, Manjughosh and many others. But the most prominent was Atish Dipankar Srigyan who reformed Buddhism in Tibet after it had been destroyed by king Langdharma. Early life Atisha is most commonly said to have been born in the year 980 in Vajrayogini village in Bikrampur, the northeastern region of Bengal (located in Langdarma was the last Tibetan emperor who Reigned from 838 - 841 CE
Gopala ended the period of anarchy by installing peace and prosperity in the country. "Gopala" redirects here For the mathematician see Gopala (mathematician. Dharamapala (ধর্মপাল Dhôrmopal) (rule 770 AD - 810 AD was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal. Devapala (rule 810 AD - 850 AD was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. Mahendrapala was the successor to the Pala king Devapala, and fourth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 4 years Vigrahapala was the successor to the Pala king Mahendrapala, and fifth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 1 year Rajyahapala was the successor to the Pala king Narayan Pala, and seventh ruler of the Pala line reigning for 32 years Gopala II was the successor to the Pala king Rajyapala, and eighth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 20 years Vigrahapala II was the successor to the Pala king Gopala II, and ninth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 22 years Mahipala I (c 995 - 1043 CE is considered the second founder of the Pala dynasty Vigrahapala III was the successor to the Pala king Nayapala, and twelfth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 15 years Mahipala II was the successor to the Pala king Vigrahapala III, and thirteenth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 5 years Shurapala II (reigned ca 1075-1077 was a ruler of the Pala Empire in northeast India. Ramapala was the successor to the Pala king Shurapala II, and fifteenth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 53 years Kumarapala was the successor to the Pala king Ramapala, and sixteenth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 10 years Gopala III was the successor to the Pala king Kumarapala, and seventeenth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 4 years Madanapala was the successor to the Pala king Gopala III, and eighteenth and final ruler of Pala lineage reigning for 18 years Pala kings devoted themselves in public welfare and social reform. The Palas adopted the policy of religious toleration and co-existence of the Buddhists and the Hindus. A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools Individuals are grouped by nationality except in cases where the A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Pala kings won the heart of the people by welfare activities like digging tanks establishing towns and took place in many folklores in the rural areas of Bengal. The Mahipala Geet (Songs of Mahipala) is still popular in the rural areas. Mahipala I (c 995 - 1043 CE is considered the second founder of the Pala dynasty
Palas adopted aggressive policy and began a period of expansion. At its height Dharmapala's empire stretched from Bengal as far as Afghanistan. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Devapala extended the boundaries of the empire further to Assam, Kamboja and the Southern tip of Deccan-the feat only achieved by Asoka. Devapala (rule 810 AD - 850 AD was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi The successors of Devapala had to contend with the Gurjara-Pratihara and the Rashtrakutas for the supremacy of northern India. Origin The Gurjar Pratiharas were one of the Agnikula clans of Rajputs according to a legend given in later manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso The Rashtrakuta Dynasty ( Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ was a royal After Narayanpala the Pala empire declined but was revived by vigorous rules of Mahipala and Ramapala. Mahipala I (c 995 - 1043 CE is considered the second founder of the Pala dynasty Ramapala was the successor to the Pala king Shurapala II, and fifteenth ruler of the Pala line reigning for 53 years
Pala rule was Monarchial. King or Monarch was the centre of all power. Pala kings would adopt titles like Parameshwar, paramvattaraka, Maharajadhiraja. Pala kings appointed Prime Ministers. The Line of Garga served as the Prime Ministers of the Palas for 10 years. Garga | Darvapani | Someshwar | Kedarmisra| Vatt Guravmisra Pala Empire was divided into separate Vuktis (Provinces), Vuktis into Vishaya(Divisions) and then Mandala (Districts)Pala. Smaller units were Khandala, Bhaga, Avritti, Chaturaka, and Pattaka. Administration covered widespread area from the grass root level to the imperial court. The Pala copperplates mention following administrative posts:Raja, Rajanyaka, Rajanaka, Ranaka, Samanta and Mahasamanta (Vassal kings), Mahasandhi-vigrahika (Foreign minister), Duta(Head ambassador), Rajasthaniya (Deputy), Aggaraksa (Chief guard), Sasthadhikrta (Tax collector), Chauroddharanika (Police tax), Shaulkaka (Trade tax), Dashaparadhika (Collector of penalties), and Tarika (Toll collector for river crossings),Mahaksapatalika (Accountant) Jyesthakayastha (Dealing documents), the Ksetrapa (Head of land use division) and Pramatr (Head of land measurements), the Mahadandanayaka or Dharmadhikara (Chief justice), the Mahapratihara, Dandika, Dandapashika, and Dandashakti (Police forces), Khola (Secret service), Agricultural posts like Gavadhakshya (Head of dairy farms), Chhagadhyakshya (Head of goat farms), Meshadyakshya (Head of sheep farms), Mahishadyakshya (Head of Buffalo farms) and many other like Vogpati, Vishayapati, Shashtadhikruta, Dauhshashadhanika, Nakadhyakshya(Aviation ministry?) etc.
