Orson Welles in 1937 photograph by Carl Van Vechten. Carl Van Vechten ( June 17, 1880 &ndash December 21, 1964) was an American Writer and Photographer who was a
|Born||George Orson Welles|
May 6, 1915
Kenosha, Wisconsin, U.S.
|Died||October 10, 1985 (aged 70)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Virginia Nicholson (1934-1940)|
Rita Hayworth (1943-1948)
Paola Mori (1955-1985)
George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Kenosha (kəˈnoʊʃə is a city in and the county seat of Kenosha County, United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Rita Hayworth (October 17 1918 &ndash May 14 1987 born Margarita Carmen Cansino was a Spanish-American actress who rose to stardom in the 1940s as the era's leading Sex symbol Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works A film producer is a person who creates the conditions for making movies. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Welles first gained wide notoriety for his October 30, 1938, radio broadcast of H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political The War of the Worlds (1898 by H G Wells, is an early Science fiction Novel which describes an invasion of England by Adapted to sound like a contemporary news broadcast, it caused a number of listeners to panic. News broadcasting (also known as newscast or newsbreak) is the Broadcasting of various news events and other Information via In the mid-1930s, his New York theatre adaptations of an all-black voodoo Macbeth and a contemporary allegorical Julius Caesar became legendary. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599 Welles was also an accomplished magician, starring in troop variety spectacles in the war years. During this period he became a serious political activist and commentator through journalism, radio and public appearances closely associated with Franklin D. Roosevelt. Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. In 1941, he co-wrote, directed, produced and starred in Citizen Kane, often chosen in polls of film critics as the greatest film ever made. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored Film review redirects here for the similar sounding Film revue please visit Revue#Film revues. While there is no agreement upon the greatest Film of all time many publications and organizations have tried to determine the films considered the greatest ever. The rest of his career was often obstructed by lack of funds, incompetent studio interference and other unfortunate occurrences, both during exile in Europe and brief returns to Hollywood. Despite these difficulties Othello won the 1952 Grand Prix du Festival International du Film at the Cannes Film Festival and Touch of Evil won the top prize at the Brussels World Fair, while Welles himself considered The Trial and Chimes at Midnight to be the best of his efforts. Othello is a 1952 Drama film based on the Shakespearean play, made by Mercury Productions Inc Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Palme d'Or ( English: Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded to competing films at the Cannes Film Festival. The Cannes Film Festival (le Festival de Cannes founded in 1946 is one of the world's oldest most influential and prestigious Film festivals alongside Venice, Touch of Evil ( 1958) is a black-and-white American film written directed and co-starring Orson Welles. Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World’s Fair, Brusselse Wereldtentoonstelling or Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles, was held from The Trial (also known as Le Procès) is a 1962 film directed by Orson Welles, who also wrote the screenplay based on the Chimes at Midnight (aka Falstaff) is a 1965 film directed by Orson Welles based around the character of Sir John Falstaff
Although Welles remained on the margins of the major studios as a director/producer, his larger-than-life personality made him a bankable actor. In his later years he struggled against a Hollywood system that refused to finance his independent film projects, making a living largely through acting, commercials, and voice-over work. The term voice-over refers to a production technique where a non-diagetic voice is broadcast live or pre-recorded in Radio, Television, Film, Welles received a 1975 American Film Institute Lifetime Achievement award, the third person to do so after John Ford and James Cagney. The American Film Institute ( AFI) is an independent Non-profit organization created by the National Endowment for the Arts, which was established in 1967 James Francis Cagney Jr ( July 17, 1899 &ndash March 30, 1986) was an Academy Award -winning American Film Critical appreciation for Welles has increased since his death. He is now widely acknowledged as one of the most important dramatic artists of the 20th century, because in 2002 he was voted as the greatest film director of all time in the British Film Institute's poll of Top Ten Directors. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The British Film Institute ( BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film television 
Orson Welles was born in Kenosha, Wisconsin, the second son of Richard Head Welles, then a manufacturer of vehicle lamps, and Beatrice Ives, a concert pianist and suffragette. Kenosha (kəˈnoʊʃə is a city in and the county seat of Kenosha County, United States. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra Suffragette is a term originally coined by the Daily Mail newspaper as a derogatory label for the more radical and Militant members of the During Welles' boyhood, he encountered many hardships. In 1919, his parents separated and moved to Chicago, and his father became an alcoholic and stopped working. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Welles' mother died of jaundice on May 10, 1924, in a Chicago hospital, four days after Welles' ninth birthday. Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective "icteric" is yellowish discoloration of the Skin, sclerae (whites of the eyes Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After his mother's death, Welles ceased pursuing his interest in music. Richard Welles died when Orson was 15, the summer after Orson's graduation from the Todd School for Boys in Woodstock, Illinois. The Todd Seminary for Boys, later the Todd School for Boys was located in Woodstock Illinois. Woodstock is a city in McHenry County, Illinois, United States. Welles later revealed in interviews that he felt that he had neglected and betrayed his father.
Maurice Bernstein became his guardian, but his background for the role is improbable. Born in Russia, he came to Chicago in 1890, studied and became a successful physician. In a very few years, he had several wives, including the Chicago Lyric Opera soprano, Edith Mason. Lyric Opera of Chicago is one of the leading Opera companies in the United States. Edith Mason (born St Louis Mo 22 March 1892 - died San Diego, 26 November 1973 was an American soprano Edith divorced company director Giorgio Polacco to marry Bernstein. Not long thereafter, they divorced and she remarried Polacco. In 1930, Bernstein was living in Highland Park, a suburb of Chicago, as a wealthy physician with another wife and child, claiming to have been born in Illinois to parents from New York. Highland Park is a city in the Moraine Township of Lake County, Illinois, United States.
At Todd, Welles came under the positive influence and guidance of Roger Hill, a teacher who later became Todd's headmaster. Hill provided Welles with an 'ad hoc' educational environment that proved invaluable to his creative experience, allowing Welles to concentrate on subjects that interested him. Welles performed and staged his first theatrical experiments and productions there.
On his father's death, Welles traveled to Europe with the aid of a small inheritance. While on a walking and painting trip through Ireland, he strode into the Gate Theatre in Dublin and claimed he was a Broadway star. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatre 's Peacock studio Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Gate manager Hilton Edwards later claimed he didn't believe him but was impressed by his brashness and some impassioned quality in his audition. Hilton Edwards ( February 2, 1903 &ndash November 18, 1982) was an Irish Actor and theatrical producer Welles made his stage debut at the Gate in 1931, appearing in Jew Suss as the Duke. Jud Süß ( The Jew Süss) was the nickname of Joseph Süss Oppenheimer and is the title of an 1827 Novella by Wilhelm Hauff, a 1925 He acted to great acclaim, acclaim that reached the United States. He performed smaller supporting roles as well. On returning to the United States he found his brief fame ephemeral and turned to a writing project at Todd that would become the immensely successful Everybody's Shakespeare, and subsequently, The Mercury Shakespeare. Welles traveled to North Africa while working on thousands of illustrations for the Everybody's Shakespeare series of educational books, a series that remained in print for decades.
An introduction by Thornton Wilder led Welles to the New York stage. Thornton Niven Wilder ( April 17, 1897 &ndash December 7, 1975) was an American Playwright and Novelist. He toured in three off-Broadway productions with Katharine Cornell's company. Katharine Cornell ( February 16 1893 - June 9 1974) was a stage actress writer and theater owner and producer. Restless and impatient when the planned Broadway opening of Romeo and Juliet was canceled, Welles staged a drama festival of his own with the Todd School, inviting Micheál MacLiammóir and Hilton Edwards from Dublin's Gate Theatre to appear, along with New York stage luminaries. Micheál MacLíammóir (born Alfred Willmore) ( October 25, 1899 &ndash March 6, 1978) was an Irish Actor, It was a roaring success. The subsequent revival of Romeo and Juliet brought Welles to the notice of John Houseman, who was then casting for an unusual lead actor and about to take a lead role in the Federal Theatre Project. John Houseman ( September 22, 1902 — October 31, 1988) was an Oscar -winning American Actor The Federal Theatre Project (FTP was a New Deal project to fund Theatre and other live artistic performances in the United States during the Houseman was especially impressed by Welles' youth, wed to what appeared to be an overabundant creative certainty and drive.
By 1935 Welles was supplementing his earnings in the theater as a radio actor in New York City, working with many of the actors who would later form the core of his Mercury Theatre. The City of New York Mercury Theatre was a Theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. He married actress and socialite Virginia Nicholson in 1934. They had one daughter, Christopher, who became known as Chris Welles Feder, an author of educational materials for children. Welles also shot an eight-minute silent short film, The Hearts of Age with Nicholson.
In 1936, the Federal Theatre Project (part of Roosevelt's Works Progress Administration) put unemployed theatre performers and employees to work. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP was a New Deal project to fund Theatre and other live artistic performances in the United States during the The Works Progress Administration (renamed in 1939 the Work Projects Administration; WPA) was the largest New Deal agency employing millions of people Welles was hired by John Houseman and assigned to direct a project for Harlem's American Negro Theater. John Houseman ( September 22, 1902 — October 31, 1988) was an Oscar -winning American Actor Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center The American Negro Theater (ANT was formed in Harlem on June 5, 1940 by writer Abram Hill and actor Frederick O'Neal. Wanting to give his all-black cast a chance to play classics, he offered them Macbeth, moved to Haiti at the court of King Henri Christophe (and with a setting of voodoo witch doctors). Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Henri Christophe ( October 6, 1767 – October 8, 1820) became a career officer and general in the military forces that became the Haïtian Army Jack Carter played Macbeth. Jack Carter may refer to Jack Carter (politician (born 1947 eldest son of former U The play was rapturously received and later toured the nation. It is considered a landmark of African-American theatre. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa At 20 Welles was hailed as a prodigy.
After the success of Macbeth, Welles mounted the absurd farce Horse Eats Hat. He consolidated his "White Hope" reputation with Dr Faustus. This was even more ground-breaking theatre than Macbeth, using light as a prime unifying scenic element in a nearly blacked-out stage. In 1937, he rehearsed Marc Blitzstein's pro-union "labour opera" The Cradle Will Rock. Marc Blitzstein ( March 2, 1905 &ndash January 22, 1964) was an American Composer. The Cradle Will Rock is a 1937 musical by Marc Blitzstein. Originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project, it was directed by Because of severe federal cutbacks and perhaps rumoured Congressional worries about communist propaganda in the Federal Theatre, the show's premiere at the Maxine Elliott Theatre was cancelled and the theatre locked and guarded by National Guardsmen. The Maxine Elliott Theatre was a Broadway theater located at In a last-minute theatrical coup Welles announced to waiting ticket-holders that the show was being transferred to the Venice, about twenty blocks away. The New Century Theatre was a legitimate Broadway theatre located at 932 Seventh Avenue at West 58th Street in midtown Manhattan. Cast, crew and audience walked the distance on foot. Since the unions forbade the actors and musicians performing from the stage, The Cradle Will Rock began with Blitzstein introducing the show and playing the piano accompaniment on stage, with the cast performing their parts from the audience. This impromptu performance was a tremendous hit.
