|Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archaeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1998 (22nd Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Paestum is the classical Roman name of a major Graeco-Roman city in the Campania region of Italy. "Velia" redirects here See also Velia (hill and Novi Velia. The Certosa di Padula, also known as Carthusian Monastery of Padula or Chartreuse of Padula or Certosa di S A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest It is located in the north of Cilento, near the coast about 85 km SE of Naples in the province of Salerno, and belongs to the commune of Capaccio. Cilento is an Italian geographical region of Campania, in the central and southern part of the Province of Salerno; and an important tourist area of southern Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Salerno is a town in southern Italy, capital of the province of the same name in the region of Campania. Capaccio is a town and Comune in the Province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy.
Founded around the end of the 7th century BCE by colonists from the Greek city of Sybaris, and originally known as Poseidonia. The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Sybaris ( Greek:) was a celebrated city of Magna Graecia on the western shore of the Gulf of Taranto. Outside of archaeological evidence very little is known about Paestum during its first centuries. Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was expanding with the building of roads, temples and other features of a growing city. Coinage, architecture and molded votive figurines all attest to close relations maintained with Metaponto in the sixth and fifth centuries. Metaponto is a small town of about a 1000 people in the Province of Matera, Basilicata, Italy. It is not until the end of the fifth century BCE that the city is mentioned, when according to Strabo the city was conquered by the Lucani. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. The Lucani ( Lucanians) were an ancient people of Italy who spoke an Oscan language, a member of the Italic languages. From the archaeological evidence it appears that the two cultures, Greek and Oscan, were able to get together and thrive. What is known is it later became the Roman city of Paestum in 273 BCE after the Graeco-Italian Poseidonians sided with the loser, Pyrrhus, in war against Rome during the first quarter of the third century BCE. Events By place Egypt Impressed by Rome's defeat of Pyrrhus, Ptolemy II sends a friendly embassy Pyrrhus (318-272 BC ( Greek: Πύρρος Aιακιδης Pyrros Aiakides was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
During the invasion of Italy by Hannibal the city remained faithful to Rome and afterwards was granted special favours such as the minting of its coinage. Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash The city continued to prosper during the Roman imperial period, but started to go into decline between the 4th and 7th centuries. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. It was abandoned during the Middle Ages and its ruins only came to notice again in the 18th century, following the rediscovery of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples and Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, in Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. The decline and desertion were probably due to changes in local land drainage patterns, leading to swampy malarial conditions (this is difficult to picture, with the present aridity; the site is now left to lizards and a few tourists). Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Lizards are a large and widespread group of Reptiles of the order Squamata, with nearly 5000 species and ranging across all continents except
On September 9, 1943, Paestum was the location of the landing beaches of the U.S. 36th Infantry Division during the Allied invasion of Italy. Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The 36th Infantry Division —also known as the Fighting 36th, the Panther Division, or the Texas Division —is a modular division of the In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose The process Allied invasion of Italy, was the Allied landing on mainland Italy in September 1943 by General Harold Alexander 's 15th Army Group German forces resisted the landings from the outset, causing heavy fighting within and around the town. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Combat persisted around the town for nine days before the Germans withdrew to the north.
The main features of the site today are the standing remains of three major temples in Doric style, dating from the first half of the 6th century BCE. The Doric order was one of the three '''orders''' or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or Classical architecture; the other two Canonical The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. These were dedicated to Hera and Athena, although they have traditionally been identified as a basilica and temples of Neptune and Ceres, owing to 18th-century mis-attribution. In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (ˈhɪərə or /ˈhɛrə/ Greek) or Here ( in Ionic and Homer ATHENA was an Antimatter research project that took place at the AD Ring at CERN. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman In Greek mythology, Poseidon ( Greek:; Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of the Sea and as "Earth-Shaker"
The city of Paestum covers an area of approximately 120 hectares. Its only the 25 hectares that contain the three main temples that have excavated. The other 95 hectares remain on private land and have not been excavated. The city is surrounded by defensive walls that still stand. The walls are approximately 4750 m long, 5 - 7 m thick and 15 m high. Positioned along the wall are 24 square and round towers. There may have been up to 28 but some of them were destroyed during the construction of highway in 18th century that effectively cuts the site in two.
The modern town of Paestum, directly to the north of the archaeological site, is a popular seaside resort. In the region of Paestum there are long, sandy beaches.
The temple of Hera, built around 550 BCE by Greek colonists, is the oldest surviving temple in Paestum. Eighteenth-century archaeologists named it "The Basilica" because they mistakenly believed it to be a Roman building. A basilica in Roman times was a civil building, not a religious one. Inscriptions revealed that the goddess worshiped here was Hera. In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (ˈhɪərə or /ˈhɛrə/ Greek) or Here ( in Ionic and Homer Later, an altar was unearthed in front of the temple, in the open-air site usual for a Greek altar; the faithful could attend rites and sacrifices without entering the cella. An altar is any structure upon which Sacrifices or other offerings are made for religious purposes or some other sacred place where ceremonies take place Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred" For the Spanish town see Cella Spain Naos redirects here For other meanings see Naos (disambiguation.