The proto-Bangla language was born during the reign of the Palas. The Buddhist texts of the Charyapada were the earliest form of Bangla language. The Charyapada ( Bangla: চর্যাপদ Assamese: চৰ্যাপদ is a collection of 8th-12th century Vajrayana Buddhist Caryagiti This Proto-Bangla language was used as the official language in Tibet, Myanmar, Java and Sumatra. Books on every aspect of knowledge were compiled during the Pala Rule. On philosophy: Agaman Shastra by Gaudapada, Nyay Kundali by Sridhar Vatt, Karmanushthan Paddhati by Vatt Vabadeva; On Medicine: Chikitsa Sangraha, Ayurvedidwipika, Vanumati, Shabdachandrika, Dravya Gunasangraha by Chakrapani Dutt; Shabda-Pradip, Vrikkhayurveda, Lohpaddhati by Sureshwar; Chikitsa Sarsangraha by Vangasen; Sushrata by Gadadha Vaidya; Daybhaga, Byabohar-Matrika, Kalvivek by Jimutvahan etc. Atisha compiled more than 200 books. Early life Atisha is most commonly said to have been born in the year 980 in Vajrayogini village in Bikrampur, the northeastern region of Bengal (located in The great epic Ramacharitam written by Sandhyakar Nandi the court poet of Madanpala was another masterpiece of the Pala literature. The Ramacharitam is a great epic poem written in Sanskrit in Arya metre by Sandhyakar Nandi during Pala Empire between the second half of the 11th and the The Pala copperplate inscriptions were of excellent literary value. This distinctive inscriptions were called Gaudya Style.
The most brilliant side of the Pala Empire was the excellence of its art and sculptures. Paharpur may refer to Paharpur NWFP, a town and tehsil headquarters in NWFP Pakistan Vihara (विहार is Sanskrit or Pali for ( Buddhist) Monastery. Vihara (विहार is Sanskrit or Pali for ( Buddhist) Monastery. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Palas created a distinctive form of Buddhist art known as the "Pala School of Sculptural Art. " The gigantic structures of Vikramshila Vihar, Odantpuri Vihar, and Jagaddal Vihar were masterpieces of the Palas. These mammoth structures were mistaken by the forces of Bakhtiar Khilji as fortified castles and were demolished. Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji ( Bengali ইখতিয়ার উদ্দিন মুহম্মদ বখতিয়ার খলজী Persian The Somapura Mahaviharaa, a creation of Dharmapala, at Paharpur, Bangladesh, is the largest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian subcontinent, and has been described as a "pleasure to the eyes of the world. Paharpur may refer to Paharpur NWFP, a town and tehsil headquarters in NWFP Pakistan " UNESCO made it World Heritage Site in 1985. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Sompur Bihara, also built by Dharmapala, is a monastery with 21 acre (85,000 m²) complex has 177 cells, numerous stupas, temples and a number of other ancillary buildings. Somapura Mahavihara (সোমপুর মহাবিহার Shompur Môhabihar) in Paharpur Naogaon, Bangladesh is among the best known The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U In 1985, the UN included the Sompur Bihara site in the world Cultural Heritage list. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Pala architectural style was followed throughout south-eastern Asia and China, Japan, and Tibet. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Bengal rightfully earned the name "Mistress of the East". Dr. Stella Kramrisch says: "The art of Bihar and Bengal exercised a lasting influence on that of Nepal, Burma,Ceylon and Java. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Dhiman and Vittpala were two celebrated Pala sculptors. About Sompura Mahavihara, Mr. J. C. French says with grief: "For the research of the Pyramids of Egypt we spend millions of dollars every year. A pyramid is a Building where the upper surfaces are triangular and converge on one point This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. But had we spent only one percent of that money for the excavation of Sompura Mahavihara, who knows what extraordinary discoveries could have been made. "---"The Art of the Pala Empire or Bengal," p. 4.