Resigning from the Federal Theatre, Welles and Houseman formed their own company, the Mercury Theatre, which included actors such as Agnes Moorehead, Joseph Cotten, Ray Collins, George Coulouris, Frank Readick, Everett Sloane, Eustace Wyatt and Erskine Sanford, all of whom would continue to work for Welles for years. Mercury Theatre was a Theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. Agnes Robertson Moorehead ( December 6 1900 – April 30 1974) was an American Actress. Joseph Cheshire Cotten ( May 15, 1905 – February 6, 1994) was an American Actor of stage and Film Ray Bidwell Collins ( December 10, 1889 – July 11, 1965)was an American actor in Film, stage, Radio George Coulouris ( October 1, 1903 – April 25, 1989) was a prominent English film and stage actor Everett Sloane (October 1 &ndashAugust 6) was an American stage film and television actor Songwriter, and Theatre director. The first Mercury Theatre production was a melodramatic and heavily edited version of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, set in a contemporary frame of fascist Italy. William Shakespeare ( baptised Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599 Cinna the Poet dies at the hands not of a mob but a secret police force. According to Norman Lloyd, who played Cinna, "it stopped the show". Norman Lloyd (born November 8, 1914) is an American veteran Actor, producer and director with a career in entertainment spanning more than The applause lasted more than 3 minutes and the production was widely acclaimed.
Welles was increasingly active on radio, as an actor and soon as a director and producer. He played Hamlet for CBS on The Columbia Workshop, adapting and directing the play himself. Hamlet is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601 CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. The CBS Radio Workshop was an experimental dramatic radio anthology series that aired on CBS from January 27 1956, until September 22 1957 The Mutual Network gave him a seven-week series to adapt Les Misérables, which he did with great success. The Mutual Broadcasting System ( MBS) was an American Radio network, in operation from 1934 to 1999 Les Misérables (pronounced /le miːzeʁabl(ə translated variously from French as The Miserable Ones, The Wretched Welles was chosen to anonymously play Lamont Cranston, The Shadow, in late 1937 (again for Mutual) and in the summer of 1938 CBS gave him (and the Mercury Theatre) a weekly hour-long show to broadcast radio plays based on classic literary works. The show was titled The Mercury Theatre on the Air, with original music by Bernard Herrmann, who would continue working with Welles on radio and in films for years. Mercury Theatre was a Theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. Bernard Herrmann ( June 29, 1911 &ndash December 24, 1975) was an American composer noted for his work in Motion pictures.
Their October 30 broadcast, H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds, brought Welles notoriety and instant fame on both a national and international level. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political The fortuitous mixture of news bulletin format with the between-breaks dial spinning habits of listeners from the rival and far more popular Edgar Bergen/Charlie McCarthy program, created widespread confusion among late tuners. Panic spread among many listeners who believed the news reports of an actual Martian invasion. The resulting panic was duly reported around the world and disparagingly mentioned by Adolf Hitler in a public speech a few months later. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately  Welles' growing fame soon drew Hollywood offers, lures which the independent-minded Welles resisted at first. However, The Mercury Theatre on the Air, which had been a "sustaining show" (without sponsorship) was picked up by Campbell Soup and renamed The Campbell Playhouse. Campbell Soup Company ( (also known as Campbell's) is a well-known American producer of Canned soups and related products The Campbell Playhouse (1938-40 was a CBS Radio drama series directed by and starring Orson Welles.
RKO Pictures president George Schaefer eventually offered Welles what is generally considered the greatest contract ever offered to an untried director: complete artistic control. George Schaefer ( November 5, 1888 &ndash August 8, 1981) was a movie producer and once the president of RKO in 1941 when Orson RKO signed Welles in a two-picture deal; including script, cast, crew, and most important, final cut, though Welles had a budget limit for his projects. With this contract in hand, Welles (and nearly the entire Mercury Theatre) moved to Hollywood. He commuted weekly to New York to maintain his The Campbell Playhouse commitment.
Welles toyed with various ideas for his first project for RKO Pictures, settling on an adaptation of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, which he worked on in great detail. Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924 was a Polish-born English novelist Heart of Darkness is a Novella written by Polish-born writer Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski) He planned to film the action with a subjective camera from the protagonist's point of view. However, the darkened international political climate created marketing restrictions across Europe. When a budget was drawn up, RKO's enthusiasm cooled, as it was greater than the previously agreed limit. The anti-fascist tenor of the story was now suddenly problematic too. RKO also declined to approve another Welles' project, The Smiler with the Knife, for similar political reasons and ostensibly because they lacked faith in Lucille Ball's ability to carry the leading lady role. Lucille Ball (August 6 1911 – April 26 1989 was an American comedienne, film television stage and radio Actress, model, film
In a sign of things to come, Welles left The Campbell Playhouse in 1940, due to creative differences with the sponsor. The show continued without him, produced by John Houseman. In perhaps another sign of things to come, Welles' first actual experience on a Hollywood film was as narrator for RKO's 1940 production of Swiss Family Robinson. For the 1960 film produced by Disney see Swiss Family Robinson (film The Swiss Family Robinson (German Der Schweizerische
Welles found a suitable film project in an idea he conceived with screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz (who was then writing radio plays for The Campbell Playhouse). Herman Jacob Mankiewicz ( November 7, 1897 - March 5, 1953) was a Hollywood screenwriter noted for writing along with Orson Initially called American, it would eventually become Welles's first feature film, Citizen Kane (1941). Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored
Mankiewicz based his original notion on an exposé of the life of William Randolph Hearst, whom he knew socially but now hated, having once been great friends with Hearst's mistress, Marion Davies. For other people named William Randolph Hearst see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation William Randolph Hearst I (April 29 1863 &ndash Marion Davies ( January 3, 1897 &ndash September 22, 1961) was an American film Actress. Mankiewicz was now banished from her company because of his perpetual drunkenness. Mankiewicz, a notorious gossip, exacted revenge with his unflatteringly depiction of Davies in Citizen Kane for which Welles got most of the criticisms; Welles also had a connection with Davies through his first wife. Kane's megalomaniac personality was also loosely modeled on Robert McCormick, Howard Hughes, and Joseph Pulitzer, as Welles wanted to create a broad, complex character, intending to show him in the same scenes from several points of view. Robert Rutherford McCormick ( July 30, 1880 &ndash April 1, 1955) was a Chicago newspaper baron and owner of the Chicago Howard Robard Hughes Jr (December 24 1905 – April 5 1976 was an American Aviator, Industrialist, Film producer / director, Philanthropist Joseph Pulitzer ( English pronunciation PULL-itser; April 10, 1847 He sought a military career but was turned down by the The use of multiple narrative perspectives in Conrad's Heart of Darkness also influenced the treatment. Supplying Mankiewicz with 300 pages of notes, Welles urged him to write the first draft of a screenplay under the watchful nursing of John Houseman, who was posted to insure Mankiewicz stayed sober. On Welles's instruction, Houseman wrote the opening narration as a pastiche of The March of Time newsreels. The March of Time was a Newsreel that was shown in movie theaters from 1935 - 1951. Taking these drafts, Welles drastically condensed and rearranged them, then added scenes of his own.
The resulting character of Charles Foster Kane is loosely based on parts of Hearst's life. Nonetheless, with perhaps sly and barely disguised malice towards their young boss, Mankiewicz and Houseman cunningly worked in autobiographical allusions to Welles himself, most noticeably in the treatment of Kane's childhood, particularly regarding his guardianship. Welles then added features from other famous American lives to create a general and mysterious personality rather than the narrow journalistic portrait intended by Mankiewicz, whose first drafts included scandalous claims about the death of the film director Thomas Ince, killed on an excursion on a Hearst yacht. Thomas Harper Ince ( November 6, 1882 – November 19, 1924) was an American Silent film Actor, director Ironically, Mankiewicz later argued, probably astutely, that if this material had been left in, Hearst would never have dared to make the public connection to his own life and would have left the film alone.
Once the script was completed. Welles attracted some of Hollywood's best technicians, including cinematographer Gregg Toland, who walked into Welles office and announced he wanted to work on the picture. Gregg Toland, ASC ( May 29, 1904 - September 26, 1948) was a highly influential American Cinematographer noted for his innovative For the cast, Welles primarily used actors from his Mercury Theatre. Grasping that films were a collaboration, he invited suggestions from everyone, but only if they were directed through him.
There was little concern over the Hearst connection when Welles completed production on the film. However, Mankiewicz handed a copy of the final shooting script to his friend, Charles Lederer, now husband of Welles' ex-wife Virginia Nicholson and nephew of Hearst's mistress Marion Davies. Charles Davies Lederer ( December 31, 1906 – March 5, 1976) was an American film writer and director Hedda Hopper saw a small ad in a newspaper for a preview screening of Citizen Kane and went. Hedda Hopper ( May 2, 1885 – February 1, 1966) was an American actress and Gossip columnist, whose Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored Hopper, realizing immediately that the film was based on features of Hearst's life, reported this back to him and threatened to give "Hollywood, Private Lives" if that was what it wanted. Thus began the struggle over the attempted suppression of Citizen Kane. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored
Hearst's media empire boycotted the film. It exerted enormous pressure on the Hollywood film community by threatening to expose 15 years of suppressed scandals and the fact that most of the studio bosses were Jewish. At one point, the heads of the major studios jointly offered RKO the cost of the film in exchange for the negative and all existing prints, for the express purpose of burning it. RKO declined, and the film was given a limited release. Meanwhile, Hearst successfully intimidated theatre chains by threatening to ban advertising for any of their other films in any of his papers if they showed Citizen Kane. RKO didn't own many theatres, so few moviehouses actually dared to screen Citizen Kane. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored
While the film was critically well-received, by the time it reached the general public the positive tide of publicity had waned. It garnered nine Academy Award nominations, but won only for Best Original Screenplay, shared by Mankiewicz and Welles. The delay in its release and its uneven distribution contributed to its average result at the box-office, making back its budget and marketing, but RKO lost any chance of a major profit. The fact that Citizen Kane ignored many Hollywood conventions also meant that the film confused and angered the 1940s cinema public. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored Exhibitor response was scathing; most theater owners complained bitterly about the adverse audience reaction and the many walkouts, and only a few saw fit to acknowledge Welles's artistic technique. RKO shelved the film and did not re-release it until 1956. During the 1950s, the film came to be seen by young French film critics such as Francois Truffaut as exemplifying the "auteur theory", in which the director is the "author" of a film. François Roland Truffaut ( February 6 1932 – October 21 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking Truffaut, Godard and others were inspired by Welles' example to make their own films, giving birth to the Nouvelle Vague. Jean-Luc Godard (French ʒɑ̃lyk gɔˈdaʀ (born on December 3 1930 is a French and Swiss Filmmaker and one of the founding members of the Nouvelle Vague "Nouvelle Vague" redirects here For the music group of the same name see Nouvelle Vague (band. In the 1960s Citizen Kane became popular on college campuses, both as a film-study exercise and as an entertainment subject. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored Its frequent revivals on television, home video, and DVD have enhanced its "classic" status, and it ultimately recouped its costs.
