The Otoe or Oto are a Native American people. Karl Bodmer (6 February 1809–30 October 1893 was a Swiss painter of the American West Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Otoe language, Chiwere, is closely related to that of the Iowa and Missouri. Chiwere (also called Iowa-Otoe-Missouria or Báxoje-Jíwere-Ñútˀachi) is a Siouan language originally spoken by the Missouria, Otoe
The Otoe were once part of the Siouan tribes of the Great Lakes region, commonly known as the Winnebago. The Siouan (aka Siouan proper, Western Siouan) languages are a Native American Language family of North America, and the The Ho-Chunk, or Winnebago (as they are commonly called are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. At some point, a large group separated themselves and began to migrate to the south and west. This group eventually split into at least three distinct tribes: the Ioway, the Missouria and the Otoe, who finally settled in the lower Nemaha Valley. The Iowa (also spelled Ioway) also known as the Báxoje, are a Native American Siouan people The Missouri or Missouria were a Native American Tribe that inhabited parts of the midwestern United States before European explorers arrived Following the Louisiana Purchase, the Otoe were the first tribe encountered by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, meeting at a place that would become known as Council Bluffs. Between 1817 and 1841, the Otoe lived around the mouth of the Platte River in Nebraska, and during this time the remaining families of the Missouria rejoined them. The vast majority of the Otoe-Missouria lands, lying south from the Platte River in eastern Nebraska, were ceded to the U. S. by treaty in 1854, leaving them with a reservation along the Big Blue River on the present Kansas-Nebraska border.
During the 1870s, the tribe split into two ideological factions. The Coyote band favored an immediate move to Indian Territory, where they believed they could perpetuate their traditional tribal life outside the influence of the whites. The Quaker band favored continuance on their present land, even if it meant selling the western half of their current reservation back to the whites. By the spring of 1880, about half of the tribe had left the reservation and taken up residence with the Sac and fox tribe in Indian Territory. Sac and Fox Nation is the modern political entity encompassing the historical Sac and Fox nations of Native Americans. By the next year, in response to dwindling prospects of self-sufficiency and continued pressure from white settlers, the federal agents allowed the tribe to sell the Big Blue reservation, and the Otoe-Missouria purchased a new reservation in the Cherokee Outlet in the Indian Territory, in what is now Noble and Pawnee Counties, Oklahoma. Noble County is a County located in the US state of Oklahoma. Pawnee County is a County located in the US state of Oklahoma.
Today the Otoe-Missouria remain a federally recognized tribe, based in Red Rock, Oklahoma. Red Rock ( Otoe: Íno Súje ˌĩno ˈsudʒɛ meaning "Rock Red" is a town in Noble County, Oklahoma, United States.