Palas came in contact with distant lands through their conquests and trades. The Sailendra Empire of Java, Sumatra and Malaya was a colony of the Palas. Sailendra (Sanskrit Lord of the Mountain) is the name of an influential Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast Devapala granted five villages at the request of the Sailendra king Balputradeva of Java for the upkeepment of the matha established at Nalanda for the scholars of that country. Devapala (rule 810 AD - 850 AD was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. A maţha (also written math, matha or mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu and The Prime minister of the Balputradeva was from Gauda. Dharmapala who extended his empire to the boundary of the Abbasid Empire had diplomatic relations with the caliph Harun Al-Rashid. Hārūn al-Rashīd (and Persian: هارون الرشيد) also spelled Harun ar-Rashid; English: Aaron the Upright, Aaron the Coins of Harun-al-Rashid have been found in Mahasthangarh. Mahasthangarh (মহাস্থানগড় Môhasthangôṛ) is the earliest urban archaeological site Palas maintained diplomatic and religious relation with Tibet. During the military expeditions of the Pala kings the Pala generals would establish kingdoms of their own in Punjab and Afghanistan. Punjab ( ਪੰਜਾਬ پنجاب, पंजाब پنجاب also Panjab (پنجاب meaning "Land of the Five Rivers") (c Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, "When the writer (Mr. French) was in the Punjab hill states recently he came across a curious and unexpected echo of the Pal Dynasty. There is a strong and continuous tradition that the ruling families in certain states are descended from the "Rajas of Gaur in Bengal". These states are Suket, Keonthal, Kashtwar and Mandi. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Suket is a Census town in Kota district in the Indian state of Rajasthan Keonthal, covering an area of 482 km² was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. In the ancient Rajput states tradition has immense force and accuracy. Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India Of Kashtwar it is related that Kahan pal — the founder of the state — with a small band of followers arrived in the hills in order to conquer a kingdom for himself. He is said to have come from Gaur, the ancient capital of Bengal and to have been a cadet of the ruling family of the place. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Gaur, or Gour, as it is spelt mostly in modern times or Lakhnauti is a ruined city in the "---"The Art of Pal Empire". p. 19. The demise of the Turkshahi rule in Gandhar and the rise of the Hindushahi dynasty in that region might have connection to the invasion of the Palas in that region. For a town in Bareilly District India see Shahi Uttar Pradesh. For a town in Bareilly District India see Shahi Uttar Pradesh.
