The Ostrogothic Kingdom established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas lasted from 493 to 553. Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national Capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist the capital was moved or the capital Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The Confession of Chalcedon (also Definition or Creed of Chalcedon) also known as the "Doctrine of the Hypostatic Union" or the "2-Nature Doctrine" For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of Totila (died Jul 1 552) was king of the Ostrogoths from 541 until his death Teia (d 552 or 553 also known as Teja, Theia, Thila, Thela, Teias, was the last Ostrogothic king in Italy. Late Antiquity (c 300-600 is a Periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in Events By place Europe Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, continues his invasion of Italy with the approval of Byzantine See Gothic War (376-382 for the war on the Danube The Gothic War was a war fought in Italy and the adjoining regions of Dalmatia, Sardinia Events By Place Byzantine Empire Justinian I orders Belisarius to start the reconquest of Italy; Mundus The Battle of Mons Lactarius (also known as Battle of the Vesuvius) took place in 553 during the Gothic War waged on behalf of Justinian I against The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe Events By Place Europe February 25 — Odoacer agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great, and is later killed Events By Place Europe The Ostrogoth Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantines after the Battle of Mons Lactarius In Italy the Ostrogoths replaced Odoacer, the de facto ruler of Italy who had deposed the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire in 476. Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Gothic kingdom reached its zenith under the rule of its first king, Theodoric the Great. Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of Most of the social institutions in the late Western Roman Empire were preserved during his rule. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern
Starting in 535, the Eastern Roman Empire invaded Italy. The Ostrogothic ruler at that time, Witiges, could not defend successfully and was finally captured when the capital Ravenna fell. Witiges or Vitiges (died 540 was King of the Ostrogoths in Italy from 536 to 540 Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. The Ostrogoths rallied around a new leader, Totila, and largely managed to reverse the conquest, but were eventually defeated. Totila (died Jul 1 552) was king of the Ostrogoths from 541 until his death The last king of the Ostrogothic Kingdom was Teia.
The Ostrogoths were the eastern branch of the Goths. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s They settled and established a powerful state in Dacia, but during the late 4th century, they came under the dominion of the Huns. Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae " The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the Roman province of Pannonia as foederati. Flavius Marcianus, known in English as Marcian, (396 &ndash January 457 was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 450 until his death Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the But in 460, during the reign of Leo I, because the payment of annual sums had ceased, they ravaged Illyricum. Peace was concluded in 461, whereby the young Theodoric Amal, son of Theodemir of the Amals, was sent as a hostage to Constantinople, where he received a Roman education. Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of Theodemir was king of the Ostrogoths of the Amal Dynasty, and father of Theodoric the Great. The Amali were one of the leading dynasties of the Goths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire in its declining years in the west  In previous years, a large number of Goths, first under Aspar and then under Theodoric Strabo, had entered service in the Roman army and were a significant political and military power in the court of Constantinople. Flavius Ardabur Aspar ( c 400 - 471 an Alan, was Patrician and Magister militum ("Master of soldiers" of the Eastern Roman Theodoric Strabo (d 481 was an Ostrogoth chieftain who was involved in the politics of the Byzantine Empire during the reigns of Byzantine Emperors The period 477-483 saw a complex three-way struggle among Theodoric the Amal, who had succeeded his father in 474, Theodoric Strabo, and the new Eastern Emperor Zeno. Flavius Zeno, original name Tarasicodissa or Trascalissaeus, Byzantine Emperor ( Circa In this conflict, alliances shifted regularly, and large parts of the Balkans were devastated by it. In the end, after Strabo's death in 481, Zeno came to terms with Theodoric. Parts of Moesia and Dacia ripensis were ceded to the Goths, and Theodoric was named magister militum praesentalis and consul for 484. Moesia (Μοισία Moisía; Мизия Miziya; Moesia Мезија Mezija) was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the The Roman province of Dacia on the Balkans included the modern Romanian regions of Transylvania, Banat and Oltenia, and temporarily Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire.  However, barely a year later, Theodoric and Zeno fell out, and again Theodoric's Goths ravaged Thrace. Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe It was then that the thought occurred to Zeno and his advisors to kill two birds with one stone, and direct Theodoric against another troublesome neighbour of the Empire - the Italian kingdom of Odoacer. Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the
In 476, Odoacer, a Germanic magister militum, deposed the Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus and declared himself rex Italiae ("King of Italy"), while still nominally remaining under Imperial suzerainty. Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the Romulus Augustus (c 461/463 &ndash after 476 sometimes known as Romulus Augustulus ( Little Augustus) was the last Western Roman Emperor reigning from This fact was recognized by Zeno in 477, when he appointed Odoacer to the rank of patrician. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and Odoacer retained the Roman administrative system, cooperated actively with the Roman Senate, and his rule was efficient and successful. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. He evicted the Vandals from Sicily in 477, and in 480 he conquered Dalmatia after the murder of Julius Nepos. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Julius Nepos (c 430–480 was a Western Roman Emperor (474–475 or –480 during the last stage of the Western Roman Empire. 