The 1996 documentary The Battle Over Citizen Kane chronicles the battle between Welles and Hearst. The Battle Over Citizen Kane is a 1996 documentary chronicling the clash of billionaire newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst and actor/writer/director In 1999, RKO 281, an HBO docudrama, tells the story of the making of Citizen Kane, starring Liev Schreiber as Orson Welles. RKO 281 is a 1999 Dramatic Film directed by Benjamin Ross and starring Liev Schreiber, James Cromwell, Melanie Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored Isaac Liev Schreiber (born October 4, 1967) is an American Tony Award -winning Actor.
Welles' second film for RKO was The Magnificent Ambersons, adapted from the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Booth Tarkington. The Magnificent Ambersons is a American Drama film written and directed by Orson Welles. The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, This is an article about the 1918 novel For the 1942 film adaptaton see The Magnificent Ambersons (film The Magnificent Ambersons Newton Booth Tarkington ( July 29, 1869, Indianapolis – May 19, 1946) was an American Novelist and Dramatist George Schaefer hoped to make back the money lost by Citizen Kane. Ambersons had already been adapted for The Campbell Playhouse by Welles, who wrote the screen adaptation himself. Toland was not available, so Stanley Cortez was named cinematographer. Stanley Cortez, ASC (born Stanislaus Krantz; November 4, 1908 &ndash December 23, 1997) was an American cinematographer The meticulous Cortez, however, was slow and the film lagged behind schedule and over budget.
At RKO's request, simultaneously, Welles worked on an adaptation of Eric Ambler's spy thriller, Journey Into Fear, which he co-wrote with Joseph Cotten. Eric Clifford Ambler OBE ( 28 June 1909 - 22 October 1998) was an influential English writer of Spy novels who introduced For the 1943 film adaptation see Journey into Fear (film. Journey Into Fear is a well-known 1940 spy thriller by Eric Joseph Cheshire Cotten ( May 15, 1905 – February 6, 1994) was an American Actor of stage and Film In addition to acting in the film, Welles was also producer. Direction was credited solely to Norman Foster. Norman Foster ( December 13, 1900 - July 7, 1976) was a American Film director and movie Actor. Welles later stated that they were in such a rush that the director of each scene was whoever was closest to the camera.
Welles was then offered a new radio series by CBS. Called The Orson Welles Show, it was a half-hour variety show of short stories, comedy skits, poetry and musical numbers. The Orson Welles Show was an unsold television talk show pilot. Joining the original Mercury Theatre cast was Jiminy Cricket, "on loan from Walt Disney". Jiminy Cricket is the Walt Disney version of " The Talking Cricket " ( Italian: Il Grillo Parlante) a Fictional character created by Walter Elias Disney (December 5 1901 – December 15 1966 was a multiple Academy Award -winning American Film producer, director, Screenwriter The variety format was unpopular with the listeners, and Welles was soon forced into full half-hour stories instead.
To further complicate matters during the production of Ambersons and Journey into Fear, Welles was approached by Nelson Rockefeller and Jock Whitney to produce a documentary film about South America. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller ( July 8, 1908 January 26, 1979) was the forty-first Vice President of the United States, the forty-ninth John Hay Whitney ( August 27, 1904 - February 8, 1982) colloquially known as "Jock" Whitney was U Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a This was at the behest of the federal government's Good Neighbor Policy, a wartime propaganda effort designed to prevent Latin America from allying with the Axis Powers. The "Good Neighbor" policy was the Foreign policy of the administration of United States president Franklin D The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries Welles saw his involvement as a form of national service, because his physical condition excused him from direct military service.
Expected to film the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Welles rushed to finish the editing on Ambersons and his acting scenes in Journey into Fear. Carnival is a festival season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February and March Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Ending his CBS radio show, he lashed together a rough cut of Ambersons with Robert Wise, who had edited Citizen Kane, and left for Brazil. Robert Wise ( September 10, 1914 &ndash September 14, 2005) was an American sound effects editor film editor and Academy Unfortunately, to get Ambersons made, Welles had renegotiated away his original contract for final cut.
Wise was to join him in Rio to complete the film but never arrived. Other moves were afoot at RKO. A provisional final cut arranged via phone call, telegram, and shortwave radio was previewed without Welles' approval in Pomona in a double bill, to a mostly negative audience response, in particular to the character of Aunt Fanny played by Agnes Moorehead. In Roman mythology, Pomona was the goddess of fruit trees gardens and orchards
Whereas Schaefer argued that Welles be allowed to complete his own version of the film, and that an archival copy be kept with the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, RKO was in no mood for such aesthetic niceties. The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth The City of New York
RKO studio management was in turmoil as Charles Koerner staged a management coup against Schaefer. It took control of the film, formed a committee which was ordered to remove fifty minutes of Welles' footage, re-shot sequences, rearranged the scene order, and tacked on a happy ending. Schaefer was replaced as RKO President by Koerner, who released the shortened film on the bottom of a double-bill with the Lupe Velez comedy Mexican Spitfire Sees a Ghost, thus providing the last nail in the coffin for both Welles's and Schaefer's careers. Lupe Vélez ( July 18, 1908 &ndash December 13, 1944) was a Mexican actress Ambersons was an expensive flop for RKO, though it received four Academy Award nominations including Best Picture and Best Supporting Actress for Agnes Moorehead. Agnes Robertson Moorehead ( December 6 1900 – April 30 1974) was an American Actress.
Welles' South American documentary, titled It's All True, budgeted at one million dollars with half of its budget coming from the U. It's All True was the title of an unfinished Orson Welles documentary about South America shot in 1942. S. Government upon completion, was treated scarcely better by RKO. They closed down the production, withdrew most of the crew and kicked the Mercury staff out of the studio while Welles was still in Brazil.
In It's All True, Welles recreated the journey of the jangadeiros, four poor fishermen who had made a 1500-mile journey on their open raft to petition Brazilian President Vargas about their working conditions. The four had become national folk heroes, Welles first read of their journey in Time. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Despite their leader, Jacare, dying during a filming mishap, Welles begged to be able to finish the film. He was given a limited amount of black-and-white stock and a silent camera. He completed the sequence, but RKO refused to let him complete the film. Surviving footage was released in 1993, including a rough reconstruction of the Four Men on a Raft segment. Meanwhile, RKO launched a premeditated publicity campaign against Welles, falsely claiming he had gone to Brazil without a screenplay, and that he had squandered a million dollars. Their official company slogan was pointedly changed to "Showmanship in place of Genius".
Unable to continue work as a film director after the twin disasters of The Magnificent Ambersons and It's All True, Welles worked on radio. CBS offered him two weekly series, Hello Americans, based on the research he'd done in Brazil, and Ceiling Unlimited, sponsored by Lockheed, a wartime salute to advances in aviation. The Lockheed Corporation (originally Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company was an American aerospace company founded in 1912 which merged with Martin Marietta Both featured several members of his original Mercury Theatre. Within a few months, Hello Americans was canceled and Welles was replaced as host of Ceiling Unlimited by Joseph Cotten. Welles guest-starred on a great variety of shows, notably guest-hosting Jack Benny's show for a month in 1943. Jack Benny (born Benjamin Kubelsky February 14, 1894 - December 26, 1974) was an American Comedian, vaudevillian He took an increasingly active role in American and international politics and used journalism to communicate his forceful ideas widely.
In 1943 Welles married Rita Hayworth. Rita Hayworth (October 17 1918 &ndash May 14 1987 born Margarita Carmen Cansino was a Spanish-American actress who rose to stardom in the 1940s as the era's leading Sex symbol They had one child, Rebecca Welles, and divorced five years later in 1948. Rebecca Welles ( December 17, 1944, Santa Monica California &ndash October 17, 2004, Tacoma Washington) was the In between, Welles found work as an actor in other directors' films. He starred in the 1943 film adaptation of Jane Eyre, trading credit as associate producer for top billing over Joan Fontaine. Charlotte Brontë 's novel Jane Eyre ( 1847) has been the subject of numerous television and film adaptations. Joan Fontaine (born October 22, 1917) is an Academy Award -winning British Actress in American films He also had a cameo in the 1944 wartime salute Follow the Boys, in which he performed his Mercury Wonder Show magic act and sawed Marlene Dietrich in half after Columbia Pictures head Harry Cohn refused to allow Hayworth to perform. Follow the Boys ( 1944) also known as Three Cheers for the Boys, is a Musical film made by Universal Pictures as an all-star Marlene Dietrich maɐˈleːnə ˈdiːtrɪç (December 27 &ndashMay 6) was a German -born American Actress, Singer and Entertainer }} Columbia Pictures Industries Inc is an American Film production and distribution company Harry Cohn ( July 23, 1891 &ndash February 27, 1958) was president and production director of Columbia Pictures.
In 1944 Welles was offered a new radio show, broadcast only in California. Orson Welles' Almanac was another half-hour variety show, with Mobil Oil as sponsor. Mobil Gas Station by David Shankbonejpg|thumb|Mobil gas station East Village section of New York City]] Mobil was a major American oil company After the success of his stand-in hosting on The Jack Benny Show, the focus was primarily on comedy. His hosting on Jack Benny included several self-deprecating jokes and story lines about his being a "genius" and overriding any ideas advanced by other cast members. The trade papers were not eager to accept Welles as a comedian, and Welles often complained on-air about the poor quality of the scripts. When Welles started his Mercury Wonder Show a few months later, traveling to Armed Forces camps and performing magic tricks and doing comedy, the radio show was broadcast live from the camps and the material took a decidedly wartime flavor. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces Of his original Mercury actors, only Agnes Moorehead was left. The series was cancelled by year's end due to poor ratings.
While his suitability as a film director remained in question, Welles' popularity as an actor continued. Pabst Blue Ribbon gave Welles their radio series This Is My Best to direct, but after one month he was fired for creative differences. Pabst Brewing Company is an American company founded in 1844 by Jacob Best He started writing a political column for the New York Post, again called Orson Welles Almanac. The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually While the paper wanted Welles to write about Hollywood gossip, Welles explored serious political issues. His activism for world peace took considerable amounts of his time. The Post column eventually failed in syndication because of contradictory expectations and was dropped by the Post.
In 1946, International Pictures released Welles' film The Stranger, starring Edward G. Robinson, Loretta Young and Welles. The Stranger is a 1946 Film noir /drama starring Orson Welles, Edward G Edward Goldenberg Robinson Sr (born Emanuel Goldenberg; Yiddish: עמנואל גאלדנבערג December 12 1893 &ndash January Loretta Young ( January 6, 1913 &ndash August 12, 2000) was an American actress Sam Spiegel produced the film, which follows the hunt for a Nazi war criminal living under an alias in America. For contemporary French actor Sam Spiegel see Sam Spiegel ( Sam Herve Spiegel) french actor Sam Spiegel ( 11 November 1901 – Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German While Anthony Veiller was credited with the screenplay, it had been rewritten by Welles and John Huston. John Marcellus Huston ( August 5 1906 &ndash August 28 1987) was an American Film director and Actor. Welles' most imaginative work on the film was cut out by Spiegel, and the result apart from some bravura sequences on the clock tower or evoking the small town atmosphere, was a comparatively conventional Hollywood thriller. It was successful at the box office but Welles resolved not to have a career as a cog in a Hollywood studio. He resumed his struggle for the creative control which had originally brought him to Hollywood.