Palas had fourfold army consisting of: Infantry, Cavalry, Elephants and Chariots. The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on A war elephant is an Elephant trained and guided by humans for combat The chariot is the earliest and simplest type of Carriage, used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples In the copperplates of Vatsaraja Dharmapala had been mentioned as the owner of unlimited number of Horses, Elephants and Chariots. Vatsaraja ( 775 - 805) was an Indian king belonging to the dynasty of the Pratiharas. Dharamapala (ধর্মপাল Dhôrmopal) (rule 770 AD - 810 AD was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal. It is amazing that when the use of chariots had been backdated in India and other parts of the world the kings of Bengal still depended on four-horsed heavy chariots. Being a riverine land and swarthy climate Bengal was not good enough for breeding quality war-horses. Horses were first used in warfare over 5000 years ago The earliest evidence of the use of horses ridden in warfare dates So the Palas had to depend upon their vassal kins for war horses. Pala copperplate inscriptions reveal that mercenary forces were recruited from the Kamboja, Khasa, Huna, Malwa, Laat(Gujarat), Karnata. The Khasas are an ancient people believed to be a section of the Indo-Iranians who originally belonged to Central Asia from where they had penetrated in remote For the Indian Hunas see Huna (people. For the Talmud Rabbi, see Rav Huna. Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India. Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India The Kamboja cavalry was the cream of the Pala army who later would become as powerful as the Janissary army of the Ottoman Empire. The Kambojas had been famous throughout all periods of history for their excellent breed of horses as well as as famous horsemen or cavalry. The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Kamboja forces maintained smaller confederates (Sanghas) among themselves and were staunch follower of their commander. Palas had the army divided into following posts: Senapati or Mahasenapati (General) controlling foot soldiers, cavalry, soldiers riding elephants and camels, and the navy, and the various army posts like Kottapala (Fort guards) and Prantapala (Border guards). Palas had a huge army and the legend of "Nava Lakkha Shainya" (Nine lac soldiers) were popular during the reigns of dharmapala and Devapala. According to Hudud al-Alam a Persian text written in 982-983 Dharmapala possessed an army of 300,000 soldiers. Hudud ul-'alam min al-mashriq ila al-maghrib (حدود العالم من المشرق الی المغرب meaning "The Limits of The World from The East to The West" is an According to Sulaiman the Arab traveller Devapala set out for his every military expedition with an army of 50,000 elephants and his army had 10,000-15,000 slaves for the maintenance and caretaking of his armies.
Palas legacy gets remembered not much in Bengal but elsewhere. Tibet's modern culture and religion is heavily influenced by Palas. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Palas are credited with spreading Buddhism to Tibet and around the world through missionaries. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Atisa, a Palan, is a celebrated figure in the Tibetan Buddhism in tradition and in establishment. Early life Atisha is most commonly said to have been born in the year 980 in Vajrayogini village in Bikrampur, the northeastern region of Bengal (located in Atisa also invented bodhichitta or known as "mind training" that is practiced around the world today. In Buddhism, bodhicitta (Ch 菩提心 pudixin, Jp bodaishin, Tibetan jang chub sem, Mongolian бодь сэтгэл) is the wish Another important Palan figure in Tibetan Buddhism is Tilopa who founded the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism and developed the Mahamudra method, a set of spiritual practices that greatly accelerated the process of attaining bodhi (enlightenment). Tilopa ( Tibetan; Sanskrit: Talika, 988–1069 was born in either Chativavo ( Chittagong) Bengal or Jagora Bengal The Kagyu or Kagyupa school also known as the " Oral Lineage " or Whispered Transmission school is one of four main schools of Himalayan Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Mahamudra (Sanskrit Mahāmudrā, Tibetan Chagchen, Wylie phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie phyag rgya chen po) literally means Bodhi (बोधि is both the Pāli and Sanskrit word traditionally translated into English as "enlightenment Palas literature is widely studied by Buddhist around the world. Pala architectural style was copied throughout south-eastern Asia and China, Japan, and Tibet. Nalanda Universities and Vikramshila Universities are two of the biggest and greatest Buddhist universities ever recorded in history. Nālandā is the name of an ancient University in Bihar, India. University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India along with University during the Pala dynasty.
|Bengal dynasty||Succeeded by|
|Middle kingdoms of India|
|Timeline:||Northern Empires||Southern Dynasties||Northwestern Kingdoms|
6th century BCE