Original sin is, according to a doctrine in Christian theology, humanity's state of sin resulting from the Fall of Man. Christian Theology is discourse concerning Christian faith Christian theologians use biblical Exegesis, rational analysis and argument Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation The Fall of Man, or simply the Fall, in Christian doctrine refers to the transition of the first humans from a state of innocent obedience to God,  Like other theological terms, the terms "original sin" and "ancestral sin" are not found in either the Old or the New Testament, though the sinfulness of humans is frequently addressed, but the doctrine that the terms express is claimed to be based on passages in the New Testament written by Paul the Apostle, such as Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:22, as well as in the Old Testament psalms by King David in Psalm 51:5 and Psalm 58:3. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible
In the history of Christianity this condition has been characterized in many ways ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency, or a tendency toward sin yet without collective guilt, referred to as a "sin nature," to something as drastic as total depravity or automatic guilt by all humans through collective guilt. Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological Doctrine that derives from the Augustinian concepts
Western Christian tradition regards original sin as the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born, distinct from any actual sins that a person may or may not commit later. Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation According to Christian tradition "actual" sin as distinguished from Original sin is an act contrary to the will and law of God whether by doing evil (sin Different views exist as to whether a person bears real guilt or personal responsibility only for actual sins that they personally commit, while being tempted by original sin, or whether they bear actual guilt for the sins of ancestors.
Eastern Christian tradition too identifies original sin as physical and spiritual death, the spiritual death being the loss of "the grace of God, which quickened (the soul) with the higher and spiritual life" Others see original sin also as the cause of actual sins: "a bad tree bears bad fruit" (Matthew 7:17, NIV), although, in this view, original and actual sin may be difficult to distinguish. According to Christian tradition "actual" sin as distinguished from Original sin is an act contrary to the will and law of God whether by doing evil (sin The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel The New International Version is an English Translation of the Christian Bible. 
While Christians cite references to original sin in the Old Testament (such as Psalm 51:5), the doctrine is not found in Jewish theology.
Original sin is said to result from the Fall of Man, when Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit of a particular tree in the Garden of Eden. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all This first sin ("the original sin"), an action of the first human beings, is traditionally understood to be the cause of "original sin", the fallen state from which human beings can be saved only by God's grace.
For more on this cause of original or ancestral sin, see Fall of Man. The Fall of Man, or simply the Fall, in Christian doctrine refers to the transition of the first humans from a state of innocent obedience to God,
The Apostolic Fathers and the Apologists mostly dealt with topics other than original sin.  The doctrine of original sin was first developed in second-century Bishop of Lyon Irenaeus's struggle against Gnosticism. ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems  The Greek Fathers emphasized the cosmic dimension of the Fall, namely that since Adam human beings are born into a fallen world, but held fast to belief that man, though fallen, is free.  It was in the West that precise definition of the doctrine arose.  Augustine of Hippo taught that original sin was transmitted through the concupiscence (roughly, lust) that accompanied sexual reproduction, weakening the will and making humanity a massa damnata (mass of perdition, condemned crowd). Modern definitions of Concupiscence an ardent usually sensuous longing a strong sexual desire lust In Augustine's view (termed "Realism"), all of humanity was really present in Adam when he sinned, and therefore all have sinned. Original sin, according to Augustine, consists of the guilt of Adam which all human beings inherit. As sinners, human beings are utterly depraved in nature, lack the freedom to do good, and cannot respond to the will of God without divine grace. In Christianity, divine Grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to Salvation — irrespective of actions Grace is irresistible, results in conversion, and leads to perseverance. Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a Doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the Perseverance of the saints is a controversial Christian teaching that none who are truly saved can be condemned for their Sins or finally fall away from the faith 
In the struggle against Pelagianism, which denied the doctrine of original sin, the principles of Augustine's teaching was confirmed by many councils, especially the Second Council of Orange in 529. Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad The Councils of Orange (or the Synods of Orange) comprised two Synods held at Orange France.  Some of the followers of Augustine identified original sin with concupiscence, but this identification was challenged by the eleventh-century Saint Anselm of Canterbury , who defined original sin as "privation of the righteousness that every man ought to possess", thus separating it from concupiscence. Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 &ndash April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval Philosopher, theologian, and church official In the twelfth century the identification of original sin with concupiscence was supported by Peter Lombard and others, but was rejected by the leading theologians in the next century , chief of whom was Thomas Aquinas. Peter Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; (c 1100 — July 20, 1160 in Paris) was a scholastic theologian and Bishop and author He distinguished the supernatural gifts of Adam before the Fall from what was merely natural, and said that what it was the former that were lost, privileges that enabled man to keep his inferior powers in submission to reason and directed to his supernatural end. Even after the fall, man thus kept his natural abilities of reason, will and passions. Rigorous Augustine-inspired views persisted among the Franciscans, though the most prominent Franciscan theologians, such as Duns Scotus and William of Ockham, eliminated the element of concupiscence. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic William of Ockham (also Occam, Hockham, or any of several other spellings ˈɒkəm (c
Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin equated original sin with concupiscence, affirming that it persisted even after baptism and completely destroyed freedom. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and 
The Council of Trent, while not pronouncing on points disputed among Catholic theologians, condemned the teaching that in baptism the whole of what belongs to the essence of sin is not taken away, but is only cancelled or not imputed, and declared that the concupiscence that remains after baptism not truly and properly sin in the baptized, but can only be called sin in the sense that it is of sin and inclines to sin. The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. 
