Skyline of the city of Oxford
|Nickname: "The City of Dreaming Spires"|
|Motto: "Fortis est veritas" "Truth is strong"|
Shown within Oxfordshire
Oxford shown within United Kingdom
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||South East England|
|Admin HQ||Oxford City Centre|
|- Governing body||Oxford City Council|
|- Lord Mayor||Susanna Pressel|
|- MPs:||Evan Harris (LD)|
Andrew Smith (L)
|- Total||17. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group History See also History of Oxfordshire The county of Oxfordshire was formed in the early years of the 10th century and is broadly situated in the This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one South East England is one of the nine official Regions of England. The ceremonial counties are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as the Counties for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city with special recognition Composition Graphical representation of the House of Commons This is a comparison of the party strengths in the British House of Commons Evan Leslie Harris MB ChB MP (born 21 October 1965) is a British Liberal Democrat politician The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the Andrew David Smith (born 1 February 1952 near Reading) is a British politician for the Labour Party, and a former member of the Cabinet. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 6 sq mi (45. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 59 km²)|
|Population (2006 est. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of )|
|- Total||149,100 (Ranked 112th)|
|- Density||8,469. The figures are mid-year estimates for 2007 from the Office for National Statistics. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 3/sq mi (3,270/km²)|
| - Ethnicity|
|73. A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 0% White British|
9. " White British " was a racially -based classification used by the 2001 census. 1% Other White
5. " White Other " is a term used in the UK census to describe white persons of non- British and non- Irish descent in 7% South Asian
3. British Asians are British citizens who are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka 0% Black
2. See also British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British Black British is a term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political 9% Chinese
2. British Chinese, including British-born Chinese (often informally referred to as BBC) are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have migrated 7% Mixed Race
1. Mixed Race was included as an ethnic classification on the UK Census from 2001. 9% Other
1. The 2001 UK Census ethnic groups include White British, White Other, Mixed Race, Asian British, Black British and Chinese 8% White Irish
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)|
|OS grid reference||SP513061|
Oxford (pronounced /'ɒksfəd/, ) is a city, and the county town of Oxfordshire, in South East England. Irish migration to Britain (also known as the Br[[Irish people|irish]]) has a lengthy history due to the close proximity of and complex relationship between Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London Coordinated Universal Time, the basis for the world's civil time frequently referred to by the name of its predecessor Greenwich Mean Time Western The OX postcode area, also known as the Oxford postcode area, is a group of postal districts around Abingdon, Bampton, Banbury, Bicester A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks ISO 3166-2GB is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to the United Kingdom. The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating Census and other statistical data The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, ( NUTS) for the French nomenclature d'unités territoriales statistiques, is a Geocode A county town is the 'capital' of a County in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland. History See also History of Oxfordshire The county of Oxfordshire was formed in the early years of the 10th century and is broadly situated in the South East England is one of the nine official Regions of England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland It has a population of 134,248 (2001 census). The River Thames runs through Oxford, where for a distance of some 10 miles (16 km) it is known as The Isis. The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. The Isis is the name given to the part of the River Thames above Iffley Lock which flows through the city of Oxford.