In the summer of 1946, Welles directed a musical stage version of Around the World in Eighty Days, with a comedic and ironic rewriting of the Jules Verne novel by Welles, incidental music and songs by Cole Porter, and production by Mike Todd, who would later produce the successful film version with David Niven. Around the World in Eighty Days (Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours is a classic Adventure novel by the French writer Jules Verne, first Jules Gabriel Verne ( February 8 1828 &ndash March 24 1905) was a French Author who pioneered the science-fiction Cole Albert Porter (June 9 1891 &ndash October 15 1964 was an American Composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. Michael Todd ( June 22, 1907 or 1909 or June 19, 1911 &ndash March 22, 1958) was an American theatre and James David Graham Niven (1 March 1910 – 29 July 1983 was an English Academy Award -winning Actor probably best known for his role as the punctuality-obsessed When Todd pulled out from the lavish and expensive production, Welles supported the finances himself. When he ran out of money at one point, he convinced Columbia president Harry Cohn to send him enough to continue the show, and in exchange Welles promised to write, produce, direct and star in a film for Cohn for no further fee. Harry Cohn ( July 23, 1891 &ndash February 27, 1958) was president and production director of Columbia Pictures. The stage show would soon fail due to poor box-office, with Welles unable to claim the losses on his taxes. He wound up owing the IRS several hundred thousand dollars, and in a few years time Welles would seek tax-shelter in Europe.
At the same time in 1946 he began two new radio series, The Mercury Summer Theatre for CBS and Orson Welles Commentaries for ABC. While Summer Theatre featured half-hour adaptations of some of the classic Mercury radio shows from the 1930s, the first episode was a condensation of his Around the World stage play, and remains the only record of Cole Porter's music for the project. Cole Albert Porter (June 9 1891 &ndash October 15 1964 was an American Composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. Several original Mercury actors returned for the series, as well as Bernard Herrmann. It was only scheduled for the summer months, and Welles invested his earnings into his failing stage play. Commentaries was a political soap-box, continuing the themes from his New York Post column. Again Welles lacked a clear focus, until the NAACP brought to his attention the case of Isaac Woodard. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations Isaac Woodard Jr, often written Isaac Woodward, ( March 18, 1919 - September 23, Welles devoted the rest of the run of the series to Woodard's cause, was the first broadcaster to bring it to national attention, and caused shock waves across the nation. Soon Welles was being hung in effigy in the South and The Stranger was banned in several southern states. ABC was unable to find a sponsor for the radio show and soon canceled it. Welles never had a regular radio show in America again and would never direct another anywhere.
The film for Cohn wound up being The Lady from Shanghai, filmed in 1947 for Columbia Pictures. The Lady from Shanghai is a 1948 Black-and-white Film noir directed by Orson Welles and starring Welles his then-estranged }} Columbia Pictures Industries Inc is an American Film production and distribution company Intended to be a modest thriller, the budget skyrocketed after Cohn suggested that Welles' then-estranged second wife Rita Hayworth co-star. Rita Hayworth (October 17 1918 &ndash May 14 1987 born Margarita Carmen Cansino was a Spanish-American actress who rose to stardom in the 1940s as the era's leading Sex symbol Cohn was enraged by Welles' rough-cut, in particular the confusing plot and lack of close-ups, and ordered extensive editing and re-shoots. After heavy editing by the studio, approximately one hour of Welles' first cut had been removed. While expressing dismay at the cuts, Welles was particularly appalled by the soundtrack, objecting to the musical score he thought more suitable for a Disney cartoon and the lack of the ambient soundscape he had designed. The film was considered a disaster in America at the time of release. Welles recalled people refusing to speak to him about it to save him embarrassment. Not long after release, Welles and Hayworth finalized their divorce. Though the film was acclaimed in Europe, it was not embraced in the US for several decades. A similar situation occurred when Welles suggested to Charles Chaplin that he star in a film directed by Welles based on the life of the French serial killer, Henri Désiré Landru. A serial killer is a person who Murders usually three or more people with a "cooling off" period between each murder and whose motivation for killing is largely based Henri Désiré Landru ( April 12, 1869 &ndash February 25 1922) was a notorious French Serial killer and real-life Chaplin instead adapted the idea for his own film, Monsieur Verdoux, with Welles officially credited for the idea. Monsieur Verdoux is a 1947 Black comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. The film proved a failure opening during a time when Chaplin was publicly vilified, but since has gone on to be acclaimed as a classic black comedy. Black comedy, also known as black humor or dark comedy, is a sub-genre of Comedy and Satire where topics and events that are usually regarded
Unable to find work as a director at any of the major studios, in 1948 Welles convinced Republic Pictures to let him direct a low-budget version of Macbeth, which featured papier mâché sets, cardboard crowns and a cast of actors lip-syncing to a prerecorded soundtrack. Republic Pictures (also known as Republic Entertainment Inc) is an independent film television and video distribution company that was originally a movie production-distribution Macbeth is a 1948 film adaptation of William Shakespeare 's Tragedy Macbeth made by Orson Welles. Papier-mâché ( French for 'chewed-up paper' because of its appearance sometimes called paper-mâché, is a construction material that consists of pieces of Republic did not care for the Scottish accents on the soundtrack and held up release for almost a year. Welles left for Europe, while his co-producer and life-long supporter Richard Wilson reworked the soundtrack. There have been many people named Richard Wilson, including Dick Wilson (born 1916 American actor known for the sitcom Bewitched and Charmin commercial Welles ultimately returned and cut twenty minutes from the film at Republic's request and recorded narration to cover the gaps. The film was decried as another disaster. In the late 1970s, Macbeth was restored to Welles' original version.
During this time, Welles sought to adapt the radio and serial series The Shadow to the big screen. He aimed to direct, produce, write and star in the film, but the project collapsed when he failed to find any investors. The Mark Millar article detailing Welles' attempt at a Batman film is partially inspired by this.
Welles left Hollywood for Europe in late 1947, enigmatically saying he had chosen "freedom". This must refer to both acting offers and the possibility of directing and producing films again. There is now compelling evidence that Welles was blacklisted in Hollywood, after years of propaganda by the Hearst empire labeling him a communist and years of FBI investigations prompted by J. Edgar Hoover. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Postnominal initials
In Italy he starred as Cagliostro in the 1948 film Black Magic. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Count Alessandro di Cagliostro ( 2 June, 1743 – 26 August, 1795) was the alias for the Occultist Giuseppe Balsamo Black magic or dark magic is a form of sorcery that draws on malevolent powers His co-star, Akim Tamiroff, impressed Welles so much that he appeared in four of Welles' own productions during the 1950s and 1960s. Akim Tamiroff ( October 29, 1899, Tiflis (now Tbilisi Georgia - September 17, 1972, Palm Springs California
The following year, Welles appeared as Harry Lime in The Third Man, written by Graham Greene, directed by Carol Reed, starring Mercury Theatre alumnus Joseph Cotten, and with a memorable zither score by Anton Karas. The Third Man ( is an award-winning British Film noir directed by Carol Reed and starring Joseph Cotten, Alida Valli, The Third Man ( is an award-winning British Film noir directed by Carol Reed and starring Joseph Cotten, Alida Valli, Henry Graham Greene OM, CH (2 October 1904 &ndash 3 April 1991 was an English writer best known as a novelist but who also produced Short stories For the New York weathercaster see Carol Reed (weather broadcaster. Joseph Cheshire Cotten ( May 15, 1905 – February 6, 1994) was an American Actor of stage and Film The zither is a musical String instrument, most commonly found in Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, the southern regions of Germany, alpine Anton Karas ( July 7 1906 &ndash January 10 1985) was a Viennese Zither player best known for his Soundtrack The film was an international smash hit, but Welles unfortunately turned down a percentage of the gross in exchange for a lump-sum advance. A few years later British radio producer Harry Alan Towers would resurrect the Lime character for radio in the series The Lives of Harry Lime. Harry Alan Towers (born in London on October 19, 1920) is a Radio and Film producer and Screenwriter, who has produced The Lives of Harry Lime (original British title The Adventures of Harry Lime) was an Old-time radio program produced in London, The 1951 series included new recordings by Karas, was very successful, and ran for 52 weeks. Welles claimed to write a handful of episodes – a claim disputed by Towers, who maintains they were written by Ernest Borneman – which would later serve as the basis for the screenplay of Welles' Mr. Arkadin (1955). Ernst Wilhelm Julius Bornemann ( April 12, 1915 &ndash June 4, 1995) was a German Crime writer, filmmaker Anthropologist Mr Arkadin is a French-Spanish-Swiss coproduction film written and directed by Orson Welles.
Welles also appeared as Cesare Borgia in the 1949 Italian film Prince of Foxes, with Tyrone Power and Mercury Theatre alumnus Everett Sloane, and as the Mongol warrior Bayan in the 1950 film version of the novel The Black Rose (again with Tyrone Power). ( September 13, 1475 &ndash March 12, 1507) Duke of Valentinois, and Romagna, Prince of Andria and Venafro Prince of Foxes is a 1949 Film based on the Samuel Shellabarger novel Prince of Foxes. Tyrone Edmund Power Jr (May 5 1914 – November 15 1958 usually credited simply as Tyrone Power and known sometimes as " Ty Power " was an Everett Sloane (October 1 &ndashAugust 6) was an American stage film and television actor Songwriter, and Theatre director. The Black Rose is a 1950 20th Century-Fox film starring Tyrone Power and Orson Welles, loosely based on the Thomas B During this time, Welles was channeling his money from acting jobs into a self-financed film version of Shakespeare's play Othello. William Shakespeare ( baptised
From 1949 to 1951, Welles worked on Othello, filming on location in Europe and Morocco. Othello is a 1952 Drama film based on the Shakespearean play, made by Mercury Productions Inc Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The film featured Welles' old friends Micheál MacLiammóir as Iago and Hilton Edwards as Desdemona's father Brabantio. Micheál MacLíammóir (born Alfred Willmore) ( October 25, 1899 &ndash March 6, 1978) was an Irish Actor, Iago is a Fictional character in William Shakespeare 's play Othello. Hilton Edwards ( February 2, 1903 &ndash November 18, 1982) was an Irish Actor and theatrical producer Desdemona is a fictional character in the tragedy Othello the Moor of Venice (1604 by William Shakespeare. Suzanne Cloutier starred as Desdemona and Campbell Playhouse alumnus Robert Coote appeared as Iago's associate Roderigo. Suzanne Cloutier ( July 10 1927 &ndash December 2 2003) was a Canadian film actress The Campbell Playhouse (1938-40 was a CBS Radio drama series directed by and starring Orson Welles. Robert Coote (born February 4, 1909, London; died November 26, 1982, New York City) was an English actor
Filming was suspended several times as Welles ran out of funds and left to find other acting jobs, accounted in detail in MacLiammóir's published memoir Put Money in Thy Purse. When it premiered at the Cannes Film Festival it won the Palme d'Or, but was not given a general release in the United States until 1955 (by which time Welles had re-cut the first reel and re-dubbed most of the film, removing Cloutier's voice entirely), and it played only in New York and Los Angeles. The Cannes Film Festival (le Festival de Cannes founded in 1946 is one of the world's oldest most influential and prestigious Film festivals alongside Venice, The Palme d'Or ( English: Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded to competing films at the Cannes Film Festival. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The American release prints had a technically flawed soundtrack, suffering from a complete drop-out of sound at every quiet moment, and it was one of these flawed prints that was restored by Welles's daughter, Beatrice Welles-Smith in 1992 for a wide re-release. The restoration included reconstructing Angelo Francesco Lavagnino's original musical score (which was inaudible) and adding ambient stereo sound effects (which weren't in the original film). Angelo Francesco Lavagnino ( February 22, 1909 - August 21, 1987) was an Italian Composer. Though still active in Italy, Lavagnino was not consulted. The subject of great controversy among film scholars, the restoration went on to a successful theatrical run in America. A print of the US version was released on laser-disc in 1995 and soon withdrawn after a legal challenge by Beatrice Welles-Smith. The original Cannes version has survived but is not commercially available.