In 1567, soon after the close of the Council of Trent, Pope Pius V went beyond Trent by sanctioning the Aquinas's distinction between nature and supernature in Adam's state before the Fall, condemned the identification of original sin with concupiscence, and approved the view that the unbaptized could have right use of will. Pope 
From about the 18th century, belief about original sin has tended to become softened, but has persisted in some form as in Immanuel Kant's idea of "radical evil". Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg 
However, given Augustine's belief that the only definitive destinations of souls are heaven and hell, he concluded that unbaptized infants go to hell because of original sin. The Latin Church Fathers who followed Augustine adopted his position, which became a point of reference for Latin theologians in the Middle Ages. The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church  In the later mediaeval period, some theologians continued to hold Augustine's view, others held that unbaptized infants suffered no pain at all: unaware of being deprived of the beatific vision, they enjoyed a state of natural, not supernatural happiness. In Roman Catholic Theology, the beatific vision is the eternal and direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme Starting around 1300, unbaptized infants were often said to inhabit the "limbo of infants". See also Intermediate state Purgatory|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity In Roman Catholic theology Limbo (Latin limbus  The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1261 declares: "As regards children who have died without Baptism, the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God, as she does in her funeral rites for them. Indeed, the great mercy of God who desires that all men should be saved, and Jesus' tenderness toward children which caused him to say: 'Let the children come to me, do not hinder them,' allow us to hope that there is a way of salvation for children who have died without Baptism. All the more urgent is the Church's call not to prevent little children coming to Christ through the gift of holy Baptism. " But the theory of Limbo, while it "never entered into the dogmatic definitions of the Magisterium . . . remains . . . a possible theological hypothesis". 
Augustine's formulation of original sin was popular among Protestant reformers, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin, and also, within Roman Catholicism, in the Jansenist movement, but this movement was declared heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent 
Like other traditional church doctrines, original sin has been denied or reinterpreted by various modern Christian denominations (such as the Unity Church) and theologians (such as Matthew Fox). Unity also known as Unity School of Christianity and informally as Unity Church, is a school of thought founded upon holistic Christian principles Matthew Fox (born 1940 is an American Priest and theologian. He is an exponent of Creation Spirituality, a movement grounded in the mystical Under such different views, Augustine's example of newborn babies would suffer the temptation to sin from their nature, but would not bear any guilt because of not actually committing sins of their own.
The doctrine of original sin has received considerable scrutiny and debate among Christians throughout the ages, beginning with divergent opinions about how to define it.
While perhaps, in the Protestant tradition, the dominant view of original sin assigns actual guilt to an individual from original sin, an equally important view defines original sin as a predisposition or tendency toward sin, which does not assign actual guilt to anyone. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. This tendency towards sin is referred to as a "sin nature. " Under this view, it would be possible, but unlikely, for a person to resist the temptation to sin and live a sinless life free from guilt. This view claims support from the Bible's admonition in Ezekiel 18:20 that
"The son will not share the guilt of the father, nor will the father share the guilt of the son. The righteousness of the righteous man will be credited to him, and the wickedness of the wicked will be charged against him. "
As a result, a significant dispute centres over the emotional argument of whether an apparently innocent baby can be deemed subject to sin and death. The dispute centres around distinctions between personal sin (i. e. freely willed, conscious and understood) and original sin (not the result of free will). The Augustinian tradition makes a clear distinction between sin which is the result of freely and consciously chosen actions, and the impersonal nature of original sin; namely the unchosen context and situations into which the child is born and which surrounds the baby, and into which the child might be educated and formed. Effectively, the Augustinian teaching says that even though the baby has not made any conscious choice, it is nevertheless personally affected by—and subject to—sin, and that God's grace is essential to give hope and salvation. The Augustinian view is seen by some scholars as a negative view of human nature, since Augustine of Hippo believed that the human race, without God's help, is depraved.