Oxford is home to the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The word Anglosphere describes a concept of a group of Anglophone ( English -speaking nations which share historical political and cultural characteristics rooted
Buildings in Oxford reflect every English architectural period since the arrival of the Saxons, including the mid-18th century Radcliffe Camera, the hub of the city. The architecture of the United Kingdom has a long and diverse history from beyond Stonehenge to the designs of Norman Foster and the present day The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of Early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon References in popular culture J R R Tolkien, author of The Lord of the Rings, remarked that the building resembled Sauron Oxford is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold in reference to the harmonious architecture of Oxford's university buildings. Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 &ndash 15 April 1888 was an English Poet, and Cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools
Oxford was first occupied in Saxon times, and was initially known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "Ford of the Ox"; fords being very important before the days of bridges. References in popular culture J R R Tolkien, author of The Lord of the Rings, remarked that the building resembled Sauron For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south A ford is a place in a Watercourse (most commonly a stream or River) that is shallow enough to be crossed by wading on Horseback or in a wheeled Oxen (singular ox) are Cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult castrated males  It began with the foundation of St Frideswide's nunnery in the 8th century, and was first mentioned in written records in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 912. The priory of St Frideswide Oxford was established as a Priory of Augustinian Regular canons, in 1122. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. In the 10th century Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation. The term Dane may refer to People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity whether living in Denmark, emigrants or the descendants of emigrants St Frideswide is the patron saint of both the city and university. Saint Frideswide (c 650 – October 19, 735; Friðuswīþ also known as Fritheswithe, Frevisse, or simply Fris) was a
The prestige of Oxford is seen in the fact that it received a charter from King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom; and various important religious houses were founded in or near the city. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order; and friars of various orders (Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, Augustinians, and Trinitarians), all had houses at Oxford of varying importance. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by Synecdoche; Latin: Ordo fratrum Beatæ The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations Parliaments were often held in the city during the thirteenth century. The Provisions of Oxford were installed by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort; these documents are often regarded as England's first written constitution. The Provisions of Oxford were installed in 1258 by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester; these documents are often regarded as England's first written Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the Baronial opposition to King Henry III of England
The University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Oxford's earliest colleges were University College (1249), Balliol (1263) and Merton (1264). College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. University College (in full the The Master and Fellows of the College of the Great Hall of the University of Oxford, colloquially referred to as Univ) is one of Balliol College (ˈbeɪlɪəl founded in 1263 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. See also Wardens of Merton College Oxford. Merton College is also the name of a college in the London Borough of Merton. These colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology – inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts – as society began seeing itself in a new way. These colleges at Oxford were supported by the Church in hopes to reconcile Greek Philosophy and Christian Theology. Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. Christian Theology is discourse concerning Christian faith Christian theologians use biblical Exegesis, rational analysis and argument The relationship between "town and gown" has often been uneasy — as many as 93 students and townspeople were killed in the St Scholastica Day Riot of 1355. Town and gown are two distinct communities of a university town; "town" being the non-academic population and "gown" metonymically being the The St Scholastica Day riot of February 10, 1355, is one of the most notorious events in the history of Oxford.
Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford is unique as a college chapel and cathedral in one foundation. Christ Church Cathedral is the Cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford, which includes the City of Oxford England, and the surrounding countryside as far Originally the Priory Church of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated into the structure of the Cardinal's College shortly before its refounding as Christ Church in 1546, since which time it has functioned as the cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop.
The Oxford Martyrs were tried for heresy in 1555 and subsequently burnt at the stake, on what is now Broad Street, for their religious beliefs and teachings. The Oxford Martyrs were tried for Heresy in 1555 and subsequently Burnt at the stake in Oxford, England, for their religious beliefs The three martyrs were the bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, and the Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. Latimer's belief in Christ's return Hugh Latimer said "It may come in my days old as I am or in my children's days the saints shall be taken up to meet Christ in the air Nicholas Ridley is a human name and may refer to Henry Nicholas Ridley (1855-1956 English botanist Nicholas Ridley Baron Ridley of Liddesdale
During the English Civil War, Oxford housed the court of Charles I in 1642, after the king was expelled from London, although there was strong support in the town for the Parliamentarian cause. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. " Roundheads " was the Nickname given to the Puritan supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. The town yielded to Parliamentarian forces under General Fairfax in the Siege of Oxford of 1646. Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron (17 January 1612 &ndash 12 November 1671 was a general and parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. The Siege of Oxford was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War. It later housed the court of Charles II during the Great Plague of London in 1665-66. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Great Plague (1665-1666 was a massive outbreak of Disease in England that killed 75000 to 100000 people up to a fifth of London 's population Although reluctant to do so, he was forced to evacuate when the plague got too close.