In 1952 Welles continued finding work in England, after the success of the Harry Lime radio show. Harry Alan Towers offered Welles another series, The Black Museum, with Welles as host and narrator, and this would also run 52 weeks. The Black Museum was a 1951 radio crime drama program produced by Harry Alan Towers for the BBC and based on real-life cases from the files of Scotland Director Herbert Wilcox offered him the part of the murdered victim in Trent's Last Case, based on the novel by E. C. Bentley. Trent's Last Case is a detective novel written by E C Bentley and first published in 1913. E C Bentley ( July 10, 1875 &ndash March 30, 1956) was a popular English novelist and humorist of the early twentieth century And in 1953 the BBC hired Welles to read an hour of selections from Walt Whitman's epic poem Song of Myself. Walter Whitman (May 31 1819 &ndash March 26 1892 was an American poet, Essayist journalist, and humanist. "Song of Myself" is an epic poem by Walt Whitman that is included in his work Leaves of Grass. Towers hired Welles again, to play Professor Moriarty in the radio series The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring John Gielgud, and Ralph Richardson. Professor James Moriarty is a Fictional character who is the best known Antagonist (and Nemesis) of the detective Sherlock Holmes. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes is a collection of twelve stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, featuring his famous detective and illustrated by Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH ( 14 April, 1904 – 21 May 2000) known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Sir Ralph David Richardson ( 19 December 1902 &ndash 10 October 1983) was an English Actor, one of a group of theatrical
Late in 1953, Welles returned to America to star in a live CBS Omnibus television presentation of Shakespeare's King Lear. Omnibus was an American commercially-sponsored educational TV series broadcast live primarily on Sunday afternoons at 400 pm Eastern time from November William Shakespeare ( baptised King Lear is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1603 and 1606 and is considered one of his greatest works The cast included MacLiammóir and the British actor Alan Badel. Alan Badel ( 11 September 1923 &ndash 19 March 1982) was a distinguished English stage Actor who also appeared frequently While Welles received good notices, he was guarded by IRS agents, prohibited to leave his hotel room when not at the studio, prevented from making any purchases, and the entire sum (less expenses) he earned went to his tax bill. Welles returned to England after the broadcast.
In 1954, director George More O'Ferrall offered Welles the title role in the 'Lord Mountdrago' segment of Three Cases of Murder, co-starring Badel. Three Cases of Murder ( 1955) is a film starring Orson Welles. Herbert Wilcox cast him as the antagonist in Trouble in Glen opposite Margaret Lockwood, Forrest Tucker and Victor McLaglen. Herbert Sydney Wilcox ( 19 April 1892, – 15 May 1977) was a British Film producer and director. Margaret Lockwood, CBE ( 15 September, 1916 - 15 July, 1990) was a British Actress, notable for her performance Forrest Tucker ( February 12, 1919 - October 25, 1986) was an American Actor in both movies and Television Victor Andrew de Bier Everleigh McLaglen ( December 10, 1886 - November 7, 1959) was an Academy Award winning English Old friend John Huston cast him as Father Mapple in his film adaptation of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, starring Gregory Peck. John Marcellus Huston ( August 5 1906 &ndash August 28 1987) was an American Film director and Actor. Herman Melville (August 1 1819 &ndash September 28 1891 was an American novelist Short story writer Essayist and poet Moby-Dick is an 1851 Novel by Herman Melville. The story tells the adventures of the wandering sailor Ishmael and his voyage on the whaleship Gregory Peck (April 5 1916 &ndash June 12 2003 was an Academy Award -winning and four-time Golden Globe Award-winning American Film
Welles' next turn as director was the film Mr. Arkadin (1955), produced by Louis Dolivet Welles' political mentor from the 1940s. Mr Arkadin is a French-Spanish-Swiss coproduction film written and directed by Orson Welles. It was filmed in France, Germany, Spain and Italy. Based on several episodes of the Harry Lime radio show, it stars Welles as a paranoid billionaire who hires a petty smuggler to delve into the secrets of his seedy past. Welles' absurd and obvious makeup has been the subject of much derision, but it may have been the intent to show a character who was in disguise and hiding his true identity. The film stars Robert Arden, who had worked on the Harry Lime series, Welles' third wife, Paola Mori, whose voice was completely dubbed by actress Billie Whitelaw, and guest stars including Akim Tamiroff, Michael Redgrave, Katina Paxinou, and Mischa Auer. Robert Arden ( 11 December 1922 - 25 March 2004) was a London-born film and television actor who worked mostly in the US and UK Billie Whitelaw, CBE (born June 6, 1932) is a distinguished English actress of both stage and film Akim Tamiroff ( October 29, 1899, Tiflis (now Tbilisi Georgia - September 17, 1972, Palm Springs California Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave CBE ( 20 March, 1908 — 21 March, 1985) was an English actor author director and Katina Paxinou ( 17 December, 1900 - 22 February, 1973) was an Academy Award - and Golden Globe -winning Greek Mischa Auer ( 17 November 1905, St Petersburg, Russia &ndash 5 March 1967, Rome) was a Russian Frustrated by Welles' slow progress in the editing room, producer Dolivet removed Welles from the project and finished the film without him. Eventually five different versions of the film would be released, two in Spanish and three in English. The version which Dolivet completed was retitled Confidential Report and was the version furthest from Welles's original intention. In 2005 Stefan Droessler of the Munich Filmmuseum oversaw a reconstruction of what might have been Welles' original intention. It was released by the Criterion Company on DVD and is considered by Welles scholar and director Peter Bogdanovich to be the best version available. Peter Bogdanovich ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петар Богдановић Latin: Petar Bogdanović (born July 30, 1939, is an American
Also in 1955 Welles directed two television series for the BBC. The first was Orson Welles' Sketchbook, a series of six 15-minute shows featuring Welles drawing in a sketchbook to illustrate his reminiscences for the camera (including such topics as the filming of It's All True and the Isaac Woodard case), and the second was Around the World with Orson Welles, a series of six travelogues set in different locations around Europe (such as Venice, the Basque Country between France and Spain, and England). Around The World With Orson Welles was a series of six short travelogues originally written and directed by Orson Welles for Associated-Rediffusion Welles served as host and interviewer, his commentary including documentary facts and his own personal observations (a technique he would continue to explore). A seventh episode of this series, based on the Gaston Dominici case, was suppressed at the time by the French government, but was reconstructed after Welles's death and released to video in 1999.
In 1956 Welles completed Portrait of Gina, posthumously aired on German television under the title Viva Italia, a 30-minute personal essay on Gina Lollobrigida and the general subject of Italian sex symbols. Portrait of Gina, or Viva Italia is a 1958 Documentary film by Gina Lollobrigida (born July 4, 1927 in Subiaco Italy) is a Golden Globe Award -winning Italian Actress and Photojournalist Dissatisfied with the results - Welles recalled he had worked on it a lot and the result looked like it - he left the only print behind at the Hotel Ritz in Paris. The Ritz Hotel London is a 133-room Hotel located in Piccadilly and overlooking Green Park in London. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The film cans would remain in a lost and found locker at the hotel for several decades, where they were rediscovered after Welles' death.
In 1956, Welles returned to Hollywood, guesting on radio shows (notably as narrator of Tomorrow, a nuclear holocaust drama produced by the Federal Civil Defense Administration). The " Federal Civil Defense Administration " (FCDA was organized by democratic president Harry S He guest starred on television shows, including I Love Lucy and began filming a projected pilot for Desilu, owned by his former protégé Lucille Ball and her husband Desi Arnaz, who had recently purchased the former studios of the now bankrupt RKO. I Love Lucy is an American Situation comedy, starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance and William Frawley Desilu Productions was a Los Angeles California based company jointly owned by American actors Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. Lucille Ball (August 6 1911 – April 26 1989 was an American comedienne, film television stage and radio Actress, model, film Desi Arnaz (born Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III) ( March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986) was a Cuban American The film was The Fountain of Youth, based on a story by John Collier. John Collier ( May 3, 1901 - April 6, 1980) was a British-born author and screenplay writer best known for his short stories, many Originally deemed not viable as a pilot, the film wasn't aired until 1958. It won the Peabody Award for excellence. The George Foster Peabody Awards, better known as simply the Peabody Awards, are annual international awards for excellence in Radio and Television broadcasting Welles' next feature film role was in Man in the Shadow for Universal Pictures in 1957, starring Jeff Chandler. Man in the Shadow is a 1957 thriller starring Jeff Chandler, Orson Welles, Colleen Miller, Ben Alexander Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American Jeff Chandler may refer to Jeff Chandler (actor Jeff Chandler (boxer Jeff Chandler (kicker
Welles stayed on at Universal to co-star with Charlton Heston in the 1958 film Touch of Evil, based on Whit Masterson's novel Badge of Evil (Welles claimed never to have read it). Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter; October 4 1923 &ndash April 5 2008) was an American Actor of Touch of Evil ( 1958) is a black-and-white American film written directed and co-starring Orson Welles. Whit Masterson is a Pen name for a partnership of two authors Robert Allison “Bob” Wade (1920-present and H Badge of Evil is a Novel written by Whit Masterson (actually the pseudonym of authors Robert Allison “Bob” Wade 1920-present and H Originally only hired as an actor, Welles was promoted to director by Universal Studios at the suggestion (and insistence) of Charlton Heston. Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter; October 4 1923 &ndash April 5 2008) was an American Actor of Reuniting many actors and technicians with whom he'd worked in Hollywood in the 1940s (including cameraman Russell Metty [The Stranger], make-up artist Maurice Siederman (Citizen Kane), and actors Joseph Cotten, Marlene Dietrich, and Akim Tamiroff), filming proceeded smoothly, with Welles finishing on schedule and on budget, and the studio bosses praising the daily rushes. Russell Metty, ASC ( September 20, 1906 – April 28, 1978) was an American Cinematographer, who worked on many films during the Joseph Cheshire Cotten ( May 15, 1905 – February 6, 1994) was an American Actor of stage and Film Marlene Dietrich maɐˈleːnə ˈdiːtrɪç (December 27 &ndashMay 6) was a German -born American Actress, Singer and Entertainer Out of the blue, the studio wrested Touch of Evil from Welles' hands, re-edited it, re-shot scenes, and shot new exposition scenes to clarify the plot. Touch of Evil ( 1958) is a black-and-white American film written directed and co-starring Orson Welles. Despite the trauma of having the film ripped from his creative control for no ostensible reason, Welles wrote a 58-page memo outlining suggestions and objections. The studio followed a few of the ideas, but cut another 30 minutes from the film and released it. Even in this state, the film was widely praised across Europe, awarded the top prize at the Brussels World's Fair. Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World’s Fair, Brusselse Wereldtentoonstelling or Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles, was held from
In 1978, the long preview version of the film was rediscovered and released. In 1998, editor Walter Murch and producer Rick Schmidlin, consulting the original memo, used a workprint version to attempt to restore the film as close as possible to the memo. Walter Scott Murch (born July 12, 1943) is an Academy Award &ndashwinning Film editor / sound designer, the son of painter Rick Schmidlin (b 1954 Paterson New Jersey) is an American producer / director / Silent film scholar whose work has focused on restorations This is at best a compromise that should not be mistaken for Welles' original intent. Welles stated in that memo that the film was no longer his version — it was the studio's, but as such, he was still prepared to help them with it.