An agreement was reached between Zeno and Theodoric, stipulating that Theodoric, if victorious, was to rule in Italy as the emperor's representative.  Theodoric with his people set out from Moesia in the autumn of 488, passed through Dalmatia and crossed the Julian Alps into Italy in late August 489. The first confrontation with the army of Odoacer was at the river Isonzo (the battle of Isonzo) on August 28. The Battle of Isonzo is the name given to the battle fought on the August 28 on the banks of the Isontius River not far away from Aquileia. Odoacer was defeated and withdrew towards Verona, where a month later another battle was fought, resulting in a bloody, but crushing, Gothic victory. Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. Odoacer fled to his capital at Ravenna, while the larger part of his army under Tufa surrendered to the Goths. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Theodoric then sent Tufa and his men against Odoacer, but he changed his allegiance again and returned to Odoacer. In 490, Odoacer was thus able to campaign against Theodoric, take Milan and Cremona and besiege the main Gothic base at Ticinum (Pavia). Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Cremonese redirects here For the football team see US Cremonese Cremona is a City in northern Italy, situated Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south At that point, however, the Visigoths intervened, the siege of Ticinum was lifted, and Odoacer decisively defeated at the river Adda on 11 August 490. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Adda (Latin Abdua, or Addua) is a river in North Italy, a tributary of the Po. Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Events By Place Europe April 1 — The majority of Odoacer 's army including his Magister militum Tufa surrenders Odoacer fled again to Ravenna, while the Senate and many Italian cities declared themselves for Theodoric. 
The Goths now turned to besiege Ravenna, but since they lacked a fleet and the city could be resupplied by sea, the siege could be endured almost indefinitely, despite privations. It was not until 492 that Theodoric was able to procure a fleet and capture Ravenna's harbours, thus entirely cutting off communication with the outside world. The effects of this appeared six months later, when, with the mediation of the city's bishop, negotiations started between the two parties. An agreement was reached on 25 February 493, whereby the two should divide Italy between them. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Events By Place Europe February 25 — Odoacer agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great, and is later killed A banquet was organised in order to celebrate this treaty. It was at this banquet, on March 15, that Theodoric, after making a toast, killed Odoacer with his own hands. A general massacre of Odoacer's soldiers and supporters followed. Theodoric and his Goths were now masters of Italy. 