In 1790 the Oxford Canal connected the city with Coventry. The Oxford Canal is a 78 mile (130 km long narrow Canal in central England linking Oxford with Coventry via Banbury and Coventry ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in the County of West Midlands in England. The Duke's Cut was completed by the Duke of Marlborough in 1789 to link the new canal with the River Thames; and in 1796 the Oxford Canal company built their own link to the Thames, at Isis Lock. George Spencer 4th Duke of Marlborough KG FRS ( January 26 1739 &ndash January 29 1817) was a British The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. In the 1840s, the Great Western Railway and London and North Western Railway linked Oxford with London. The Great Western Railway ( GWR) was a British railway company and a notable example of Civil engineering, linking London with the West The London and North Western Railway (LNWR L&NWR was a Railway company of the United Kingdom which existed between 1846 and 1922
In the 19th century, the controversy surrounding the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought. The Oxford Movement or Tractarianism was an affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of whom were members of the University of Oxford, who sought Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs
Oxford's Town Hall was built by Henry T. Hare, the foundation stone was laid on 6 July 1893 and opened by the future King Edward VII on 12 May 1897. The Oxford Town Hall is located on St Aldate's in the centre of Oxford, England. Henry Thomas Hare (1861&ndash1921 was an Edwardian English Architect, born in Scarborough, Yorkshire, who was responsible for a Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The site has been the seat of local government since the Guild Hall of 1292 and though Oxford is a city and a Lord Mayoralty, it is still called by its traditional name of "Town Hall". Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city with special recognition A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or
By the early 20th century, Oxford was experiencing rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. Also during that decade, the economy and society of Oxford underwent a huge transformation as William Morris established the Morris Motor Company to mass produce cars in Cowley, on the south-eastern edge of the city. William Richard Morris 1st Viscount Nuffield GBE CH ( 10 October 1877 &ndash 22 August 1963) was the founder of the Morris Commercial Cars The Morris Motor Company was a British car manufacturing company Cowley in Oxford, England, is a residential and industrial area that forms a small conurbation within greater Oxford By the early 1970s over 20,000 people worked in Cowley at the huge Morris Motors and Pressed Steel Fisher plants. The Pressed Steel Company Limited (PSC was a British car body manufacturing company founded at Cowley near Oxford in 1926 as a joint venture between William By this time Oxford was a city of two halves: the university city to the west of Magdalen Bridge (from where students traditionally jump into the River Cherwell every May Day morning) and the car town to the east. Magdalen Bridge (ˈmɔːdlɨn "maudlin" spans the divided stream of the River Cherwell just to the east of the City of Oxford, and next to Magdalen The River Cherwell ( IPA /ˈtʃɑːwɛl/ is a river which flows through the Midlands of England. May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several Public holidays In many countries May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour This led to the witticism that "Oxford is the left bank of Cowley". Cowley suffered major job losses in the 1980s and 1990s during the decline of British Leyland, but is now producing the successful New MINI for BMW on a smaller site. British Leyland was a vehicle manufacturing company formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC Mini (styled as MINI) is a British automotive brand owned by the German BMW Group that has produced a redesign of the traditional Mini ( BMW) (Bavarian Motor Works is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916 A large area of the original car manufacturing facility at Cowley was demolished in the 1990s and is now the site of a major business park. 
The influx of migrant labour to the car plants and hospitals, recent immigration from south-east Asia, and a large student population, have given Oxford a notable cosmopolitan character, especially in the Headington and Cowley Road areas with their many bars, cafes, restaurants, clubs, ethnic shops and fast food outlets. Headington is one of the district centres of Oxford, England. Cowley Road is an arterial road in the city of Oxford, England, following a south-easterly route from the city centre at The Plain roundabout near Oxford is one of the most diverse small cities in Britain with the most recent population estimates for 2005.  showing that 27% of the population were from an ethnic minority group, including 16. 2% from a non-white ethnic minority ethnic group (ONS). These figures do not take into account more recent international migration into the city, with over 10,000 people from overseas registering for National Insurance Numbers in Oxford between 2005/06 and 2006/07. .