As Universal reworked Touch of Evil, Welles began filming his adaptation of Miguel Cervantes' novel Don Quixote in Mexico, starring Mischa Auer as Quixote and Akim Tamiroff as Sancho Panza. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Mischa Auer ( 17 November 1905, St Petersburg, Russia &ndash 5 March 1967, Rome) was a Russian Sancho Panza is a Fictional character in the novel Don Quixote written by Spanish author Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in While filming would continue in fits and starts for several years, Welles would never complete the project.
Welles continued acting, notably in The Long, Hot Summer (1958) and Compulsion (1959), but soon returned to Europe. Compulsion, directed by Richard Fleischer, was a film made in 1959, based on the 1956 novel Compulsion by Meyer Levin, which in turn
He continued shooting Don Quixote in Spain, but replaced Mischa Auer with Francisco Reiguera, and resumed acting jobs.
In Italy in 1959, Welles directed his own scenes as King Saul in Richard Pottier's film David and Goliath. Saul (שאול המלך (or Sha'ul) ( Arabic: طالوت,Tālūt ( (reigned 1047 - 1007 BCE is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles In Hong Kong he co-starred with Curt Jurgens in Lewis Gilbert's film Ferry to Hong Kong. Curd Gustav Andreas Gottlieb Franz Jürgens (December 13 1915&thinsp&ndash&thinspJune 18 1982 was a German - Austrian !-- In 1945 Jürgens took Austrian citizenship Lewis Gilbert CBE (born March 6, 1920) is an English Film director, producer and Screenwriter, born in Ferry To Hong Kong ( 1959) is a male melodrama/adventure movie directed by Lewis Gilbert and starring Curt Jurgens, Sylvia Syms
In 1960 in Paris he co-starred in Richard Fleischer's film Crack in the Mirror. Richard O Fleischer ( December 8, 1916 – March 25, 2006) was an American Film director. In Yugoslavia he starred in Richard Thorpe's film The Tartars. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian For the historian and biographer see D R Thorpe. Richard Thorpe ( February 24, 1896 - May 1, 1991 He also staged a play at the Gate Theatre in Dublin which compressed five of Shakespeare's history plays in order to focus on the story of Falstaff. The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatre 's Peacock studio Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. William Shakespeare ( baptised Sir John Falstaff is a Fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal the future King Henry V. Keith Baxter played Prince Hal and Welles called his adaptation Chimes at Midnight. Keith Baxter may refer to Keith Baxter (actor (born 1933 Welsh actor Keith Baxter (drummer (1971-2008 British musician Chimes at Midnight (aka Falstaff) is a 1965 film directed by Orson Welles based around the character of Sir John Falstaff
By this time he had completed filming on Quixote. Though he would continue toying with the editing well into the 1970s, he never completed the film. On the scenes he did complete, Welles voiced all the actors and provided the narration. In 1992 a version of the film was completed by director Jess Franco, though not all the footage Welles shot was available to him. Jesús (or Jess) Franco (born May 12, 1930 as Jesús Franco Manera) is a Spanish Film director, writer What was available had decayed badly. While the Welles footage was greeted with interest, the post-production by Franco was met with harsh criticism.
In 1961 Welles directed In the Land of Don Quixote, a series of eight half-hour episodes for the Italian television network RAI. Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana, known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian public service broadcaster, and is considered Similar to the Around the World with Orson Welles series, they presented travelogues of Spain and included Welles' wife, Paola, and their daughter, Beatrice. Though Welles was fluent in Italian, the network was not interested in him providing Italian narration because of his accent, and the series sat unreleased until 1964, by which time the network had added Italian narration of its own. Ultimately, the episodes were restored with the original musical score Welles had approved, but without the narration.
In 1962 Welles directed his adaptation of The Trial, based on the novel by Franz Kafka and produced by Alexander Salkind and Michael Salkind. The Trial (also known as Le Procès) is a 1962 film directed by Orson Welles, who also wrote the screenplay based on the Alexander Salkind (June 2 1921 – March 8 1997 was the second of three generations of successful international Film producers Biography Born in Gdańsk The cast included Anthony Perkins as Josef K, Jeanne Moreau, Romy Schneider, Paola Mori and Akim Tamiroff. Anthony Perkins ( April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award -nominated Golden Globe -winning American Jeanne Moreau (French ʒan mɔˈʁo born 23 January, 1928) is a BAFTA Awards -winning French Actress, Screenwriter Romy Schneider (September 23 1938–May 29 1982 was an Austrian actress. While filming exteriors in Zagreb, Welles was informed that the Salkinds had run out of money, meaning that there could be no set construction. Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. No stranger to shooting on found locations, Welles soon filmed the interiors in the Gare d'Orsay, at that time an abandoned railway station in Paris. Gare d'Orsay is a former Parisian Railway station and hotel built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard Welles thought the location possessed a "Jules Verne modernism" and a melancholy sense of "waiting", both suitable for Kafka. Jules Gabriel Verne ( February 8 1828 &ndash March 24 1905) was a French Author who pioneered the science-fiction The film failed at the box-office. Peter Bogdanovich would later observe that Welles found the film riotously funny. Peter Bogdanovich ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петар Богдановић Latin: Petar Bogdanović (born July 30, 1939, is an American During the filming, Welles met Oja Kodar, who would later become his muse, star and partner for the last twenty years of his life. Oja Kodar (born Olga Palinkaš in 1941 in Zagreb, Croatia) is a Croatian actress screenwriter
Welles plays a film director in La Ricotta - Pier Paolo Pasolini's segment of the Ro.Go.Pa.G. movie. This was a short film written and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini in 1962 and was part of the omnibus film RoGoPaG (AKA Ro Pier Paolo Pasolini ( March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian Poet, Intellectual, Film director Ro GoPa G (also known as "RoGoPaG" is a 1963 Film, which consists of four segments each written and directed by one of the four film
Welles continued taking what work he could find acting, narrating or hosting other people's work, and began filming Chimes at Midnight, which was completed in 1966. Chimes at Midnight (aka Falstaff) is a 1965 film directed by Orson Welles based around the character of Sir John Falstaff Filmed in Spain, it was a condensation of five Shakespeare plays, telling the story of Falstaff and his relationship with Prince Hal. William Shakespeare ( baptised Sir John Falstaff is a Fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal the future King Henry V. The cast included Keith Baxter, John Gielgud, Jeanne Moreau, Fernando Rey and Margaret Rutherford, with narration by Ralph Richardson. Keith Baxter may refer to Keith Baxter (actor (born 1933 Welsh actor Keith Baxter (drummer (1971-2008 British musician Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH ( 14 April, 1904 – 21 May 2000) known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Jeanne Moreau (French ʒan mɔˈʁo born 23 January, 1928) is a BAFTA Awards -winning French Actress, Screenwriter Fernando Casado D'Arambillet, better known as Fernando Rey ( September 20, 1917  &ndash March 9, 1994) was a Spanish Dame Margaret Rutherford DBE ( May 11, 1892 &ndash May 22, 1972) was an Academy Award -winning English Sir Ralph David Richardson ( 19 December 1902 &ndash 10 October 1983) was an English Actor, one of a group of theatrical Music was again by Angelo Francesco Lavagnino. Angelo Francesco Lavagnino ( February 22, 1909 - August 21, 1987) was an Italian Composer. Jess Franco served as second unit director.
In 1966, Welles directed a film for French television, an adaptation of The Immortal Story, by Isak Dinesen. The Immortal Story ( French: Une histoire immortelle) is a 1968 French film directed by Orson Welles and starring Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke ( April 17, 1885 &ndash September 7, 1962) Née Karen Dinesen, was a Released in 1968, it stars Jeanne Moreau, Roger Coggio and Norman Eshley. Norman Eshley (born 30 May 1945 in Bristol) is an English Actor best known for his roles on Television. The film had a successful run in French theaters. At this time Welles met Kodar again, and gave her a letter he had written to her and had been keeping for four years; they would not be parted again. They immediately began a collaboration both personal and professional. The first of these was an adaptation of Isak Dinesen's The Heroine, meant to be a companion piece to The Immortal Story and starring Kodar. Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke ( April 17, 1885 &ndash September 7, 1962) Née Karen Dinesen, was a Unfortunately, funding disappeared after one day's shooting. After completing this film, he appeared in a brief cameo as Cardinal Wolsey in Fred Zinnemann's adaptation of A Man for All Seasons - a role for which he won considerable acclaim. Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (c1470–1471 – November 28 or November 29 1530 who was born in Ipswich Suffolk England was an English Statesman and a cardinal Fred Zinnemann ( April 29, 1907 &ndash March 14, 1997) was an Academy Award -winning Austrian American A Man for All Seasons is a 1966 film based on Robert Bolt 's play of the same name about Sir Thomas More.
In 1967 Welles began directing The Deep, based on the novel Dead Calm by Charles F. DEEP is a Japanese Mixed martial arts promotion which specializes in the lighter weight classes Dead Calm is a 1963 novel by Charles F Williams, which was the basis for the unreleased film The Deep (by Orson Welles) and the Williams and filmed off the shore of Yugoslavia. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian The cast included Jeanne Moreau, Laurence Harvey and Kodar. Laurence Harvey ( October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award -nominated Lithuanian born actor who achieved Personally financed by Welles and Kodar, they could not obtain the funds to complete the project, and it was abandoned a few years later after the death of Harvey. The surviving footage was eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München.
