|Orval Eugene Faubus|
36th Governor of Arkansas
January 10, 1955 – January 11, 1967
|Lieutenant||Nathan Green Gordon|
|Preceded by||Francis Cherry|
|Succeeded by||Winthrop Rockefeller|
November 8, 1960
|Running mate||John G. Crommelin|
|Opponent(s)||John F. Kennedy (D)|
Richard Nixon (R)
Harry F. Byrd (I)
|Incumbent||Dwight D. Eisenhower (R)|
|Born||January 7, 1910|
near Huntsville, Arkansas
|Died||December 14, 1994 (aged 83)|
|Spouse||Celia Alta Haskins (divorced)|
Elizabeth Westmoreland (divorced)
Jan Hines Wittenberg
Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955 to 1967. The Governor of the State of Arkansas is the chief executive of the state and Commander-in-chief of its military forces. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Nathan Green Gordon ( September 4 1916 &ndash September 8 2008) was an American Lawyer, Politician, and decorated For Francis Cherry the 17th century English non-juror see Francis Cherry (non-juror Francis Adams Cherry ( 5 September, 1908 Winthrop A Rockefeller ( May 1, 1912 February 22, 1973) was a Politician and Philanthropist who served as the first National States' Rights Party is a Far right party that found a minor role in the Politics of the United States. The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Rear Admiral John Geraerdt Crommelin Jr ( ca 1902 – November 2, 1996) was a prominent United States Navy officer and later a frequent John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Harry Flood Byrd Sr ( June 10, 1887 – October 20, 1966) of Berryville in Clarke County Virginia was an American In Politics, an independent is a Politician who is not Affiliated with any Political party. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Huntsville is a city in Mountainous Madison County, Arkansas, United States. Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Conway is the County seat of Faulkner County, Arkansas, United States. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The following is a list of the Governors of the State of Arkansas and Arkansas Territory. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School. Desegregation is the process of ending Racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. Little Rock is the Capital and the most populous city of the U The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and The Little Rock Nine was a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957 The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. The Arkansas National Guard consists of the Arkansas Army National Guard Arkansas Air National Guard African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Little Rock Central High School is a secondary school Central is located at the intersection of Daisy L Despite his initial staunch segregationist stances, Faubus much later moderated his positions. He even endorsed the African American minister, the Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr., in the 1984 Democratic presidential primaries. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Jesse Louis Jackson Sr (born October 8 1941 is an American Civil rights activist and Baptist minister. The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate and former Vice President The nomination, however, went to Walter F. Mondale of Minnesota. Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers
Despite managing just an eighth-grade education, Faubus passed a teaching examination in 1928 and taught for a time in the rural community of Pinnacle. He eventually earned his high school diploma but spent his summers during this era riding trains to pick fruit across the country.
Faubus' first political race was in 1936 when he contested a seat in the Arkansas House of Representatives. The Arkansas House of Representatives is the lower house of the Arkansas General Assembly, the state legislature of the U He finished second in that contest. He was urged to challenge the result but declined, which earned him the gratitude of the Democratic Party. The History of the United States Democratic Party is an account of the oldest Political party in the United States and arguably TalkDemocratic As a result, he served two terms as circuit clerk and recorder.
When the United States entered World War II, Faubus joined the United States Army and served as an intelligence officer with the Third Army of General George Patton He rose to the rank of major and was in combat several times. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. United States Army Central, formerly the Third United States Army was a field army of the United States Army. For the 19th century Scottish jurist/politician see George Patton Lord Glenalmond. Major is a Military rank the use of which varies according to country He was active in veterans' causes for the remainder of his life.
When Faubus returned from the war, he cultivated ties with leaders of Arkansas's Democratic Party, particularly with progressive reform Governor Sid McMath, leader of the post-war "GI Revolt" against corruption, whom he served as director of the state's highway commission. Sidney Sanders McMath (June 14 1912 October 4 2003 was a decorated U Meanwhile, conservative Francis Cherry defeated McMath's bid for a third term in the 1952 Democratic primary. For Francis Cherry the 17th century English non-juror see Francis Cherry (non-juror Francis Adams Cherry ( 5 September, 1908 Cherry became unpopular with voters, and Faubus challenged him in the 1954 primary.
In the 1954 campaign Faubus was compelled to defend his attendance at the defunct northwest Arkansas Commonwealth College in Mena, as well as his early political upbringing. Commonwealth College was started in 1923 to recruit and train people to take the lead in socio-economic reform and prepare them for unconventional roles in a new and different society Mena is a City in Polk County, Arkansas, United States. It is also the County seat of Polk County. Commonwealth College had been formed by leftist academic and social activists, some of whom later were revealed to have had close ties with the Communist Party United States of America. The Communist Party of the United States of America ( CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist Political party in the United States. Most of those who attended and taught there were idealistic young people who sought an education or, in the case of the faculty, a job which came with room and board.