On 6 May 1954, Roger Bannister, as a 25 year old medical student, ran the first authenticated four-minute mile at the Iffley Road running track in Oxford. Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister, CBE (born 23 March 1929 is an English former athlete best known as the first man to run the Mile in less than 4 In athletics, the four-minute mile is the Running of a Mile (1609 Iffley Road is a major arterial road in Oxford, England, at. It leads from The Plain near Magdalen Bridge south-east towards the village
Oxford's second university, Oxford Brookes University, formerly the Oxford School of Art, based on Headington Hill, was given its charter in 1991 and has been voted for the last five years the best new university in the UK. Oxford Brookes University is a public University in Oxford, England.
Many important and famous politicians and people in the political public eye were resident in Oxford, often due to their membership of the University. Most notably of recent times, this list includes Osama bin Laden and Benazir Bhutto. Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March Benazir Bhutto ( Sindhi: بينظير ڀٽو Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو beːnəziːɾ bɦʊʈːoː (21 June 1953 &ndash 27 December 2007 was a
Despite stereotypes of Oxford being a conservative city, there are no elected Conservatives on the city council, although two Liberal Democrat councillors briefly sat as Conservatives during 2007-8. Oxford City Council elections take place every two years when half of the 48 seats in the City Council are up for election The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the Since the 2004 local elections, the council has been in minority administration, first by councillors from the Labour Party, with the Liberal Democrats being the official opposition. The United Kingdom local elections of 2004 were held on 10 June, as part of the 2004 set of elections along with the European elections The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the In 2006 these roles were reversed, although two years later, the unpopularity of the Liberal Democrat administration led to the election once again of a minority Labour administration . With seven city councillors and five county councillors, Oxford has one of the highest Green Party representation for a UK city. The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW (Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr is the principal Green political party in England and Wales. The Independent Working Class Association has two councillors, although their support is confined to a ward in the Blackbird Leys housing estate in the south east of the city. The Independent Working Class Association (IWCA is a small Working class Political party in Britain with the avowed aim of promoting the political Blackbird Leys is a ward located on the south-eastern outskirts of Oxford, England and is one of the largest council estates in Europe A housing estate is a group of buildings built together as a single development See Oxford Council election 2004 for further information. Election result |}Note three Independents stood in 2004 compared with one in 2002
Since 2002, elections have been held for Oxford City Council in even years, with each councillor serving a term of four years. Each electoral ward within Oxford is represented by two councillors, thus all wards elect one councillor at each election. In Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, a ward is an Electoral district Prior to 2002, the City Council was elected by thirds.
The two MPs are Andrew Smith from the Oxford East constituency, erstwhile Secretary of State for Work and Pensions in the Labour government; and Dr Evan Harris from the Oxford West and Abingdon constituency, Liberal Democrat science spokesman. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the A husting, or the hustings, was originally a physical platform from which representatives presented their views or cast votes before a parliamentary or other election body Oxford West and Abingdon is a County constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Andrew David Smith (born 1 February 1952 near Reading) is a British politician for the Labour Party, and a former member of the Cabinet. Oxford East is a Borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Evan Leslie Harris MB ChB MP (born 21 October 1965) is a British Liberal Democrat politician Oxford West and Abingdon is a County constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. At the 2005 general election, Oxford East became a marginal seat with a Labour majority over the Liberal Democrats of just 963. Results Overview For events leading up to the date of the election see article Pre-election day events of the United Kingdom general A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures goals or loyalty Oxford West and Abingdon is a safe seat for the Liberal Democrats with Dr Harris enjoying a majority of just under 8,000. A safe seat is a seat in a legislative body (eg Congress Parliament City Council which is regarded as fully secured either by a certain Political party, the
Oxford has four civil parishes with parish councils – these are Blackbird Leys, Littlemore, Old Marston and Risinghurst and Sandhills. A civil parish in the United Kingdom is a unit of local government. Blackbird Leys is a ward located on the south-eastern outskirts of Oxford, England and is one of the largest council estates in Europe Littlemore is an Oxfordshire village with a parish council that also represents parts of Rose Hill. Marston is a Village (sometimes called Old Marston) and associated suburb (known as New Marston) of Oxford, England, lying to the Risinghurst and Sandhills is a Civil parish in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England. Note: Littlemore, Marston and Risinghurst and Sandhills have only recently been brought within the city boundary.