In 1968 Welles began filming a TV special for CBS under the title Orson's Bag, combining travelogue, comedy skits and a condensation of Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice with Welles as Shylock. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598 Shylock is a central character in Shakespeare 's The Merchant of Venice who famously demanded a pound of flesh from the title character Funding for the show sent by CBS to Welles in Switzerland was seized by the IRS, reputedly due to the anger of Richard Nixon over a record Welles had not written but had narrated, the political satire The Begatting of the President. Without funding, the show was not completed. The surviving portions were eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München.
In 1969, Welles authorised the use of his name for a cinema in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. The Orson Welles Cinema remained in operation until 1986, with Welles making a personal appearance there in 1977. The Orson Welles Cinema was a Movie theater at 1001 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge Massachusetts that operated from 1969 to 1986
Drawn by the numerous offers he received to work in television and films, and upset by a tabloid scandal reporting his affair with Kodar, Welles abandoned the editing of Don Quixote and moved back to America in 1970.
Welles returned to Hollywood, where he continued to self-finance his own film and television projects. While offers to act, narrate and host continued, Welles also found himself in great demand on talk shows, and made frequent appearances for Dick Cavett, Johnny Carson, Dean Martin, and Merv Griffin. Richard Alva "Dick" Cavett (born November 19, 1936) is an American former Television Talk show host known for his conversational John William “Johnny” Carson ( October 23, 1925 &ndash January 23, 2005) was an American Television host and Dean Martin (born Dino Paul Crocetti; June 7 1917 &ndash December 25 1995 was an American Singer, Film Actor, television personality Mervyn Edward "Merv" Griffin Jr ( July 6, 1925 &ndash August 12, 2007) was an American Television host and Welles's primary focus in this period was filming The Other Side of the Wind, a project that took six years to film but has remained unfinished and unreleased. The Other Side of the Wind is an unreleased 1975 film directed by Orson Welles and starring John Huston, Peter Bogdanovich, An early role was portraying Louis XVIII of France in Waterloo (1970). Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824 Louis Stanislas Xavier de France, was a King of France and Navarre. Waterloo was a Soviet - Italian film of 1970 directed by Sergei Bondarchuk and produced by Dino De Laurentiis.
In 1971 Welles directed a short adaptation of Moby-Dick, a one-man performance on a bare stage, reminiscent of his stage production Moby Dick Rehearsed from the 1950s. Moby-Dick is an 1851 Novel by Herman Melville. The story tells the adventures of the wandering sailor Ishmael and his voyage on the whaleship Moby Dick Rehearsed is the title of a play written and directed by Orson Welles. Never completed, it was eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München. He also appeared in La Décade prodigieuse, co-starring with Anthony Perkins and directed by Claude Chabrol, based on a detective novel by Ellery Queen. Anthony Perkins ( April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award -nominated Golden Globe -winning American Claude Chabrol (klod ʃaˈbʁɔl in French (born 24 June 1930 Paris) is a French film director and has become well-known since his first film Ellery Queen is both a Fictional character and a Pseudonym used by two American cousins from Brooklyn, New York: Daniel (David Nathan
In 1971 the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences gave him an honorary award "For superlative artistry and versatility in the creation of motion pictures". The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences ( AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization ostensibly dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of Motion Welles pretended to be out of town and sent John Huston to claim the award. John Marcellus Huston ( August 5 1906 &ndash August 28 1987) was an American Film director and Actor. Huston criticized the Academy for awarding Welles while they refused to give him any work.
In 1972 Welles acted as on-screen narrator for the film documentary version of Alvin Toffler's 1970 book Future Shock. Alvin Toffler (born October 3, 1928) is an American Writer and futurist, known for his works discussing Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Future Shock is a book written by the Sociologist and Futurologist Alvin Toffler in 1970
In 1973 Welles completed F for Fake, a personal essay film about art forger Elmyr d'Hory and the biographer Clifford Irving. F for Fake ( Vérités et Mensonges) is the last major film completed by Orson Welles. Elmyr de Hory (born 'Elmyr Hory' (1906 – December 11, 1976) was a famous Hungarian -born painter Clifford Michael Irving (born November 5, 1930) is an American writer best known for an "authorized Based on an existing documentary by Francois Reichenbach, it included new material with Oja Kodar, Joseph Cotten, Paul Stewart and William Alland. Paul Stewart ( May 13, 1908 &ndash February 17, 1986) was an American Character actor known for his tough guttural voice William Alland ( March 4, 1916 - November 11, 1997) was an Actor, producer, Writer and director
Working again for a British producer, Welles played Long John Silver in director John Hough's 1973 adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's novel Treasure Island, which had been the second story broadcast by The Mercury Theatre on the Air in 1938. Long John Silver is a Fictional character in the Novel Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson. John Hough (born 21 November 1941 in London England) is a British film and television director Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850–3 December 1894 was a Scottish novelist poet and travel writer, and a representative of Neo-romanticism in Treasure Island is an adventure Novel by author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of "pirates and buried gold" Welles also contributed to the script, his writing credit was attributed to the pseudonym 'O. W. Jeeves'.
In 1975, the American Film Institute presented Welles with their third Lifetime Achievement Award (the first two going to director John Ford and actor James Cagney). The American Film Institute ( AFI) is an independent Non-profit organization created by the National Endowment for the Arts, which was established in 1967 James Francis Cagney Jr ( July 17, 1899 &ndash March 30, 1986) was an Academy Award -winning American Film At the ceremony, Welles screened two scenes from the nearly finished The Other Side of the Wind. The Other Side of the Wind is an unreleased 1975 film directed by Orson Welles and starring John Huston, Peter Bogdanovich, That same year, Welles narrated the documentary Bugs Bunny Superstar, focusing on Warner Bros. cartoons from the 1940s. Bugs Bunny Superstar is a 1975 Looney Tunes Documentary film, narrated by Orson Welles and produced and directed by Larry Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and By 1976, Welles had almost completed the film. Financed by Iranian backers, ownership of the film fell into a legal quagmire after the Shah of Iran was deposed. Written by Welles, the story told of a destructive old film director looking for funds to complete his final film. It starred John Huston and the cast included Peter Bogdanovich, Susan Strasberg, Norman Foster, Edmond O'Brien, Cameron Mitchell, and Dennis Hopper. Peter Bogdanovich ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петар Богдановић Latin: Petar Bogdanović (born July 30, 1939, is an American Susan Elizabeth Strasberg ( May 22, 1938 &ndash January 21, 1999) was an American Actress. Norman Foster ( December 13, 1900 - July 7, 1976) was a American Film director and movie Actor. Edmond O'Brien (September 10 1915 – May 9 1985 was an American Film Actor who is perhaps best remembered for his role in D Cameron Mitchell ( November 4, 1918 – July 6, 1994) was an American film television and Broadway star with close Dennis Lee Hopper (born May 17, 1936) is an Academy Award -nominated American Actor and Film -maker As of 2006, all legal disputes concerning ownership of the film have been settled and end money for completing the film is being sought, in part from the Showtime cable network. Showtime is a subscription television Brand used by a number of channels and platforms around the world but primarily refers to a group of channels in the United
In 1979 Welles completed his documentary Filming Othello, which featured Michael MacLiammoir and Hilton Edwards. Filming Othello is the last feature film directed by Orson Welles. Made for West German television, it was also released in theaters. That same year, Welles completed his self-produced pilot for The Orson Welles Show television series, featuring interviews with Burt Reynolds, Jim Henson and Frank Oz and guest-starring The Muppets and Angie Dickinson. The Orson Welles Show was an unsold television talk show pilot. Burton Leon Reynolds Jr (born February 11 1936 is an American Actor. For other uses of "Henson" see Henson. James Maury "Jim" Henson (September 24 1936 &ndash May 16 1990 was one of Frank Oz (born May 25, 1944) is a British-born American Film director, Actor and Puppeteer. The Muppets are a group of Puppet characters created by Jim Henson. Angie Dickinson (born September 30, 1931) is a Golden Globe -winning American television and Film actress, perhaps Unable to find network interest, the pilot was never broadcast.
Beginning in the late 1970s, Welles participated in a series of famous television commercial advertisements, acting as the on-camera spokesman for the Paul Masson wine company. Paul Masson (1859 &ndash 1940 was an early pioneer of California Viticulture and the most successful popularizer of Californian Sparkling wine. The sign-off phrase of the commercials — "We will sell no wine before its time" — became a national catchphrase. He was also the voice behind the long-running Carlsberg "Probably the best lager in the world" campaign. The Carlsberg Group (ˈkɑrlzbɚɡ is a large Brewing company founded in 1847 by J  The "probably" tag is still in use today. During coverage of these commercials on Ads Infinitum, Victor Lewis Smith, a critic of Masson wines, fondly remarked that Welles endorsements of the wine were proof he was "a genius, but a lying bastard" and promptly showed an outtake of Welles being impossible to work with in a commercial shoot. Victor Lewis-Smith is a British satirist producer critic and prankster In 1979 Welles also appeared in the biopic "The Secret Life of Nikola Tesla". There have already been discussions about Tesla's ethnicity on the talk page
In 1981, Welles hosted the documentary The Man who Saw Tomorrow, about Renaissance-era prophet Nostradamus. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Michel de Nostredame (14 December 1503 or 21 December 1503 &ndash 2 July 1566 usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French Apothecary
In 1982 the BBC broadcast The Orson Welles Story in the Arena series. Interviewed by Leslie Megahey, Welles examined his past in great detail, and several people from his professional past were interviewed as well. It was reissued in 1990 as With Orson Welles: Stories of a Life in Film. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar)
Welles was the unseen voice of Robin Masters during the early years of Magnum, P.I.. Magnum PI is an American Television show starring Tom Selleck as Thomas Magnum, a fictional Private investigator
During the 1980s, Welles worked on such film projects as The Dreamers, based on two stories by Isak Dinesen and starring Oja Kodar, and The Orson Welles Magic Show, which reused material from his failed TV pilot. Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke ( April 17, 1885 &ndash September 7, 1962) Née Karen Dinesen, was a Another project he worked on was Filming The Trial, the second in a proposed series of documentaries examining his feature films. While much was shot for these projects, none of them were completed. All of them were eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München.
He died of a myocardial infarction at his home in Hollywood, California, at age 70, on October 10, 1985. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar)
He had various projects underway, including a film adaptation of King Lear, The Orson Welles Magic Show and The Dreamers. King Lear is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1603 and 1606 and is considered one of his greatest works
His final interview had been recorded on the day of his death for The Merv Griffin Show; he died two hours later. The Merv Griffin Show was a long-running American Television talk show, starring singer Merv Griffin.
The last film roles before Welles' death included voice work in the animated films The Enchanted Journey (1984) and The Transformers: The Movie (1986), in which he played the planet-eating robot Unicron, along with on-screen work in Henry Jaglom's film Someone to Love (1987). The Transformers The Movie is a 1986 animated feature film based on the animated series of the same name. A robot is a mechanical or Virtual Artificial agent In practice it is usually an electro-mechanical system which by its appearance or movements Unicron is a Fictional character from the ''Transformers'' universe and toyline. Henry Jaglom (born 26 January 1941, London, England) is a Film director who specializes in independently made dramas loosely based Someone to Love, directed by Henry Jaglom, is a film made in 1987.