During the runoff, Cherry and his surrogates accused Faubus of having attended a "communist" school and implied that his sympathies remained leftist. Faubus at first denied attending, then admitted enrolling "for only a few weeks. " Later, it was shown that he had remained at the school for more than a year, earned good grades, and was elected study body president. Faubus led a group of students who testified on behalf of the college's accreditation before the state legislature. Nevertheless, efforts to paint the candidate as a communist sympathizer backfired in a climate of growing resentment against such allegations. Faubus hence narrowly defeated Cherry to win the Democratic gubernatorial nomination. Relations were cool between the two men for years, but when Cherry died in 1965, Faubus put politics aside and was magnanimous in praising his predecessor.
After he defeated Cherry, Faubus won a 63-37 percent general election victory over Pratt C. Remmel, the Republican (GOP) mayor of Little Rock. A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election Pratt Cates Remmel ( October 26, 1915 - May 14, 1991) was the only 20th century Republican elected on a partisan ballot to have served Remmel, a businessman and scion of a prominent Republican family, polled the strongest vote for a GOP candidate since Reconstruction.
The 1954 election made Faubus sensitive to attacks from the political right. It has been suggested that this sensitivity contributed to his later stance against integration when he was challenged by segregationist elements within his own party. Faubus was known as a particularly effective one-on-one campaigner and was said to have never turned away anyone who sought to shake his hands no matter how much time it took.
Faubus was born to Sam Faubus (1887-1966), and the farmer Addie Joslen in the Combs Community near Huntsville, the seat of Madison County in northwestern Arkansas. He was born prematurely and weighed only four pounds at birth. According to his father, "Little Orval was different from most boys. Kids liked to get into mischief, but all he ever did was read books. He never done anything if he couldn't do it perfectly. You'd never find a weed in his row of corn. "
Sam Faubus provided his son with an early political education that would serve him for decades to come.
Faubus' name became internationally known during the Little Rock Crisis of 1957, when he used the National Guard to stop black Americans from attending Little Rock Central High School as part of federally ordered racial desegregation. The Little Rock Nine was a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957 African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Little Rock Central High School is a secondary school Central is located at the intersection of Daisy L His strong stand on this issue may seem surprising considering Faubus' 1954 run for governor as a progressive candidate promising to increase spending on schools and roads. During the first few months of his administration, Faubus desegregated state buses and public transportation and began to investigate the possibility of introducing multi-racial schools.
However, by the start of 1957, Faubus had obtained legislative passage of a controversial tax to increase teacher salaries, and he faced a primary election challenge from James D. Johnson of Conway, the segregationist leader of conservatives. James Douglas "Justice Jim" Johnson (born August 20, 1924, in Crossett Arkansas) is a former associate justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court
Critics have long charged that Faubus' fight in Little Rock against the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision by the U.S. Supreme Court that separate schools were inherently unequal, was politically motivated. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. The ensuing battle helped to shield him from the political fallout from the tax increase, and to diminish Johnson's appeal.
Journalist Harry Ashmore (who won a Pulitzer Prize for his columns on the subject) portrayed the fight over Central High as a crisis manufactured by Faubus. Harry Scott Ashmore ( July 28, 1916, Greenville South Carolina &ndash January 20, 1998, Santa Barbara California) was The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, Ashmore said that Faubus used the Guard to keep blacks out of Central High School because he was frustrated by the success his political opponents were having in using segregationist rhetoric to arouse white voters.
Faubus' decision led to a showdown with President Dwight Eisenhower and former Governor Sid McMath. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general In October 1957 Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard and ordered them to return to their armories which effectively removed them from Faubus' control. Eisenhower then sent elements of the 101st Airborne Division to Arkansas to protect the black students and enforce the Federal court order. In retaliation, Faubus shut down Little Rock high schools for the 1958-1959 school year. This is often referred to as "The Lost Year" in Little Rock.
Though Faubus later lost general popularity as a result of his stand against desegregation, at the time he was included among the "Ten Men in the World Most Admired by Americans", according to the Gallup Poll for 1958. The Gallup Poll is the division of Gallup that regularly conducts public Opinion polls in the United States and more than 140 countries around the world This dichotomy was later summed up as follows: Faubus was both the "best loved" and "most hated" of Arkansas politicians of the second half of the twentieth century.
Faubus was elected governor to six two-year terms and hence served for twelve years. He maintained a defiant, populist image while at the same time, he shifted toward a less confrontational stance with the federal government, particularly during the administrations of Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, with each of whom he remained cordial, and both of whom carried Arkansas. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of
Beyond initial matters of racial integration, Faubus always was regarded as a progressive.