Oxford's latitude and longitude are Carfax Tower, which is usually considered the centre). Carfax is located at the conjunction of St Aldate's (south Cornmarket Street (north Queen Street (west and the High Street (east in(at
Oxford has a Maritime Temperate climate ("Cfb" by Köppen classification). The Headington Shark is a sculpture situated at 2 New High Street Headington, Oxford, England, depicting a shark embedded head-first in Barton is a suburb of Oxford, England on the city's eastern periphery Binsey is a small Village just to the west of Oxford, England, in modern times encompassed within the city's ring road. Blackbird Leys is a ward located on the south-eastern outskirts of Oxford, England and is one of the largest council estates in Europe Botley is a Village in the Civil parish of North Hinksey, just west of the Oxford city boundary in the English county of Cowley in Oxford, England, is a residential and industrial area that forms a small conurbation within greater Oxford Cowley Road is an arterial road in the city of Oxford, England, following a south-easterly route from the city centre at The Plain roundabout near Cutteslowe is a suburb of north Oxford, England, between Sunnymead and the northern bypass (the A40, completed in 1935 and a little beyond Donnington is a small Housing estate in Oxford, England located adjacent to the River Thames in the post-war housing developments either side Headington is one of the district centres of Oxford, England. Iffley is a village in Oxfordshire, England, within the boundaries of the city of Oxford, located between the estates of Rose Hill, Littlemore is an Oxfordshire village with a parish council that also represents parts of Rose Hill. Jericho is a historic suburb of the English city of Oxford. It consists of the streets bounded by the Oxford Canal, Worcester College, Marston is a Village (sometimes called Old Marston) and associated suburb (known as New Marston) of Oxford, England, lying to the North Oxford, especially Central North Oxford between the city centre and Summertown, is considered by many to be the most desirable and famous suburb of Osney, Osney Island, or Osney Town ( IPA: /ˈəʊznɪ/ an earlier spelling of the name is Oseney) is a riverside community in the west of the Rose Hill is an inner city council estate It is located on the south-eastern outskirts of Oxford, England. Risinghurst is a quiet outlying residential area of Oxford, England, situated just outside the Eastern Bypass road which forms part of the Oxford ring road Summertown in North Oxford is a suburb of Oxford, England. The focal part of Summertown is a busy area of shops Cowley in Oxford, England, is a residential and industrial area that forms a small conurbation within greater Oxford A waterway is any navigable Body of water. These include Rivers Lakes Seas Oceans and Canals In order for a waterway The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist Precipitation is uniformally distributed throughout the year and is provided mostly by weather systems that arrive from the Atlantic. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Oxford was -16. 6°C (2°F) in January 1982. The highest temperature ever recorded in Oxford is 35. 6°C (96°F) in August 2003 during the 2003 European heat wave. Country-by-country France In France, 14802 people&mdashmostly elderly&mdashdied from heat according to the country's largest funeral service
There is a field of thought that due to Climate change, temperatures are increasing in Oxford, precipitation is decreasing in summer and increasing in winter. Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature
The average conditions below are from the Radcliffe Meteorological Station. It boasts the longest series of temperature and rainfall records for one site in Britain. These records are continuous from January, 1815. Irregular observations of rainfall, cloud and temperature exist from 1767.