|". . . Theoderic was a man of great distinction and of good-will towards all men, and he ruled for thirty-three years. In his times Italy for thirty years enjoyed such good fortune that his successors also inherited peace. For whatever he did was good. He so governed two races at the same time, Romans and Goths, that although he himself was of the Arian sect, he nevertheless made no assault on the Catholic religion; he gave games in the circus and the amphitheatre, so that even by the Romans he was called a Trajan or a Valentinian, whose times he took as a model; and by the Goths, because of his edict, in which he established justice, he was judged to be in all respects their best king. An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, ( 321 - November 17, 375) was Roman Emperor from 364 until his death "|
|Anonymus Valesianus, Excerpta II 59-60|
Like Odoacer, Theodoric was ostensibly a patricius and subject of the emperor in Constantinople, acting as his viceroy for Italy, a position recognized by the new Emperor Anastasius in 497. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and Flavius Anastasius (Φλάβιος Ἀναστάσιος or Anastasius I (Ἀναστάσιος Β΄ (c At the same time, he was the king of his own people, who were not Roman citizens. In reality, he acted as an independent ruler, although unlike Odoacer, he meticulously preserved the outward forms of his subordinate position. The administrative machinery of Odoacer's kingdom, in essence that of the former Empire, was retained and continued to be staffed exclusively by Romans, such as the articulate and literate Cassiodorus. Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c 485 - c 585 commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and great writer serving in the administration The Senate continued to function normally and was consulted on civil appointments, and the laws of the Empire were still recognized as ruling the Roman population, though Goths were ruled under their own traditional laws. Indeed, as a subordinate ruler, Theodoric did not possess the right to issue his own laws (leges) in the system of Roman law, but merely edicts (edicta), or clarifications on certain details. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting  The continuity in administration is illustrated by the fact that several senior ministers of Odoacer, like Liberius and Cassiodorus the Elder, were retained in the new kingdom's top positions. Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius (c 465 &ndash c 554 was a Late Roman aristocrat and official whose career spanned seven decades in the highest offices of both the Ostrogothic  The close cooperation between Theodoric and the Roman elite began to break down in later years, especially after the healing of the ecclesiastical rift between Rome and Constantinople (see below), as leading senators conspired with the Emperor. This resulted in the arrest and execution of the magister officiorum Boethius and his father-in-law, Symmachus, in 524. In Late antiquity, the Roman position of magister officiorum ( Latin literally for "Master of offices" can first be traced to the rule of Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (480&ndash524 or 525 was a Christian philosopher of the 6th century 
On the other hand, the army and all military offices remained the exclusive preserve of the Goths. The Goths were settled mostly in northern Italy, and kept themselves largely apart from the Roman population, a tendency reinforced by their different faiths: the Goths were mostly Arians, while the people they ruled over were following Chalcedonian Christianity. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The Confession of Chalcedon (also Definition or Creed of Chalcedon) also known as the "Doctrine of the Hypostatic Union" or the "2-Nature Doctrine" Nevertheless, and unlike the Visigoths or the Vandals, there was considerable religious tolerance, which was also extended towards Jews. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East PLEASE TAKE NOTE************  Theodoric's view was clearly expressed in his letters to the Jews of Genoa: "The true mark of civilitas is the observance of law. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English It is this which makes life in communities possible, and which separates man from the brutes. We therefore gladly accede to your request that all the privileges which the foresight of antiquity conferred upon the Jewish customs shall be renewed to you. . . " and "We cannot order a religion, because no one can be forced to believe against his will. "
It is in his foreign policy rather than domestic affairs that Theodoric appeared and acted as an independent ruler. By means of marriage alliances, he sought, to establish a central position among the barbarian states of the West. As Jordanes states: ". . . there was no race left in the western realms which Theoderic had not befriended or brought into subjection during his lifetime. " This was in part meant as a defensive measure, and in part as a counterbalance to the influence of the Empire. His daughters were wedded to the Visigothic king Alaric II and the Burgundian prince Sigismund, his sister Amalfrida married the Vandal king Thrasamund, while he himself married Audofleda, sister of the Frankish king Clovis I. Alaric II, also known as Alarik Alarich and Alarico in Spanish and Portuguese or Alaricus in Latin (d For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund Sigismund (died 524 was king of the Burgundians from 516 to his death Thrasamund (450-523 King of the Vandals and Alans (496-523 was the fourth king of the north African Kingdom of the Vandals and reigned longer than any other Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler 