Original sin, from the Augustinian perspective, is not a free and individual choice by a baby; but rather the effect of the sum total of "world sin", taught analogously through the story of the sin of Adam and Eve. The Augustinian doctrine of original sin teaches that every individual is born into a broken world where sin is already active; that they are inevitably influenced personally by the actions of others and the consequences of choices made by others. The Augustinian effectively believes that human nature—and hence every individual person—is flawed. The Augustinian remedy for original sin is baptism; the ritual washing away of the unchosen but inevitable condition of birth sin; and a vigorous declaration by Christians that sin shall not prevail, but that God's grace can overpower it with our free cooperation. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted
Some individuals challenge the entire doctrine of original sin as unbiblical, understanding that the children should not be punished for the sins of the fathers. Ezekiel 18:20, as mentioned above, states that children are not to be punished for their parents' sins. According to religious texts Ezekiel ((יְחֶזְקֵאל Yehezkel, jəx On the other hand, Exodus 20:5 says, "I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me. "
Those who understand original sin as personal guilt and sin, rather than as sin in an analogous sense, are confronted with a yet graver difficulty, particularly if they conceive of sin as a matter of a person's soul as such, rather than of the ensouled body, or enfleshed soul, that is the person. Sin, they say, is an issue of the soul, but, if we inherit our bodies from our parents and our souls from God, then original sin, which is inherited with human nature from our parents, must be a matter of the body; or, if it is a matter of the soul, original sin must come from God.
Judaism rejects the concept of the original sin altogether and stresses free will and men's responsibility of their actions rather than religious obedience or faith. Why, they ask, would God, who is, by dogma, universal unconditional Love, create sentient and sapient beings, then intentionally let them become corrupt—and then punish them from generation to generation with eternal torture for simply just being born in the world and for nothing else—and judge people not on their actions but by their faith or its lack—and then by whim save the beings from nothing else but from his very own wrath.
Christian churches that deny original sin have differing explanations for the ancient Christian practice of conferring on infants what the Nicene Creed calls the "one baptism for the forgiveness of sins". The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of Several denominations (following anabaptist traditions) reject infant baptism and insist that only persons who have reached the "age of accountability" should be baptized. Anabaptists ( Greek ανα (again twice + βαπτιζω (baptize thus "re-baptizers" are Christians of the Radical Reformation Coming of age is a young person's transition from Adolescence to Adulthood The age at which this transition takes place varies in society as does the nature
There are wide-ranging disagreements among Christian groups as to the exact understanding of the doctrine about a state of sinfulness or absence of holiness affecting all human beings, even children, with some Christian groups denying it altogether.
The scriptural basis for the doctrine is found in two New Testament books by Paul the Apostle, Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:22, in which he identifies Adam as the one man through whom death came into the world. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and  
The Catechism of the Catholic Church says:
By his sin Adam, as the first man, lost the original holiness and justice he had received from God, not only for himself but for all human beings. Adam and Eve transmitted to their descendants human nature wounded by their own first sin and hence deprived of original holiness and justice; this deprivation is called "original sin". As a result of original sin, human nature is weakened in its powers, subject to ignorance, suffering and the domination of death, and inclined to sin (this inclination is called "concupiscence"). Catechism of the Catholic Church, 416-418
Catechism of the Catholic Church explains that in "yielding to the tempter, Adam and Eve committed a personal sin, but this sin affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state … original sin is called "sin" only in an analogical sense: it is a sin "contracted" and not "committed"—a state and not an act" (404). This "state of deprivation of the original holiness and justice … transmitted to the descendants of Adam along with human nature" (Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 76) involves no personal responsibility or personal guilt on their part (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 405). Personal responsibility and guilt were Adam's, who because of his sin, was unable to pass on to his descendants a human nature with the holiness with which it would otherwise have been endowed, in this way implicating them in his sin.
Though Adam's sinful act is not the responsibility of his descendants, the state of human nature that has resulted from that sinful act has consequences that plague them: "Human nature, without being entirely corrupted, has been harmed in its natural powers, is subject to ignorance, suffering and the power of death, and has a tendency to sin. This tendency is called concupiscence" (Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 77), but is distinct from original sin itself, since it remains even when original sin is remitted.