|Weather averages for Oxford, UK|
|Average high °C (°F)||6. 8 (44)||7. 4 (45)||10. 1 (50)||13. 0 (55)||16. 7 (62)||19. 8 (68)||21. 7 (71)||21. 2 (70)||18. 5 (65)||14. 2 (58)||9. 8 (50)||7. 4 (45)||13. 9 (57)|
|Average low °C (°F)||1. 4 (35)||1. 4 (35)||2. 5 (37)||4. 3 (40)||7. 2 (45)||10. 2 (50)||12. 2 (54)||11. 9 (53)||9. 8 (50)||6. 8 (44)||3. 8 (39)||2. 1 (36)||6. 1 (43)|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||52. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 6 (2. 1)||41. 0 (1. 6)||41. 1 (1. 6)||43. 9 (1. 7)||50. 6 (2)||53. 3 (2. 1)||59. 5 (2. 3)||58. 3 (2. 3)||60. 3 (2. 4)||65. 3 (2. 6)||61. 8 (2. 4)||55. 8 (2. 2)||643. 5 (25. 3)|
|Source: Radcliffe Meteorological Station (NB: Data from the period 1881-2004) Mar 2008|
The Oxford suburb of Cowley has a long history of carmaking and now produces the BMW MINI. Nota bene is a Latin phrase meaning "Note Well" coming from notāre —to note Cowley in Oxford, England, is a residential and industrial area that forms a small conurbation within greater Oxford Mini (styled as MINI) is a British automotive brand owned by the German BMW Group that has produced a redesign of the traditional Mini
Morrells, the Oxford based regional brewery was founded in 1743 by Richard Tawney. Regional brewery is a term used in the United Kingdom to describe a long-established brewery that supplied beer to tied pubs in a fixed geographical location He formed a partnership in 1782 with Mark and James Morrell, who eventually became the owners.  The brewery building, known as the "Lion Brewery", was located in St Thomas Street. It closed in 1998, the beer brand names being taken over by the Thomas Hardy Burtonwood brewery. A brand is a collection of Images and ideas representing an economic producer more specifically it refers to the descriptive verbal attributes and concrete symbols such as a , while the 132 tied pubs were bought by "Morrells of Oxford", who sold the bulk of them on to Greene King in 2002. Greene King ( is a British Brewery established in 1799 in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk. The Lion Brewery was converted into luxury apartments in 2002. 
Outside the City Centre:
Oxford has numerous major tourist attractions, many belonging to the university and colleges. This article is about a street in Oxford England For the Irish financial services company see Cornmarket Group Financial Services Ltd. Queen Street is a shopping street in central Oxford, England. The High Street in Oxford, England runs between Carfax, generally recognized as Turl Street is a street in Oxford, England. It is located in the city centre linking Broad Street at the north and High Street at the south Little Clarendon Street is a short shopping street in central Oxford. Broad Street is a wide street in Oxford, England. It is famous for its bookshops including the original Blackwell's bookshop at number 50 The Covered Market is a historic Market with permanent stalls and shops in a large covered structure in central Oxford, England. George Street is a street in central Oxford, England. It is a shopping street running east-west The Clarendon Shopping Centre is a Shopping centre in central Oxford, England. Westgate Shopping Centre (locally known as Westgate) is a Shopping centre in central Oxford, England. Golden Cross is a Shopping arcade in central Oxford, England. Iffley Road is a major arterial road in Oxford, England, at. It leads from The Plain near Magdalen Bridge south-east towards the village Cowley Road is an arterial road in the city of Oxford, England, following a south-easterly route from the city centre at The Plain roundabout near St Clement's is a Street in Oxford, England. It leads from The Plain near Magdalen Bridge towards the suburb of Headington London Road may refer to numerous roads throughout the United Kingdom England There are countless London Roads in the UK. Banbury Road is a major arterial road in Oxford, England, running from St Giles' at the south end north towards Banbury through the leafy Walton Street is a street in central Oxford, England, located in the heart of the area known as Jericho Botley Road is the main arterial road into Oxford, England from the west North Parade or North Parade Avenue is a short shopping street in north Oxford, England. The Oxford Playhouse (often just known as The Playhouse by locals is an independent theatre in Beaumont Street, Oxford, opposite the Ashmolean Beaumont Street is a street in the centre of Oxford, England. The New Theatre Oxford (for a period from 1977 known as the Apollo Theatre Oxford) is the main commercial theatre in Oxford, England and George Street is a street in central Oxford, England. It is a shopping street running east-west The Burton Taylor Studio ("The BT" is a 50-seater studio Theatre owned by Oxford University. George Street may refer to People: George Edmund Street (1824&ndash1881 British architect George L Cowley Road is an arterial road in the city of Oxford, England, following a south-easterly route from the city centre at The Plain roundabout near Walton Street is a street in central Oxford, England, located in the heart of the area known as Jericho Odeon Cinemas is the largest chain of cinemas in Europe It is owned by Terra Firma Capital Partners. George Street may refer to People: George Edmund Street (1824&ndash1881 British architect George L Odeon Cinemas is the largest chain of cinemas in Europe It is owned by Terra Firma Capital Partners. Magdalen Street is a short shopping street in central Oxford, England. Vue is a cinema company in Ireland and the UK. The company was formed in May 2003 when SBC International Cinemas bought Warner Village Below is a list of major tourist attractions