His last filmed appearance was on the television show Moonlighting. A television program (US television programme (UK or television show (U He recorded an introduction to an episode entitled "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice," which was partially filmed in black and white. The episode aired five days after his death and was dedicated to his memory.
His death forced the character of Robin Masters, a famous writer and playboy, to largely be written out of Magnum, P.I.. Robin Masters was a Fictional character on the American Television series Magnum P A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms Playboy is an American Men's magazine, founded in Chicago Illinois, by Hugh Hefner and his associates which has grown into Playboy Magnum PI is an American Television show starring Tom Selleck as Thomas Magnum, a fictional Private investigator
His ashes were buried in an old well on the property of a long time friend, retired bullfighter Antonio Ordonez, in Ronda, Spain. "Matador" redirects here For other uses see Matador (disambiguation. Antonio Ordóñez ( February 16, 1932 - December 19, 1998) was a famous Spanish Bullfighter. For the municipality in the Philippines see Ronda Cebu, and the former settlement in California United States see Ronda California. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. 
Welles had three daughters to three different mothers: children's author Chris Welles Feder, born 1937 to Virginia Nicholson, Rebecca Welles Manning, born 1944 to Rita Hayworth and Beatrice Welles, born November 1955 to Paola Mori. Children's literature is an age category of literature written for published for or marketed to Children roughly through age 12 Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Rita Hayworth (October 17 1918 &ndash May 14 1987 born Margarita Carmen Cansino was a Spanish-American actress who rose to stardom in the 1940s as the era's leading Sex symbol Events in November All Saints' Day (formerly All Hallows Day a Christian holy day is celebrated on November 1, the day after Halloween Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar)
According to a 1941 physical exam taken when he was 26, Welles was 72 inches tall and weighed 218 pounds. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which a Health care provider investigates the body of a Patient for signs His eyes were brown.  Other sources cite that he was 6 feet 4 inches tall.
Welles suffered from a serious weight problem in later life that rendered him morbidly obese. Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected His obesity was severe to the point that it restricted his ability to travel, aggravated other health conditions, including his asthma, and very likely contributed to his relatively early death from a heart attack. Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply
This condition was, obviously, largely the result of over-eating, which some have attributed to depression over his marginalisation by the Hollywood system.  Some sources state that his regular dinner consisted of two steaks and a pint of scotch and that, during his early years, especially during the filming of Citizen Kane, his daily dinner menu also included a whole pineapple, triple pistachio ice-cream and a full bottle of scotch. A steak (from Old Norse steik, "roast" is a slice of meat typically Beef. The pint is an English unit of Volume or capacity in the imperial system and United States customary units. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored In a Restaurant, a menu is a printed brochure or public display that shows the list of options for a diner to select Pineapple ( Ananas comosus) is the common name for an edible Tropical Plant and also its Fruit It is native to the southern part of Brazil The pistachio ( Pistacia vera L Anacardiaceae or sometimes Pistaciaceae) is a small Tree native to mountainous regions of Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from Dairy products such as Milk and Cream, combined 
He was also famous as a heavy and enthusiastic smoker of cigars throughout much of his later life. A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented Tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the smoker's mouth
Welles felt that The Trial and Chimes at Midnight were his greatest and most rewarding achievements, Touch of Evil the most fun he had making a film, and The Stranger to be the least of his films.
In April 1982, Merv Griffin interviewed Welles and asked about his religious beliefs. Mervyn Edward "Merv" Griffin Jr ( July 6, 1925 &ndash August 12, 2007) was an American Television host and Welles replied, "I try to be a Christian, I don't pray really, because I don't want to bore God. " After the success of his 1941 film Citizen Kane, Welles announced that his next film would be about the life of Jesus Christ, and that he would play the lead role. Citizen Kane ( 1941) is an American Dramatic film, and the first Feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) However, Welles never got around to making the film. 
He narrarated the Christian-documentary The Late Great Planet Earth. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Late Great Planet Earth is the title of a best-selling 1970 book co-authored by Hal Lindsey and Carole C
Welles' exile from Hollywood and reliance on independent production meant that many of his later projects were filmed piecemeal or were not completed. In the mid-1950s, Welles began work on the Cervantes' masterpiece Don Quixote, initially a commission from CBS television. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Welles expanded the film to feature length, developing the screenplay to take Quixote and Sancho Panza into the modern age. Sancho Panza is a Fictional character in the novel Don Quixote written by Spanish author Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in Filming stopped with the death of Francisco Reiguera, the actor playing Quixote, in 1969. Orson Welles continued editing the film through the next few decades and had supposedly completed a rough cut in the mid 1970s. By his death however, the footage of many scenes had been lost around the world during Welles' travels. A search continues for Orson Welles' later edits and other missing footage, but they likely no longer exist. An incomplete version of the film was released in 1992.
In 1970 Welles began shooting The Other Side of the Wind, about the effort of a film director (played by John Huston) to complete his last Hollywood picture, and is largely set at a lavish party. The Other Side of the Wind is an unreleased 1975 film directed by Orson Welles and starring John Huston, Peter Bogdanovich, John Marcellus Huston ( August 5 1906 &ndash August 28 1987) was an American Film director and Actor. Although in 1972 the film was reported by Welles as being "96% complete", the negative remained in a Paris vault until 2004, when Peter Bogdanovich (who also acted in the film) announced his intention to complete the production. Peter Bogdanovich ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петар Богдановић Latin: Petar Bogdanović (born July 30, 1939, is an American Peter Bogdanovich is currently in the process of editing the footage, and it is scheduled to be completed and released through Showtime sometime in 2009. Peter Bogdanovich ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петар Богдановић Latin: Petar Bogdanović (born July 30, 1939, is an American Showtime is a subscription television Brand used by a number of channels and platforms around the world but primarily refers to a group of channels in the United Some footage is included in the documentary Working with Orson Welles (1993).
Other unfinished projects include The Deep, an adaptation of Charles Williams' Dead Calm — abandoned in 1970 one scene short of completion due to the death of star Laurence Harvey — and The Big Brass Ring, the script of which was adapted and filmed by George Hickenlooper in 1999. Charles Williams ( August 13, 1909 &ndash ca April 7, 1975) was an American Writer of Hardboiled Crime Dead Calm is a 1963 novel by Charles F Williams, which was the basis for the unreleased film The Deep (by Orson Welles) and the Laurence Harvey ( October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award -nominated Lithuanian born actor who achieved The Big Brass Ring is a 1999 Drama film, starring William Hurt, Nigel Hawthorne, Irene Jacob, Jefferson Mays George Hickenlooper (born May 25, 1965 in St Louis Missouri) is an American Documentary film -maker
Welles in his later years was unable to get funding for his many film scripts, but came close with The Big Brass Ring and The Cradle Will Rock. The Big Brass Ring is a 1999 Drama film, starring William Hurt, Nigel Hawthorne, Irene Jacob, Jefferson Mays The Cradle Will Rock is a 1937 musical by Marc Blitzstein. Originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project, it was directed by Arnon Milchan had agreed to produce The Big Brass Ring if any one of six actors - Warren Beatty, Clint Eastwood, Paul Newman, Jack Nicholson, Robert Redford, or Burt Reynolds - would sign on to star. Arnon Milchan (ארנון מילצ'ן December 6, 1944) is Film producer and businessman The Big Brass Ring is a 1999 Drama film, starring William Hurt, Nigel Hawthorne, Irene Jacob, Jefferson Mays Warren Beatty (born Henry Warren Beaty; March 30 1937 is an American Academy Award - and Golden Globe -winning Actor, producer Clinton "Clint" Eastwood Jr (born May 31 1930 is a four-time Academy Award winning American Actor and Filmmaker. Paul Leonard Newman (January 26 1925 &ndash September 26 2008 was an Academy Award John Joseph "Jack" Nicholson (born April 22 1937) is an American Actor, internationally renowned for his often dark-themed portrayals Charles Robert Redford Jr (born August 18 1936) is an Academy Award -winning American Film director, Actor, Burton Leon Reynolds Jr (born February 11 1936 is an American Actor. All six declined for various reasons. Independent funding for The Cradle Will Rock had been obtained and actors had signed on, including Rupert Everett to play the young Orson Welles, location filming was to be done in New York City with studio work in Italy. The Cradle Will Rock is a 1937 musical by Marc Blitzstein. Originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project, it was directed by Rupert James Hector Everett (born May 29, 1959) is a two-time Golden Globe -nominated English film Actor and ex- Singer While pre-production went without a problem, three weeks before filming was to begin the money fell through. Allegedly Welles approached Steven Spielberg to ask for assistance in rescuing the film, but Spielberg declined. Steven Allan Spielberg, KBE (Hon (born December 18 1946 is an American Film director, Screenwriter and producer. The scripts to both films were published posthumously. After a studio auction, he complained that Spielberg spent $50,000 for the Rosebud sled used in Citizen Kane, but would not give him a dime to make a picture. Welles retaliated by publicly announcing the sled to be a fake, the original having been burned in the film, but he later recanted the claim.
The 1995 documentary Orson Welles: One-Man Band, included on the Criterion Collection DVD release of F for Fake, features scenes from several of these unfinished projects, as well as footage from an adaptation of The Merchant of Venice starring Welles that was never aired due to vital footage being allegedly stolen; several short subjects such as the titular One-Man Band, a Monty Python-esque spoof in which Welles plays all but one of the characters (including two characters in drag); footage of Welles reading chapters from Moby-Dick; and a comedy skit taking place in a tailor shop and co-starring Charles Gray. The Criterion Collection is a Privately held company that distributes "authoritative" consumer versions of "important classic and contemporary films" The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598 Monty Python (sometimes known as The Pythons) is the collective name of the six creators of Monty Python's Flying Circus, a British Television Drag in its broadest sense means any clothing one wears however the traditional use of the term is for any Costume or outfit that carries symbolic significance Moby-Dick is an 1851 Novel by Herman Melville. The story tells the adventures of the wandering sailor Ishmael and his voyage on the whaleship Charles Gray ( August 29 1928 - March 7 2000) was an English Actor. One short, also included in the documentary, is a comedy routine in which Welles (filmed in the 1970s) plays a reporter interviewing a king, also played by Welles, but in footage shot in the 1960s; Welles finished the skit and edited it together years later. The documentary also includes two completed and edited sequences from the unreleased The Other Side of the Wind, and footage from an unbroadacast television pilot for a talk show (he is shown interviewing The Muppets and discussing his rationale for doing the talk show, which was produced in the round). A television pilot is a test episode of an intended Television series. The Muppets are a group of Puppet characters created by Jim Henson. Theatre-in-the-round or arena theatre is any Theatre space in which the audience surrounds the stage area The documentary is built around a college lecture given by Welles not long before his death, in which he displays frustration at being unable to complete so many projects. According to Oja Kodar, interviewed in the documentary, Welles always traveled with camera equipment and would shoot film whenever the mood struck him, even if there were no immediate prospects for commercial release of such material.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Welles, George Orson (full name)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||broadcaster, director, and actor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 6, 1915|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Kenosha, Wisconsin, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 10, 1985|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Los Angeles, California, United States|