The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, "peaceful sea", bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere. The World Ocean, world ocean, or global ocean is the interconnected system of the Earth 's Oceanic (or marine) Waters The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães fɨɾˈnɐ̃ũ dɨ mɐgɐˈʎɐ̃ĩʃ Fernando de Magallanes (Spring 1480 &ndash April 27 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere. It extends from the Arctic in the north to Antarctica in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia on the west and the Americas on the east. The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America At 169. 2 million square kilometers (65. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 3 million square miles) in area, this largest division of the World Ocean – and, in turn, the hydrosphere – covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about 32% of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined. The World Ocean, world ocean, or global ocean is the interconnected system of the Earth 's Oceanic (or marine) Waters A hydrosphere (from Greek ύδωρ - hydor, " Water " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere "  The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the Pacific and the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,798 ft). The Mariana Trench (or Mariana's Trench) is the deepest part of the world's Oceans and the deepest location on the surface of the Earth 's 
The ocean encompasses almost a third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 179. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 7 million square kilometres (69. 4 million sq mi and 161 million cubic mi) —significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass, with room for another Africa to spare. Extending approximately 15,500 kilometres (9,600 mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the icy margins of Antarctica's Ross Sea in the south (although the Antarctic regions of the Pacific are sometimes described as part of the circumpolar Southern Ocean), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 kilometres (12,300 mi) from Indonesia to the coast of Colombia and Peru - halfway across the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon. The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water in the Pacific Ocean that comprises a deep water basin (the Aleutian Basin) which rises through The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. NOAA Ross seajpg|thumb|200px|thumb|Ice in the Ross Sea Antarctica]] The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The western limit of the ocean is often placed at the Strait of Malacca. The Strait of Malacca is a narrow 805 km (500 mile stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra The lowest point on earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 meters (35,797 ft) below sea level. The Mariana Trench (or Mariana's Trench) is the deepest part of the world's Oceans and the deepest location on the surface of the Earth 's Its average depth is 4,280 metres (14,000 ft).
The Pacific contains about 25,000 islands (more than the total number in the rest of the world's oceans combined), the majority of which are found south of the equator. The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20000 to 30000 Islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the
The Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking from plate tectonics, while the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere
Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea. The Celebes Sea (or the Sulawesi Sea (Laut Sulawesi of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea The Coral Sea is a Marginal sea off the north-east coast of Australia. The East China Sea is a Marginal sea east of China. It is a part of the Pacific Ocean and covers an area of 1249000 km² The Philippine Sea is a Marginal sea east and north of the Philippines occupying an estimated Surface area of 90 000 mi² (1 000 000 The Sea of Japan is a Marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea, North Korea and Russia The South China Sea is a Marginal sea south of China. It is a part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the The Sulu Sea is a large sea in the southwestern area of the Philippines. The Tasman Sea is the large body of water between Australia and New Zealand, some 2000 Kilometres (1250 Miles across The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a Marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. The Strait of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian Oceans on the west, and the Strait of Magellan links the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. The Strait of Malacca is a narrow 805 km (500 mile stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The Straits of Magellan (rarely referred to as the Magellanic Straits) comprise a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile and north of Isla Grande To the north, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean. The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив Beringov proliv) is a sea Strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43' The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major
As the Pacific straddles the ± 180° meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is actually in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is actually in the Western Hemisphere. Eastern Hemisphere, also Eastern hemisphere or eastern hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that is east of the The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West
For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful. Pacifica is a city in San Mateo County California, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean between San Francisco and Half Moon Bay. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many tropical cyclones (typhoons, the equivalent of Atlantic hurricanes), batter the islands of the Pacific. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding The lands around the Pacific rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and destroyed entire towns. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when
Water temperatures in the Pacific vary from freezing in the poleward areas to about 30 °C (86 °F) near the equator. Salinity also varies latitudinally. Salinity is the Saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of Water. The water near the equator is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. Poleward of the temperate latitudes salinity is also low, because little evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas. The Atlantic Ocean is generally about 16 degrees F( 9 degrees C)warmer than the Pacific ocean for any given latitude.
The surface circulation of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (the North Pacific Gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' A gyre is any manner of swirling Vortex. It is often used to describe large-scale Wind or Ocean currents. Southern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is South of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current. The North Equatorial Current is a significant Pacific and Atlantic Ocean current that flows east-to-west between about 10° north and 20° north The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly winds found in the Tropics near the Earth's Equator.
Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some waters move northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turn southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current. Aleutian current - also called subarctic current An eastward flowing ocean current which lies north of the North Pacific Current; it is the northern branch of the Kuroshio The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea. Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California Current.