in Oxford, England. As well as several famous institutions, the town centre is home to Carfax Tower and the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, both of which offer views over the spires of the city. Carfax is located at the conjunction of St Aldate's (south Cornmarket Street (north Queen Street (west and the High Street (east in The University Church of St Mary the Virgin ( St Mary's or SMV for short is the largest of Oxford's parish churches and the centre from which the Many tourists shop at the historic Covered Market. The Covered Market is a historic Market with permanent stalls and shops in a large covered structure in central Oxford, England. In the summer, punting on the Thames/Isis and the Cherwell is popular. This article concentrates on the history and development of punts and punting in England for other usages see Norfolk punt and the general disambiguation pages at Punt The Isis is the name given to the part of the River Thames above Iffley Lock which flows through the city of Oxford. The River Cherwell ( IPA /ˈtʃɑːwɛl/ is a river which flows through the Midlands of England.
Oxford has 5 park and ride sites that service the city centre;
A service also runs to The John Radcliffe Hospital (from Thornhill/Water Eaton) as well as the Churchill and Nuffield Hospitals (from Thornhill). Park and ride (or incentive parking) facilities are Public transport stations that allow commuters and other people wishing to travel into Seacourt is a lost village near Botley in Oxfordshire (formerly in Berkshire)
Standard bus services are provided by the Oxford Bus Company and Stagecoach Oxfordshire. Oxford Bus Company is a Bus operator serving the city and surrounding area of Oxford, England and is the trading name of City of Oxford Motor Services Stagecoach in Oxfordshire is the name given to Stagecoach Group Bus operations in the county of Oxfordshire, England. Both companies also operate regular services to London. The Oxford to London coach route is the most frequent long distance coach service in the United Kingdom
Oxford railway station is placed out of the city centre. Oxford is a mainline Railway station serving the city of Oxford, England. The station is served by numerous routes, including CrossCountry services as far afield as Manchester and Edinburgh, First Great Western (who operate the station) services to London and other destinations and occasional Chiltern Railways services to Birmingham. CrossCountry is a Train operating company, the brand name of XC Trains Limited owned by Arriva, that has operated Great Britain ’s Cross Country rail franchise Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. First Great Western is the operating name of First Greater Western Ltd, a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup, which operates London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Chiltern Railways is a train operating company in England. It was formed by the Privatisation of British Rail in 1996 and operates mainline passenger Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um The present station opened in 1852.
The city has a ring road that consists of the A34, the A40 and the A4142. Construction The first section of the Oxford ring road was built from Headington to Banbury Road in the mid-1930s and is now part of the A40. The A34 is a major road in England. It runs from the A6042 in Salford to Winchester in Hampshire. For other uses see A40, for details of the A40 in london see A40 road (London. Construction The first section of the Oxford ring road was built from Headington to Banbury Road in the mid-1930s and is now part of the A40. It is mostly dual carriageway and was completed in 1966. The main roads that lead out of Oxford are:
The city is served by the M40 motorway, which connects London to Birmingham. The M40 Motorway is a motorway in the English Transport network that connects London to Birmingham. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um The original M40 opened in 1974 went from London to Waterstock where the A40 continued to Oxford. Waterstock is small sleepy village in Oxfordshire, England. It is located approximately 7 km west of Thame just off the A418 and about 1 km from For other uses see A40, for details of the A40 in london see A40 road (London. However, when the M40 was extended to Birmingham in 1991, a mile of the old motorway became a spur and the new section bended away sharply north. Now the M40 does a large arc around Oxford (staying around 10 miles away from the centre) due to the woodland that the motorway had to avoid. The M40 meets the A34 a junction later, the latter now being in two parts, the A34 restarting in Birmingham. The A34 is a major road in England. It runs from the A6042 in Salford to Winchester in Hampshire. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um
There are two universities in Oxford; the University of Oxford and Oxford Brookes University as well as Ruskin College, a normal university. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Oxford Brookes University is a public University in Oxford, England. Ruskin College is an independent educational institution in Oxford, England. normal school was a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers
Oxford is home to wide range of schools many of which receive pupils from around the world. Three are University choral foundations, established to educate the boy choristers of the chapel choirs, and have kept the tradition of single sex education. Examination results in state-run Oxford schools are consistently below the national average and regional average however results in the city are improving with 44% of pupils gaining 5 grades A*-C in 2006. 