The Church has always held baptism to be "for the remission of sins", and, as mentioned in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 403, infants too have traditionally been baptized, though not guilty of any actual personal sin. The sin that through baptism was remitted for them could only be original sin, with which they were connected by the very fact of being human beings. Based largely on this practice, Saint Augustine of Hippo articulated the teaching in reaction to Pelagianism, which insisted that human beings have of themselves, without the necessary help of God's grace, the ability to lead a morally good life, and thus denied both the importance of baptism and the teaching that God is the giver of all that is good. Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad
The Roman Catholic Church did not accept all of Augustine's ideas, which he developed to counter the claim by Pelagius that the influence of Adam on other human beings was merely that of bad example. For instance, the Church did not adopt the opinion that involvement in Adam's guilt and punishment takes effect through the dependence of human procreation on the sexual passion, in which the spirit's inability to control flesh is evident. Rather, the Church teaches that original sin comes to the soul simply from the new person taking his nature from one whose nature itself had original sin. In this way, the Church argues that original sin is not imputing the sin of the father to the son; rather, it is simply the inheritance of a wounded nature from the father, which is an unavoidable part of reproduction.
The Roman Catholic doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary is that Mary was conceived free from original sin: "the most Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Savior of the human race, preserved immune from all stain of original sin. For dogmatic context see Roman Catholic Mariology. For artistic depictions see Roman Catholic Marian art. " The exceptional character that Catholic doctrine attributes to the conception of Mary thus depends on the reality of original sin. If, as some hold, original sin did not exist, not only she, but all human beings would be conceived "immune from all stain of original sin".
Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism, which together make up Eastern Christianity, acknowledge that the introduction of ancestral sin into the human race affected the subsequent environment for mankind, but never accepted Augustine of Hippo's notions of original sin and hereditary guilt. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See  The act of Adam is not the responsibility of all humanity, but the consequences of that act changed the reality of this present age of the cosmos. Adam (אָדָם ʼĀḏām, "dust man mankind" آدم; Ge'ez: አዳ and Eve (חַוָּה Ḥawwā, "living The Greek Fathers emphasized the metaphysical dimension of the Fall of Man, whereby Adam's descendants are born into a fallen world, but at the same time held fast to belief that, in spite of that, man remains free.  Instead of accepting Augustine's teaching, Orthodox Churches accept the teachning of John Cassian, which is in the West sometimes called Semi-Pelagianism, but is different from Arminianism (also refered to as Semi-Pelagian) in rejecting the doctrine of Total Depravity, by teaching that human nature is "fallen", that is- depraved, but not totally. Saint John Cassian (ca 360 – 435 ( Latin: Jo(hannes Eremita Cassianus, Joannus Cassianus, or Joannes Massiliensis) John the Semi-Pelagianism is a Christian Theological understanding about Salvation; that is how humanity and God are restored to a right relationship Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Semi-Pelagianism is a Christian Theological understanding about Salvation; that is how humanity and God are restored to a right relationship Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological Doctrine that derives from the Augustinian concepts
The second article in Lutheranism's Augsburg Confession presents its doctrine of original sin in summary form:
|“||It is also taught among us that since the fall of Adam all men who are born according to the course of nature are conceived and born in sin. The Augsburg Confession, also known as the "Augustana" from its Latin name Confessio Augustana is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran That is, all men are full of evil lust and inclinations from their mothers’ wombs and are unable by nature to have true fear of God and true faith in God. Moreover, this inborn sickness and hereditary sin is truly sin and condemns to the eternal wrath of God all those who are not born again through Baptism and the Holy Spirit. Rejected in this connection are the Pelagians and others who deny that original sin is sin, for they hold that natural man is made righteous by his own powers, thus disparaging the sufferings and merit of Christ. Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad ||”|
The notion of original sin as interpreted by Augustine of Hippo was affirmed by the Protestant Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Both Luther and Calvin agreed that humans inherit Adamic guilt and are in a state of sin from the moment of conception. This inherently sinful nature (the basis for the Calvinistic doctrine of "total depravity") results in a complete alienation from God and the total inability of humans to achieve reconciliation with God based on their own abilities. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological Doctrine that derives from the Augustinian concepts Not only do individuals inherit a sinful nature due to Adam's fall, but since he was the federal head and representative of the human race, all whom he represented inherit the guilt of his sin by imputation.
