|Xìng 姓:||Ōuyáng 歐陽(欧阳)|
|Míng 名:||Xiū 修|
|Zì 字:||Yǒngshū 永叔|
|Hào 號:||Zuìwēng 醉翁|
Liùyī Jūshì 六一居士¹
|Shì 謚:||Wénzhōng 文忠²|
|1. Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. Chinese family name is one of the hundreds or thousands of Family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic Ouyang ( also spelled Owyang, Au Yong, Auyong, Auyang, Au Yeung, Au Ieong, Ao Ieong, Oyong, Chinese given names ( Chinese: 名字 Pinyin: míngzì are often made up of one or two characters Unlike Western personal names there is great variety A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name ( zì) is a given name to be used later in life A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name ( zì) is a given name to be used later in life A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty nobles and sometimes others in some cultures after the person's death late in his life|
|2. hence referred to as Ōuyáng|
Ouyang Xiu (traditional Chinese: 歐陽修; simplified Chinese: 欧阳修; Wade-Giles: Ou-yang Hsiu) (1007 – September 22, 1072), was a Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet of the Song Dynasty. Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it This article is an abbreviated list of Essayists - individuals notable for writing essays on various topics A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms He is also known by his courtesy name of Yongshu, and was also self nicknamed The Old Drunkard 醉翁, or The Retired Scholar of the One of Six 六一居士 in his old age. A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name ( zì) is a given name to be used later in life Due to the multi-faceted nature of his talents, he would be regarded in Western parlance as a Renaissance man. 
Ouyang was one of the major players in the Qingli Reforms of the 1040s and was in charge of creating the New History of the Tang Dynasty. The Qingli Reforms also called Minor Reforms took place in China ’s Song Dynasty under the leadership of Fan Zhongyan and Ouyang Xiu. The New Book of Tang ( is a classic work of history about the Tang Dynasty edited by Ouyang Xiu and Song Qi (宋祁 and other official scholars of the He was also regarded as one of the great masters of prose of the Tang and Song era. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms He was also a noted writer of both shi and ci poetry. Shi ( is the Chinese word for " Poetry " or "poem" Ci ( interchangeable with 辭 is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry.
He was born in Mingyang, Sichuan where his father was a judge, though his family comes from present day Ji'an (then known as Luling), Jiangxi. ( Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in western China with its capital in Chengdu. Administration Under its direct administration it has two city districts one city and ten counties ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River His family was relatively poor, not coming from one of the old great lineages of Chinese society. Losing his father when he was three, his literate mother was responsible for much of his early education. He was unable to afford traditional tutoring and was largely self-taught. In British Australian New Zealand Italian and some Canadian universities, a tutor is often but not always a Postgraduate Student or a Lecturer The writings of Han Yu, a literatus from the late Tang Dynasty was particularly influential in his development. Quote "It is universally admitted that the unicorn is a supernatural being of good omen such is declared in all the odes annals biographies of illustrious The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by He passed the jinshi degree exam in 1030 on his third attempt at the age of 22. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. 
In his youth, be became somewhat notorious for an undisciplined personal life, including frequenting pleasure quarters and keeping the company of courtesans. At the same time, he also associated with like-minded scholar officials, with whom he regularly exchanged ideas on philosophy and literary modes. He preferred guwen (Ancient Prose) from an early age. Gǔwén ( literally means ancient Chinese script. Historically the term has been used in several different ways By the age of thirty, he gave up the impulses of his youth and expressed regret at coming to an understanding of the Way rather late. Tao ( 道, Pinyin Dào) is a metaphysical concept found in Taoism, Confucianism, and more generally in ancient Chinese philosophy 
After passing the jinshi exam, he was appointed to a judgeship in Luoyang, the old Tang Dynasty eastern capital. Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by While there, he found others with his interest in the ancient prose of Han Yu. Quote "It is universally admitted that the unicorn is a supernatural being of good omen such is declared in all the odes annals biographies of illustrious  Politically, he was an early patron of the political reformer Wang Anshi, but later became one of his strongest opponents. Background Under the Song Dynasty the unprecedented development of large estates whose owners managed to evade paying their share of Taxes resulted in an increasingly At court, he was both much loved and deeply resented at the same time.
In 1034 he was appointed to be a collator of texts at the Imperial Academy in Kaifeng where be began an associate of Fan Zhongyan, who was the prefect of Kaifeng. Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern Early Official Career In the 1030s Fan served as the prefect of Kaifeng. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i Fan was demoted, however, after criticizing the Chief Councillor and submitting proposals for reform in promoting and demoting officials. Ouyang than submitted a critique of Fan’s principle critic at court. While he earned a demotion to Western Hubei for his troubles, he won praise as a principled official and led to his being a central figure in the growing reform faction. 