Just south of the city walls, at a site still called Santa Venera, a series of small terracotta offertory molded statuettes of a standing female nude wearing the polos headdress of Anatolian and Syrian goddesses, which were dated to the first half of the sixth century BCE, were found in the sanctuary; other similar ones have been excavated at other Paestum sanctuaries during excavations in the 1980s, but the figure is highly unusual in the Western Mediterranean. Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction Offertory (from the Ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought the Alms  The open-air temenos was established at the start of Greek occupation: a temple on the site was not built until the early fifth century. Temenos ( from the Greek verb "to cut" plural temene is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain especially to kings A nude goddess is a figure alien to Greek culture before Praxiteles' famous Cnidian Aphrodite in the fourth century: iconographic analogies must be sought in Phoenician Astarte and the Cypriote Aphrodite. Praxiteles ( Ancient Greek: Πραξιτέλης English prækˈsɪtɨliːz of Athens, the son of Cephisodotus the Elder, was the most renowned of the Astarte (from Greek Ἀστάρτη ( Astártē) is the name of a Goddess as known from Northwestern Semitic regions cognate in name origin "In places where the Greeks and Phoenicians came in contact with one another, there is often an overlapping in the persona of the two deities," Rebecca Miller Ammerman has explained (Ammerman 1991), in identifying the cult at the site as that of Phoenician Astarte or Cypriot Aphrodite. In Roman times, inscriptions make clear, the cult was reserved to Venus. Venus was a major Roman Goddess principally associated with Love, Beauty and fertility, the equivalent of the Greek goddess
The nearby temple, the second temple of Hera, was built in about 450 BCE. Events By place Greece Athenian General Cimon sails to Cyprus with two hundred Triremes of the It has been in the past variously thought of as a temple dedicated to Poseidon. In Greek mythology, Poseidon ( Greek:; Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of the Sea and as "Earth-Shaker" There are visible on the east side the remains of two altars, one large and one smaller. The smaller one is a Roman addition, built when they cut through the larger one to build a road to the forum. The Forum was the public space in the middle of a Roman city It had a great social importance and was often the scene of diverse activities including political discussions It is also possible that the temple was originally dedicated to both Hera and Zeus; some offertory statues found around the larger altar are thought to demonstrate this identification. Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology
In the central part of the complex is the Roman Forum, thought to have been built on the site of the preceding Greek agora. The Forum was the public space in the middle of a Roman city It had a great social importance and was often the scene of diverse activities including political discussions The Agora was an open "place of assembly" in ancient Greek city-states On the north side of the forum is a small Roman temple, dated to around 200 BCE. Events By place Seleucid Empire Antiochus III's forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria and Palestine. It was dedicated to the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. The Capitoline Triad was a group of three supreme deities in Roman religion who were worshipped in an elaborate temple on Rome 's Capitoline Hill, the In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. Juno was the protector and special counselor of the Roman state The MInisterial NEtwoRk for Valorising Activities in digitisation, or MINERVA, is a European Union organization concerned with the digitisation of cultural and
To the north-west of the forum is the amphitheater. An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances This is of normal Roman pattern, though much smaller than later examples. Only the southern half is visible; in 1930 AD, a road was built across the site, burying the northern half. Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It is said by local inhabitants that the civil engineer responsible was tried, convicted and received a prison sentence for what was described as wanton destruction of a historic site.
On the highest point of the town, some way from the other temples, is the temple of Athena. It was built in about 500 BCE, and was for some time incorrectly thought to have been dedicated to Ceres. The architecture is transitional, being partly in the Ionic mode and partly early Doric. Three mediaeval Christian tombs in the floor show that the temple was at one time used as a Christian church. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
All three temples have undergone some renovation and repair in recent years. Close access is allowed, but entry by visitors into the buildings is no longer permitted.
Paestum is also renowned for its painted tombs, mainly belonging to the period of the Lucanian rule, while only one of them dates to the Greek period. Lucania was an ancient district of southern Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. It was found, on 3th June 1968, in a small necropolis some 1,5 km south of the ancient walls. A necropolis (plural necropoleis or necropoles) is a large Cemetery or burial place (from Greek nekropolis "city of the dead" The burial monument was named Tomb of the Diver (Italian: Tomba del tuffatore) after the enigmatic scene, depicted on the covering slab, of a lonely young man diving into a stream of water. The Tomb of the Diver is an important archaeological monument found by the Italian Archaeologist Mario Napoli, on 3 June 1968 during his excavations of a small It was dated to the first half of the fifth century BC (about 470 BC), the Golden Age of the Greek town. Events By Place Greece Suspected of plotting to seize power in Sparta by instigating a Helot uprising Pausanias takes For the mythological meaning see Golden Age, for other uses see Golden Age (disambiguation A golden age is a period in a field of The tomb is painted with the true fresco technique and its importance lies in being "the only example of Greek painting with figured scenes dating from the Orientalizing, Archaic, or Classical periods to survive in its entirety. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or In the history of Ancient Greece the Orientalizing Period is the cultural and art historical period informed by the art of Syria and Phoenicia The archaic period in Greece ( 750 BC 480 BC) is a period of Ancient Greek history In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries Among the thousands of Greek tombs known from this time (roughly 700–400 B. C. ), this is the only one to have been decorated with frescoes of human subjects. "  The remaining four walls of the tombs are occupied by symposium related scenes, an iconography far more familiar from the Greek pottery, than the diving scene. Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means "to drink together" but has since come to refer to any Academic conference Thanks to its hardy nature pottery bulks large in the archaeological record of Ancient Greece, and because we have so much of it (some 100000 vases are recorded in the Corpus
All the five frescoes are visible in the local National Museum, together with the cycle of Lucanian painted tombs.