|“||Original sin, therefore, seems to be a hereditary depravity and corruption of our nature, diffused into all parts of the soul, which first makes us liable to God's wrath, then also brings forth in us those works which Scripture calls "works of the flesh" (Gal 5:19). John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin 's seminal work on Protestant Systematic theology. And that is properly what Paul often calls sin. The works that come forth from it--such as adulteries, fornications, thefts, hatreds, murders, carousings--he accordingly calls "fruits of sin" (Gal 5:19-21), although they are also commonly called "sins" in Scripture, and even by Paul himself. ||”|
|“||Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam (as the Pelagians do vainly talk), but it is the corruption of the nature of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam, whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and of his own nature inclined to evil, and that continually. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations John Wesley (ˈwɛslɪ ( – March 2, 1791) was an Anglican cleric and Christian theologian who was the founder of the (Evangelical The Articles of Religion are an official doctrinal statement of American Methodism. The Book of Discipline constitutes the law and doctrine of the United Methodist Church. ||”|
Because of this conundrum, Protestants believe that God the Father sent Jesus into the world. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The personhood, life, ministry, suffering, and death of Jesus, as God incarnate in human flesh, is meant to be the atonement for original sin as well as actual sins; this atonement is according to some rendered fully effective by the Resurrection of Jesus. Incarnation which literally means embodied in flesh, refers to the conception and birth of a sentient creature (generally a human who is the The atonement is a doctrine found within both Christianity and Judaism. Within the body of Christian beliefs the resurrection of Jesus is a core event on which much of Christian doctrine and theology depend
One authoritative Adventist position is outlined by reference to publicly available theological positions available on the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church’s official website on theological doctrine, the Biblical Research Institute. The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists is the governing organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Biblical Research Institute (BRI is a service department of the Seventh-day Adventist Church with the three stated functions of research apologetics (defense  One such article commenting on original sin can be found here.
Most Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement Churches, such as the Churches of Christ, Christian Churches, and the Disciples of Christ, reject the notion of original sin, believing only in the sins for which men and women are personally responsible. This article is about the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement and churches that have a historical and/or theological connection to it (e The Churches of Christ discussed The Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ are a part of the Restoration Movement and share historical roots with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ is a Mainline Protestant denomination in North America Such churches do not object to the idea that Adam and Eve brought sin into the world by introducing disobedience. Disobedience influenced further generations in much the same way other ideas spread, thus making sin likely in any individual above "The Age of Accountability. "
In the Old Testament, in the Book of Ezekiel, God's people are rebuked for suggesting that the children would die/suffer for their father's sins:
The Lord then gives examples of a good father with a bad son, of a good son with a bad father, etc. and states:
God concludes: "house of Israel, I will judge each of you according to your own ways … Repent! Turn away from all your offenses; then sin will not be your downfall. Rid yourselves of all the offenses you have committed, and get a new heart and a new spirit" (Ezek. 18:30-31, TNIV).
Many Restoration movement churches and individuals, however, do believe that Adam's sin made us depraved (that is, with a tendency towards sin) without making us guilty of Adam's sin. Man is predisposed towards sin, but though every person sins, they are not intrinsically forced to sin.
Mormons do not believe in the concept of original sin as it is used in modern Christendom, but that everyone will be punished for their own individual sins and not for any transgression of Adam or Eve.  Neither do Mormons believe that children are conceived in sin or come into the world with any kind of "impurity" whatsoever. Rather, Jesus Christ atoned for any "original guilt" and the sins of parents cannot be answered upon the heads of their children. Furthermore, Mormons hold that little children are incapable of even committing sin and as such have no need of baptism until age eight when they can fully discern right from wrong, and are thus capable of sin and can be held accountable. Little children who die before reaching the age of accountability (even though they are unbaptized) are automatic heirs of salvation and are saved in the Celestial Kingdom of God.
Islam teaches that all humans are innocent by birth and they become sinful only when they consciously commit a sin. Islam regards the concept of “original sin” and the need for atonement by God Himself - via dying on the Cross - as a pure invention of those who came after Jesus Christ, declaring themselves as Christians.
Another important point to bear in mind about the Islamic concept of sin is that one man’s sin cannot be transferred to another; nor can the reward due to a person be transferred either. Every individual is responsible only for his or her actions, for God is never unjust. This is made clear in the following in Surah 17, Al-Isra, Verse 15:
A person is not held responsible until he or she reaches puberty. Then two angels are assigned to each person to record their good and bad deeds.
In an interview, entitled "Aliens Are My Brother", granted to L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican newspaper, Father Gabriel Funes, director of the Vatican Observatory, stated: "In my opinion this possibility (of life on other planets) exists"; "intelligent beings, created by God may exist in outer space" and "some aliens could even be free from original sin" concluding "there could be (other beings) who remained in full friendship with their creator". L'Osservatore Romano ( English: The Roman Observer) is the "semi-official" Newspaper of the Holy See.