Threats from the Liao Dynasty and Xi Xia in the north in 1040 caused Fan Zhongyan to come back into favor. The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria Xi Xia redirects here For a Chinese general whose name may be transliterated as Xi Xia see Xi Qia The Western Xia Dynasty ( or Early Official Career In the 1030s Fan served as the prefect of Kaifeng. He brought Ouyang with him by offering him a choice position on his staff. Ouyang’s refusal won him further praise as a principled public servant who was not willing to take advantage of connections. Instead, Ouyang was brought to the court in 1041 to prepare an annotated catalogue of the Imperial Library. 
1043 was the high point in the first half of the eleventh century for reformers. Ouyang and Fan spurred the Qingli Reforms. The Qingli Reforms also called Minor Reforms took place in China ’s Song Dynasty under the leadership of Fan Zhongyan and Ouyang Xiu. Fan submitted a ten-point proposal addressing government organization.  Among other things, these included increasing official salaries, enforcement of laws, eliminating favoritism, and reform exams to focus on practical statecraft.  The reformers, however, were only in ascendancy for two years as the emperor rescinded these decrees of what also became known as the Minor Reform of 1043. Ouyang was a victim who was then demoted to a succession of magistracies in the provinces.  Fan and Ouyang were considered to have formed a faction, which by definition was deemed subversive to the government, though Ouyang countered that Confucius himself said that good persons in society would naturally flock together in furtherance of their own goals. Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher 
After serving briefly in Chuzhou, Anhui in 1049, he was recalled to the court to serve in an advisory capacity. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Chuzhou administers 8 county-level divisions, including 2 districts, a Sub-prefecture-level However, the death of his mother in 1052 forced him to retire for more than two years to carry out his filial obligations. In Confucian thought filial piety ( is one of the Virtues to be cultivated a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors 
After returning from his mandatory retirement, he was recalled to court and appointed to be a Hanlin Academy academician. The Hanlin Academy ( Chinese: 翰林院 Pinyin: Hànlín Yuàn, literally "brush wood court" was founded in China by Emperor He was also charged with heading the commission compiling the New Tang History, a task not completed until 1060. The New Book of Tang ( is a classic work of history about the Tang Dynasty edited by Ouyang Xiu and Song Qi (宋祁 and other official scholars of the He also served as Song ambassador to the Liao on annual visits and served as examiner of the jinshi examinations, working on improving them in the process. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country 
In the early 1060s, he was one of the most powerful men in court, holding the positions of Hanlin Academician, Vice Commissioner of Military Affairs, Vice Minister of Revenues and Assistant Chief Councillor concurrently. 
Ouyang’s power aroused jealousy. Upon the ascension of the Shenzong emperor in 1067, the name of Wang Anshi came to the attention of the emperor. Ouyang’s enemies had him charged with several crimes, including incest with his daughter. Incest refers to any sexual activity between closely related persons (often within the immediate family that is illegal or socially Taboo. Though no one believed this charge credible, it still had to be investigated, causing him irreparable harm.  Consequently, the emperor sent him to magistrate positions in Anhui, Shandong, and Anhui. Anhui (in Chinese: 安徽 Ānhuī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. ( is a coastal province of eastern People's Republic of China. Anhui (in Chinese: 安徽 Ānhuī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. While a magistrate in Shandong, he opposed and refused to carry out reforms advocated by Wang Anshi, particularly a system of low-interest loans to farmers. ( is a coastal province of eastern People's Republic of China. Background Under the Song Dynasty the unprecedented development of large estates whose owners managed to evade paying their share of Taxes resulted in an increasingly 
In 1071, formal retirement was granted five years before the standard retirement age. 
In his prose works, he followed the example of Han Yu, promoting the Classical Prose Movement. Quote "It is universally admitted that the unicorn is a supernatural being of good omen such is declared in all the odes annals biographies of illustrious The Classical Prose Movement ( Chinese 古文運動 Pinyin guwen yundong) of the late Tang dynasty and the Song dynasty in China While posted in Luoyang, Ouyang founded a group who made his “ancient prose” style a public cause. He was traditionally classed as one of the Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by He is said to be more responsible than any other single writer for developing a new expressiveness in expository prose in a variety of genres. 