These policies were not always successful in maintaining peace: Theodoric found himself at war with Clovis when the latter attacked the Visigoth dominions in Gaul in 506. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Franks were rapidly successful, killing Alaric in the Battle of Vouillé and subduing Aquitania by 507. The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern Marches of Visigothic territory at a small place near Poitiers ( Gaul However, starting in 508, Theodoric's generals campaigned in Gaul, and were successful in saving Septimania for the Visigoths, as well as extending Ostrogothic rule into southern Gaul (Provence) at the expense of the Burgundians. Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France There Theodoric reestablished the defunct praetorian prefecture of Gaul. The praetorian prefecture of the Gauls (ie the provinces of Gaul, in Latin: praefectura praetorio Galliarum) was one of four large Praetorian prefectures Now Theodoric had a common border with the Visigothic kingdom, where, after Alaric's death, he also ruled as regent of his infant grandson Amalaric. Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, Amalarico, (502 &ndash 531 was a son of king Alaric II and of Theodegotho daughter of Theodoric 
Family bonds also served little with Sigismund, who as a staunch Chalcedonian Catholic cultivated close ties to Constantinople. Theodoric perceived this as a threat and intended to campaign against him, but the Franks acted first and invaded Burgundy in 523, quickly subduing it. Theodoric could only react by expanding his domains in the Provence north of the river Durance up to the Isère River. The Durance ( Occitan: Durença in classical norm or Durènço in Mistralian norm is a 324 km long River in south-eastern France, The Isère ( Isera in Arpitan and Occitan) is a 286 km long River in southeastern France, in the Rhône-Alpes
The peace with the Vandals, secured in 500 with the marriage alliance with Thrasamund, and their common interests as Arian powers against Constantinople, collapsed after Thrasamund's death in 523. His successor Hilderic showed favour to the Nicaean Catholics, and when Amalfrida protested, he had her and her entourage murdered. Hilderic, King of the Vandals and Alans (c 460s - 533 reigned 523-530 was the pentultimate ruler of the North African Kingdom of the Theodoric was preparing an expedition against him when he died. 
|"It behoves us, most clement Emperor, to seek for peace, since there are no causes for anger between us. [. . . ] Our royalty is an imitation of yours, modelled on your good purpose, a copy of the only Empire; and in so far as we follow you do we excel all other nations. Often you have exhorted me to love the senate, to accept cordially the laws of past emperors, to join together in one all the members of Italy. [. . . ] There is moreover that noble sentiment, love for the city of Rome, from which two princes, both of whom govern in her name, should never be disjoined. "|
|Letter of Theodoric to Anastasius|
Cassiodorus, Variae I. 1
Theodoric's relations with his nominal suzerain, the Eastern Roman Emperor, were always strained, for political as well as for religious reasons. Especially during the reign of Anastasius, these led to several collisions, none of which however escalated into general warfare. In 504-505, Theodoric's forces launched a campaign to recover Pannonia and the strategically important town of Sirmium, formerly parts of the praetorian prefecture of Italy, which were now occupied by the Gepids. Sirmium in Pannonia should not be confused with Sirmio on Lake Garda Sirmium (today Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) was an ancient The praetorian prefecture of Italy (praefectura praetorio Italiae in its full form (until 356 la ''praefectura praetorio Italiae Illyrici et Africae'' was one of four large The Gepids (Gepidae Gifðas ( Beowulf, Widsith) - possibly from * Gibiðos, "givers" or gepanta, see below were The campaign was successful, but it also led to a brief conflict with imperial troops, where the Goths and their allies were victorious. Domestically, the Acacian schism between the patriarchates of Rome and Constantinople, caused by imperial support for the Henotikon, as well as Anastasius' Monophysite beliefs, played into Theodoric's hands, since the clergy and the Roman aristocracy of Italy, headed by Pope Symmachus, vigorously opposed them. The Acacian schism lasted thirty-five years from 484 - 519. It resulted from a drift in the leaders of Eastern Christianity toward Miaphysitism. The Henotikon (the "act of union" was issued by Byzantine emperor Zeno in 482, in an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that Pope Saint Symmachus was Pope from 498 to 514 He was born on Sardinia, the son of Fortunatus Thus, for a time, Theodoric could count on their support. The war between the Franks and Visigoths led to renewed friction between Theodoric and the Emperor, as Clovis successfully portrayed himself as the champion of the Catholic Church against the "heretical" Arian Goths, gaining the Emperor's support. This even led to the dispatch of a fleet by Anastasius in 508, which ravaged the coasts of Apulia. Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea 
With the ascension of Justin I in 518, a more harmonious relationship seemed to be restored. Flavius Iustinus (c 450&ndash August 1, 527) known in English as Justin I, was an Byzantine Emperor (518&ndash527 who rose through the ranks Eutharic, Theodoric's son-in-law and designated successor, was appointed consul for the year 519, while in 522, to celebrate the healing of the Acacian schism, Justin allowed both consuls to be appointed by Theodoric. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire.  Soon, however, renewed tension would result from Justin's anti-Arian legislation, and tensions grew between the Goths and the Senate, whose members, as Chalcedonians, now shifted their support to the Emperor. The suspicions of Theodoric were confirmed by the interception of compromising letters between leading senators and Constantinople, which led to the imprisonment and execution of Boethius in 524. Pope John I was sent to Constantinople to mediate on the Arians' behalf, and, although he achieved his mission, on his return he was imprisoned and died shortly after. Pope Saint John I was Pope from 523 to 526 He was a native of Tuscany (in Siena or in the Castello di Serena, near Chiusdino) and These events further stirred popular sentiment against the Goths. 
After the death of Theodoric on 30 August 526, his achievements began to collapse. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Events By Place Europe Athalaric succeeds Theodoric as king of the Ostrogoths, and Amalaric becomes king of the Since Eutharic had died in 523, Theodoric was succeeded by his infant grandson Athalaric, supervised by his mother, Amalasuntha, as regent. Athalaric ( 516 - 2 October 534) was the King of the Ostrogoths in Italy. Amalasuntha (also known as Amalasuentha, Amalaswintha, Amalasuintha or Amalasontha) (died 535 was a queen of the Ostrogoths. The lack of a strong heir caused the network of alliances that surrounded the Ostrogothic state to disintegrate: the Visigothic kingdom regained its autonomy under Amalaric, the relations with the Vandals turned increasingly hostile, and the Franks embarked again on expansion, subduing the Thuringians and the Burgundians and almost evicting the Visigoths from their last holdings in southern Gaul. The Thuringii or Toringi were a Germanic tribe which appeared late during the Völkerwanderung in the Harz Mountains of central The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose  The position of predominance which the Ostrogothic Kingdom had enjoyed under Theodoric in the West now passed irrevocably to the Franks.
This dangerous external climate was exacerbated by the regency's weak domestic position. Amalasuntha was Roman-educated and intended to continue her father's policies of conciliation between Goths and Romans. To that end, she actively courted the support of the Senate and the newly ascended Emperor Justinian I, even providing him with bases in Sicily during the Vandalic War. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or The Vandalic War was a war fought in North Africa in the areas of modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria, in 533 - 534, between the forces of However, these ideas did not find much favour with the Gothic nobles, who in addition resented being ruled by a woman. They protested when she resolved to give her son a Roman education, preferring that Athalaric be raised as a warrior. She was forced to discharge his Roman tutors, but instead Athalaric turned to a life of dissipation and excess, which would send him to a premature death. 
|"[Amalasuntha] feared she might be despised by the Goths on account of the weakness of her sex. So after much thought she decided [. . . ] to summon her cousin Theodahad from Tuscany, where he led a retired life at home, and thus she established him on the throne. But he was unmindful of their kinship and, after a little time, had her taken from the palace at Ravenna to an island of the Bulsinian lake where he kept her in exile. Lake Bolsena ( Lago di Bolsena) is a Crater lake of central Italy, of volcanic origin which was formed 370000 years ago following the collapse After spending a very few days there in sorrow, she was strangled in the bath by his hirelings. "|
|Jordanes, Getica 306|
Eventually, a conspiracy started among the Goths to overthrow her. Amalasuntha resolved to move against them, but as a precaution, she also made preparations to flee to Constantinople, and even wrote to Justinian asking for protection. In the event she managed to execute the three leading conspirators, and her position remained relatively secure until, in 533, Athalaric's health began to seriously decline. Amalasuntha then turned for support to her only relative, her cousin Theodahad, while at the same time sending ambassadors to Justinian and proposing to cede Italy to him. Theodahad (d 536 was the King of the Ostrogoths from 534 to 536 and a nephew of Theodoric the Great through his sister Justinian indeed sent an able agent of his, Peter of Thessalonica, to carry out the negotiations, but before he had even crossed into Italy, Athalaric had died (on 2 October 534), Amalasuntha had crowned Theodahad as king in an effort to secure his support, and he had deposed and imprisoned her. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Events By Place Byzantine Empire January 1 — Decimus Theodorius Paulinus is appointed Consul (the last to hold this Theodahad, who was of a peaceful disposition, immediately sent envoys to announce his ascension to Justinian and to reassure him of Amalasuntha's safety. 