As well as the BBC national radio stations, Oxford and the surrounding area has several local stations, including BBC Radio Oxford, Fox FM, Oxford's FM 107.9, and new station JACK fm on 106. Fox FM is an local radio station owned by GCap Media broadcasting to Oxfordshire, United Kingdom on the frequencies 102 Oxford's FM 1079 is an Independent Local Radio station broadcasting to Oxfordshire, United Kingdom on 107 8 along with Oxide: Oxford Student Radio (which went on terrestrial radio at 87. 7 MHz FM in late May 2005). A local TV station, Six TV: The Oxford Channel is also available. Six TV is the sixth Free to air terrestrial Television channel, broadcast in Oxford, Southampton, Reading and The city is home to a BBC TV newsroom which produces an opt-out from the main South Today programme broadcast from Southampton. South Today is the BBC 's regional television news programme for East Dorset, Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, Berkshire and West Southampton ( IPA /ˌsaʊθˈhæmptən/ is the largest city in the county of Hampshire, on the south coast of England
Popular local papers include The Oxford Times (compact; weekly), its sister papers The Oxford Mail (tabloid; daily) and The Oxford Star (tabloid; free and delivered), and Oxford Journal (tabloid; weekly free pick-up). The Oxford Times is a weekly Newspaper, published in Oxford, England, every Friday Oxford is also home to several advertising agencies.
Daily Information (known locally as Daily Info) is an events and advertising news sheet which has been published since 1964 and now provides a connected website. Daily Information (or Daily Info for short is a printed information sheet in Oxford, England, displayed especially around the University colleges
Well-known Oxford-based authors include:
Oxford appears in the following works:
Oxford is considered to be an important centre of the sport of swimming in England. His Dark Materials is a Trilogy of Fantasy Novels by Philip Pullman comprising Northern Lights (1995 Philip Pullman CBE (born October 19, 1946) is an English writer. Endymion Spring is a Fantasy novel by English-Canadian author Matthew Skelton. Endymion Spring is a Fantasy novel by English-Canadian author Matthew Skelton. Swimming is the movement by humans or animals through Water, usually without artificial assistance The Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England, but it was much later, in 1909, that Oxford Swimming Club came into existence. British Swimming is the Governing body of Swimming, Water polo, Synchronised swimming, Diving and Open water in the In 1939, Oxford had its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley in the whole of England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland After the pool was installed, swimming began to take off and soon Oxford Swimming Club became Oxford City Swimming Club, and Temple Cowley Pool was its home.
Speedway racing has been staged on and off in Oxford since 1939 at Cowley Stadium. Most recently, it held Elite League Speedway and Conference League Speedway until 2007, when landlords Greyhound Racing Association apparently doubled the rent. Speedway, for the time being, is not running in Oxford. Details of the 1949 and 1950 seasons at Cowley can be viewed on Oxford Speedway website.
Oxford is also home to Oxford United FC, who are currently in the Blue Square Premier, the highest tier of non-league football, but have seen great success in the past, mainly in winning the League Cup in the 80's and being one of the highest teams in the football league. For the Northern Irish football club see Oxford United Stars F Conference National (currently named the Blue Square Premier for sponsorship reasons is the top division of the Football Conference. The Football League Cup, commonly known as the League Cup, is an English football competition
Oxford's twin cities are:
All of these are university towns, except for