Among his most famous prose works is the Zuiweng Tingji (literally meaning, Regarding the Pavilion of The Old Drunkard: 醉翁亭记), a description of his pastoral lifestyle among the mountains, rivers and people of Chuzhou. Zuiweng Tingji (醉翁亭记 or The Record of the Pavilion of the Old Drunkard is a semi- Autobiographical poem by Ouyang Xiu. The work is lyrical in its quality and acclaimed as one of the highest achievements of Chinese travel writing. Chinese commentators in the centuries immediately following the work's composition focused on the nature of the writing. Huang Zhen said that the essay is an example of "using writing to play around," and Cui Xian was reminded of the spirit of the Jin Dynasty. The Jìn Dynasty ( 265 – 420) one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties It was agreed that the essay was about fengyue, the elegant enjoyment of leisure. During the Qing Dynasty, however, commentators began to see past the playfulness of the piece to the thorough and sincere joy that the author found in the joy of others. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China 
Ouyang led the commission compiling the New Tang History, which completed its work in 1060. The New Book of Tang ( is a classic work of history about the Tang Dynasty edited by Ouyang Xiu and Song Qi (宋祁 and other official scholars of the He also wrote a New History of the Five Dynasties on this own following his official service. The New History of the Five Dynasties ( Traditional Chinese: 新五代史 Pinyin: Xīn Wǔdài Shi is a history of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms His style resembled that of the great Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng Shaanxi. He also focused on ethical considerations in historical analysis. 
As a historian, he has been criticised as overly didactic, but he played an important role in establishing the use of epigraphy as a historiographic technique. Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφολογία from Greek ἐπιγραφή — "inscription" is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs engraved Epigraphy, as well as the practice of calligraphy, figured in Ouyang's contributions to Confucian aesthetics. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called In his Record of the Eastern Study he states how literary minded gentlemen might utilize their leisure to nourish their mental state. The practice of calligraphy and the appreciation of associated art objects were integral to this Daoist-like transformation of intellectual life.
His poems are generally relaxed, humorous and often self-deprecatory; he gave himself the title The Old Drunkard. He wrote both shi and ci. Shi ( is the Chinese word for " Poetry " or "poem" Ci ( interchangeable with 辭 is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. His shi are stripped-down to the essentials emphasised in the early Tang period, eschewing the ornate style of the late Tang. He is best known, however, for his ci, which he was instrumental in raising to the level of being an important and widespread Song poetic style.  In particular, his series of ten poems entitled West Lake is Good set to the tune Picking Mulberries helped to popularise the genre as a vehicle for serious poetry.
Ouyang's poetry, especially the mature works of the 1050's, dealt with new themes that previous poets had avoided. These include interactions with friends, family life, food and beverages, antiques, and political themes. He also used an innovative style containing elements that he had learned from his prose writing. This includes his use of self-caricature and exaggeration.  Ouyang's poetry bears the characteristic of literary playfulness common to Northern Song poetry. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms For example, many poems have titles that indicate that they originated in rhyme games, and feature extensive rhyming schemes throughout. 
|“||Deep in Spring, the Rain's Passed (Picking Mulberries) |
Deep in spring, the rain's passed- West Lake is good.
Oars in lilies, a painted barge moving without haste.
Despite his success in his various endeavors, he did not accumulate great landholdings and wealth and only his third son attained the highest jinshi degree. 
He died in 1072 in present day Fuyang, Anhui. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Fuyang administers 8 county-level divisions, including 3 districts, 1 County-level city His influence was so great, even opponents like Wang Anshi wrote moving tributes on his behalf. Background Under the Song Dynasty the unprecedented development of large estates whose owners managed to evade paying their share of Taxes resulted in an increasingly Wang referred to him as the greatest literary figure of his age.
Egan, Ronald C. (1984). The Literary Works of Ou-yang Hsiu.
Mote, F. W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Imperial China 900-1800 is a book of History written by Professor F Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press, 119-126, 135-138. Harvard University Press ( HUP) is a Publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in Academic publishing. ISBN 0674012127.
Biography by James T. C. Liu in Franke, Herbert, Sung Biographies, Wiesbaden, 1976,vol. 2, pp. 808-816. ISBN 3-515-02412-3
Carpenter, Bruce E. , 'Confucian Aesthetics and Eleventh Century Ou-yang Hsiu' in Tezukayama University Review (Tezukayama Daigaku Ronshu) Nara, Japan, 1988, no. 59, pp. 111-118. ISSN 0385-7743