In 1956, Faubus overwhelmed GOP candidate Roy Mitchell, 321,797 (80. 7 percent) to 77,215 (19. 4 percent). In 1958, he defeated George W. Johnson of Greenwood in Sebastian County by drawing 82. Greenwood is a city in and one of the two County seats of Sebastian County, Arkansas, United States, perhaps best known locally for its Arkansas 5 percent of the votes.
In 1960, Faubus handily defeated the Republican Henry M. Britt, an attorney from Hot Springs, to secure his fourth term as governor. Henry Middleton Britt III ( June 9, 1919 - February 17, 1995) was a Hot Springs lawyer who was a pioneer in the revitalization of An attorney at law (or attorney-at-law) in the United States is a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute Hot Springs is the 10th most populous city in the US state of Arkansas, the County seat of Garland County, and the principal city of the Hot Faubus polled 292,064 votes (69. 2 percent) to Britt's 129,921 (30. 8 percent). Britt was later a circuit judge in Garland County from 1967 to 1983. Garland County is a County located in the US state of Arkansas.
In 1962, Faubus broke with the White Citizens' Councils and other rightist groups, which endorsed U.S. Representative Dale Alford in that year's gubernatorial primary. The White Citizens' Council ( WCC) was an American white supremacist organization The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Thomas Dale Alford Sr ( January 28 1916 - January 25 2000) was an Ophthalmologist and Politician from the U Faubus cast himself as a moderate and barely secured a majority over Alford, McMath, and three other candidates. He then handily defeated the Republican Willis Ricketts, a then 37-year-old pharmacist from Fayetteville in the general election. Willis Harvey "Bubs" Ricketts (December 14 1924 - January 12 2003 was the Republican Party Gubernatorial nominee in the U Fayetteville is a city in Washington County, Arkansas, United States, and is home to the University of Arkansas.
While he was still an outcast from black leaders, Faubus nevertheless won a large percent of the black vote. In 1964, when he easily defeated the Republican Winthrop Rockefeller, Faubus secured 81 percent of the black vote. Winthrop A Rockefeller ( May 1, 1912 February 22, 1973) was a Politician and Philanthropist who served as the first
Faubus chose not to run for re-election to a seventh term in what would likely have been a difficult race in 1966. Former gubernatorial candidate Jim Johnson, by then an elected Arkansas Supreme Court justice, narrowly won the Democratic nomination over another justice, the moderate Frank Holt. The Arkansas Supreme Court is the highest court in the US state of Arkansas. Johnson was then defeated in the general election by Rockefeller, who became the state's first GOP governor since Reconstruction. Ironically, years later, Johnson himself became a Republican and supported Governor Frank D. White, later a benefactor of Faubus. Frank Durward White ( June 4, 1933  &ndash May 21, 2003) was only the second Republican governor of the U
In 1968, Faubus was among five people considered for the vice-presidential slot of third-party presidential candidate George Wallace However, in light of the public perception of both as segregationists, Wallace ended up selecting retired General Curtis LeMay. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for Curtis Emerson LeMay (15 November 1906–3 October 1990 was a General in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent
During the 1969 season, Faubus was hired by new owner Jess Odom to be general manager of his Li'l Abner theme park in the Ozark Mountains, Dogpatch USA. Li'l Abner was a Satirical American Comic strip appearing in many newspapers in the United States and Canada, featuring a fictional Dogpatch USA is a defunct theme park located on State Highway 7 between the cities of Harrison and Jasper in the state of Arkansas According to newspaper articles, Faubus was said to have commented that managing the park was similar to running state government because some of the same tricks applied to both.
Faubus sought the governorship again in 1970, 1974, and 1986 but was defeated in the Democratic primaries by Dale Bumpers, David Pryor, and Bill Clinton, respectively, each of whom went on to defeat Republican opponents. Dale Leon Bumpers (born 12 August 1925) is an American Politician who served as Governor of Arkansas from 1971 to 1975 and then in the David Hampton Pryor (born August 29, 1934) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives and United States William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States In his last race, 1986, Faubus polled 174,402 votes (33. 5 percent) to Clinton's 315,397 (60. 6 percent).
Faubus' decline occurred when the Democrats reformed their own party in response to public acceptance of the progressive polices followed by Rockefeller. Thus, a new generation of popular Democratic candidates easily contrasted themselves favorably in voters' minds with Faubus' old-style politics and a more conservative Republican Party which followed Rockefeller's tenure in the state.
Francis Adams Cherry (D)
|Governor of Arkansas|
Orval Eugene Faubus (D)
Winthrop A. Rockefeller (R)
|National States' Rights Party Presidential candidate|