Justinian immediately reacted by offering his support to the deposed queen, but in early May 535, she was executed. a[›] This crime served as a perfect excuse for Justinian, fresh from his forces' victory over the Vandals, to invade the Gothic realm in retaliation.  Theodahad tried to prevent the war, sending his envoys to Constantinople, but Justinian was already resolved to reclaim Italy. Only by renouncing his throne in the Empire's favour could Theodahad hope to avert war.
Because of the kingdom's short history, no fusion of the two peoples and their art was achieved. However, under the patronage of Theodoric and Amalasuntha, large-scale restoration of ancient Roman buildings was undertaken, and the tradition of Roman civic architecture continued. In Ravenna, new churches and monumental buildings were erected, several of which survive. The Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, its baptistry, and the Archiepiscopal Chapel follow the typical late Roman architectural and decorative motifs, but the Mausoleum of Theodoric displays purely Gothic elements, such as its construction not from the usual brick, but of massive slabs of Istrian limestone, or the 300-ton single-piece roof stone. The Basilica of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo is a church in Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna ( Italy) The Arian Baptistry in Ravenna, Italy was erected by Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great between the end of the 5th century and the beginning Archiepiscopal Chapel is a Chapel on the first floor of the bishops' palace in Ravenna, Italy. The Mausoleum of Theodoric ( Italian: Mausoleo di Teodorico) is an ancient monument just outside Ravenna, Italy. A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea
All of the surviving literature written in the Ostrogothic kingdom is in Latin, though some older works were copied in Greek and Gothic (e. g. the Codex Argenteus), and the literature is solidly in the Greco-Roman tradition. The Codex Argenteus (or "Silver Bible" is a 6th century manuscript originally containing bishop Ulfilas 's 4th century translation of the Bible Cassiodorus, hailing from a distinguished background, and himself entrusted with high offices (consul and magister officiorum) represents the Roman ruling class. Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c 485 - c 585 commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and great writer serving in the administration Like many others of his background, he served Theodoric and his heirs loyally and well, something expressed in the writings of the period. In his Chronica, used later by Jordanes in his Getica, as well as in the various panegyrics written by him and other prominent Romans of the time for the Gothic kings, Roman literary and historical tradition is put in the service of their Gothic overlords. Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes) was a 6th century Roman Bureaucrat, who turned his hand to History later in life A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use written verse delivered in high praise of a Person or thing, a generally highly studied and discriminating His privileged position enabled him to compile the Variae Epistolae, a collection of state correspondence, which gives great insight into the inner workings of the Gothic state. Boethius is another prominent figure of the period. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (480&ndash524 or 525 was a Christian philosopher of the 6th century Well-educated and also from a distinguished family, he wrote works on mathematics, music and philosophy. His most famous work, Consolatio philosophiae, was written while imprisoned on charges of treason. Consolation of Philosophy ( Consolatio Philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written in about the year AD 524.
^ a: The exact date and circumstances surrounding Amalasuntha's execution remain a mystery. In his Secret History, Procopius proposes that Empress Theodora might have had a hand in the affair, wishing to get rid of a potential rival. Theodora ( Greek: Θεοδώρα (c 500 - June 28 548) was empress of the Byzantine Empire and the wife of Emperor Justinian Although generally dismissed by historians such as Gibbon and Charles Diehl, Bury (Ch. XVIII, pp. 165-167) considers that the story is corroborated by circumstantial evidence.