The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The South Equatorial Current is a significant Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean current that flows east-to-west between the equator and about 20 degrees New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known The Antarctic Circumpolar Current ( ACC) is an Ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Cabo de Hornos redirects here for the Chilean commune see Cabo de Hornos Chile. The Humboldt Current is a cold low- Salinity Ocean current that flows north-westward along the west coast of South America from the southern tip of Chile
The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor The andesite line is the most significant regional Geologic distinction in the Pacific Ocean basin It separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsic igneous rock on its margins. Mafic is an adjective describing a Silicate mineral or rock that is rich in magnesium and iron the term was derived by contracting "magnesium" and "ferric" Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire are rocks formed by solidification of cooled Magma (molten rock Felsic is a term used in Geology to refer to Silicate minerals, Magma, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as Silicon The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, " Island " are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming a Volcanic The Kuril Islands (ˈkʊrɪl or /ˈkjuˈriˈl/ Кури́льские острова́ əstrʌˈva ru-Latn ''Kuril'skie ostrova'' or Kurile Islands in Russia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand—all eastward extensions of the continental blocks of Asia, Australia and Zealandia—lie outside the Andesite Line. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Zealandia (ziːˈlæːndiə also known as Tasmantis or the New Zealand continent, is a nearly submerged Continent or Microcontinent that
Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. Outside the Andesite Line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism. The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones.
The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones. Only the Antarctic and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones.
The largest landmass entirely within the Pacific Ocean is the island of New Guinea— the second largest island in the world. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known Almost all of the smaller islands of the Pacific lie between 30°N and 30°S, extending from Southeast Asia to Easter Island; the rest of the Pacific Basin is almost entirely submerged.
The great triangle of Polynesia, connecting Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand, encompasses the island arcs and clusters of the Cook Islands, Marquesas, Samoa, Society, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tuvalu and the Wallis and Futuna islands. Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Cook Islands ( Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) are a self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand. Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa, is a country governing the western part of the Samoan Islands Archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean The Society Islands ( French: Îles de la Société or officially Archipel de la Société) are a group of Islands in the south Pacific Tokelau (ˈtoʊkəlaʊ is a territory of New Zealand that consists of three tropical coral Atolls in the South Pacific Ocean. The Kingdom of Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean comprising 169 islands 36 of them inhabited stretching over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles The Tuamotus or the Tuamotu Archipelago ( French: Îles Tuamotu officially Archipel des Tuamotu) are a chain of atolls in French Polynesia Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian Island nation located in the Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii and Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of Wallis and Futuna Islands ( French: Wallis et Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna,
North of the equator and west of the International Date Line are the numerous small islands of Micronesia, including the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands. Micronesia, from the Greek mikros (μικρός (meaning small) and nesos (νῆσος (meaning island) is a Subregion The Caroline Islands form a large Archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI is a Micronesian nation of islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning
In the southwestern corner of the Pacific lie the islands of Melanesia, dominated by New Guinea. Palm Beach is a northern beachside Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" Other important island groups of Melanesia include the Bismarck Archipelago, Fiji, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and part of Papua New Guinea. Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य For the former North American fur-trading district see New Caledonia (Canada, and for the Scottish colony in Panama see Darien scheme. The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands Vanuatu, officially the Republic of Vanuatu ( French: République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu) is an Island
Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the Andesite Line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. The andesite line is the most significant regional Geologic distinction in the Pacific Ocean basin The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP These islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands. Bougainville is part of Papua New Guinea. Geographically, Bougainville is included in the chain of islands known as the Solomon Islands in Melanesia
The third and fourth types of islands are both the result of coralline island building. Coral reefs are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest Coral reef system in the world composed of over 2900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2600 kilometres (1600 mi For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of French Polynesia. Banaba Island (bəˈnɑːbə (also Ocean Island) an island in the Pacific Ocean, is a solitary raised Makatea, or Mangaia-te-vai-tamae, is a uplifted Coral Island in the northwestern part of the Tuamotus. French Polynesia ( French: Polynésie française, Tahitian: Pōrīnetia Farāni) is a French Overseas collectivity in the
Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times, most notably those of the Austronesians (specifically, the Polynesians), from the Asian edge of the ocean to Tahiti and then to Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The Austronesian people or Austronesian-speaking people, are a population group present in Oceania and Southeast Asia who speak or had ancestors who spoke Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over Tahiti is the largest Island in the Windward group of French Polynesia, located in the Archipelago of Society Islands in the
The ocean was sighted by Europeans early in the 16th century, first by the Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1513), who crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and then by Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation (1519-1522). Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475&ndash January 15, 1519 was a Spanish Explorer, Governor, and Conquistador. In 1564, conquistadors crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi who sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi ( 1502 &ndash August 20, 1572) also known as El Adelantado (The Governor and El Viejo (The Elder The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Spain to the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands; the Manila Galleons linked Manila and Acapulco. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons ( Galeones de Manila-Acapulco) were Spanish trading Ships that sailed once or twice The City of Manila Acapulco (Officially Acapulco de Juárez) is a City and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast
During the 17th century, the Dutch, sailing around southern Africa, dominated discovery and trade; Abel Janszoon Tasman discovering Tasmania and New Zealand in 1642. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Abel Janszoon Tasman ( 1603 - October 10 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and Merchant. Tasmania is an Australian island and state of the same name It is located south of the eastern side of the Continent, being separated from it by Bass The 18th century marked a burst of exploration by the Russians in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, the French in Polynesia, and the British in the three voyages of James Cook (to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest). Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean
Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by Great Britain and France, followed by the United States. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMS Beagle in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard; HMS Challenger during the 1870s; the USS Tuscarora (1873-76); and the German Gazelle (1874-76). First Voyage On 27 September 1825 Beagle docked at Woolwich for repairs and fitted out for her new duties at a total cost of £5913 Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life Eight Ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Challenger, most famously the Survey vessel ''Challenger'' that carried the Searching for Confederate raiders Later that month Tuscarora sailed for Southampton, England, under orders to capture or sink the Cruiser Although the United States conquered the Philippines in 1898, Japan controlled the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including By the end of the war, the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean.
Seventeen independent states are located in the Pacific: Australia, Fiji, Japan, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Republic of China (Taiwan), Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Kiribati or ( kirr-i-bas or KEE-ree-buhss ˈkiɾibas in Gilbertese) officially the Republic of Kiribati, is an Island nation located in The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI is a Micronesian nation of islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean Micronesia, from the Greek mikros (μικρός (meaning small) and nesos (νῆσος (meaning island) is a Subregion Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is an Island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Palau, officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, some 500 miles (800  km) east Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa, is a country governing the western part of the Samoan Islands Archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. The Kingdom of Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean comprising 169 islands 36 of them inhabited stretching over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian Island nation located in the Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii and Vanuatu, officially the Republic of Vanuatu ( French: République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu) is an Island Eleven of these nations have achieved full independence since 1960. The Northern Mariana Islands are self-governing with external affairs handled by the United States, and Cook Islands and Niue are in similar relationships with New Zealand. The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI is a commonwealth in Political union with the United The Cook Islands ( Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) are a self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand. Niue (niːˈʔuːeɪ/ /ˈnjuːeɪ in English is an Island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. Also within the Pacific is the U. S. state of Hawaii and several island territories and possessions of Australia, Chile, Ecuador, France, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The exploitation of the Pacific's mineral wealth is hampered by the ocean's great depths. In shallow waters of the continental shelves off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, petroleum and natural gas are extracted, and pearls are harvested along the coasts of Australia, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Philippines, although in sharply declining volume in some cases. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. The Pacific's greatest asset is its fish. The shoreline waters of the continents and the more temperate islands yield herring, salmon, sardines, snapper, swordfish, and tuna, as well as shellfish. Herring are small Oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow temperate waters of the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea, the North Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. For the hide and seek-like game see Hide and seek. Sardines, or pilchards, are a group of several types of small Oily Swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) are large highly migratory Predatory Fish characterized by a long flat bill. Tuna, are several Species of ocean-dwelling Fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. Shellfish is a Culinary and Fisheries term for those aquatic Invertebrate animals that are used as Food: various species of molluscs
In 1986, the member nations of the South Pacific Forum declared the area a nuclear-free zone in an effort to halt nuclear testing and prevent the dumping of nuclear waste there. The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental Organization which aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness yield and explosive capability of Nuclear weapons Throughout the twentieth century most nations Radioactive wastes are Waste types containing radioactive Chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose
The Pacific has the largest fetch of any ocean and therefore it produces very large breakers, such as in Hawaii. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the
It also often develops a red tide. This is due to a bloom in certain types of plankton which, in some types, create toxins. Plankton consist of any drifting Organisms ( Animals Plants Archaea, or Bacteria) that inhabit the Pelagic zone of These tides develop in many parts of the ocean such as in California.
Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the Marine pollution is the harmful effect caused by the entry into the ocean of chemicals particles, or Plastic debris. The biggest culprit are rivers that empty into the Ocean, and with it the many chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture as well as waste from livestock and humans. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The excess of oxygen depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone (ecology). For other uses of the term "hypoxia" see Hypoxia. Hypoxia or oxygen depletion is a phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments This page is about the oceanic phenomenon see Dead Zone for other uses 
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is a term used to describe human-created waste that has found itself floating in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter.