Ore and metal
imports in 2005
An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIF s are a distinctive type of rock often found in primordial ( Precambrian) Sedimentary Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific An ore must contain materials that are
- in concentrations that can be profitably mined, transported, milled, and processed. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body
- able to be extracted from waste rock by mineral processing techniques. Mineral processing, otherwise known as mineral dressing is the practice of beneficiating valuable minerals from their Ores Industrial mineral treatment processes usually combine
Ore deposits are mineral deposits defined as being economically recoverable. Mineral deposits may include those bodies of mineralisation which are uneconomic resources, of too low a grade or tonnage or technically impossible for extraction of the contained metal.
Rare samples of ore in the form of exceptionally beautiful crystals, exotic layering (when sectioned or polished) or metallic presentations such as large nuggets or crystalline formations of metals such as gold or copper may command a value far beyond their value as mere ore or raw metal for subsequent reduction to utilitarian purposes. In Materials science, a crystal is a Solid in which the constituent Atoms Molecules or Ions are packed in a regularly ordered repeating Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29
Ore is thus an economic entity, not a physical entity. Fluctuations in commodity prices will determine what rock is considered valuable and hence ore, and what rock is not valuable and is considered waste. A commodity is anything for which there is demand but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market Similarly, the costs of extraction may fluctuate, for example with fuel costs, rendering mining unprofitable and turning ore into waste.
The grade or contained concentration of an ore mineral, or metal, as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The cost of extraction must thus be weighted against the contained metal value of the rock and a 'cut-off grade' used to define what is ore and what is waste.
Ore minerals are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or "native" metals (such as native copper) that are not commonly concentrated in the Earth's crust or "noble" metals (not usually forming compounds) such as gold. An oxide is a Chemical compound containing at least one Oxygen atom as well as at least one other element A sulfide mineral is a Mineral containing Sulfide (S2- as the major Anion. The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming Minerals They are classified based on the structure of their silicate Ion group Copper, as native copper, is one of the few Metallic elements to occur in uncombined form as a natural Mineral, although most commonly occurs in In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 The ores must be processed to extract the metals of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals.
Ore bodies are formed by a variety of geological processes. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit The process of ore formation is called ore genesis. The various theories of ore genesis explain how the various types of mineral deposits form within the Earth's crust.
An ore deposit is an accumulation of ore. Mineral resource classification is the systematic organization of information on Ores and other mineral deposits which contain economic value This is distinct from a mineral resource as defined by the mineral resource classification criteria. An ore deposit is one occurrence of the particular ore type. Most ore deposits are named according to either their location (for example the Witswatersrand, South Africa), or after a discoverer (eg; the kambalda nickel shoots are named after drillers), or after some whimsy, an historical figure, a prominent person, something from mythology (phoenix, kraken, etc) or the code name of the resource company which found it (eg; MKD-5 is the in-house name for the Mount Keith nickel mine). Kambalda type nickel ore deposits are a class of magmatic Nickel - Copper Ore deposit in which the physical processes of Komatiite volcanology
Classification of ore deposits
Ore deposits are classified according to various criteria developed via the study of economic geology, or ore genesis. The various theories of ore genesis explain how the various types of mineral deposits form within the Earth's crust. The various theories of ore genesis explain how the various types of mineral deposits form within the Earth's crust. The classifications below are typical
Hydrothermal epigenetic deposits
Granite related hydrothermal
- IOCG or iron-oxide copper-gold, typified by the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U deposit
- Porphyry copper +/- gold +/- molybdenum +/- silver deposits
- Intrusive-related copper-gold +/- (tin-tungsten), typified by the Tombstone, Arizona deposits
- Hydromagmatic magnetite iron ore deposits and skarns
- Skarn ore deposits of copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, etcetera
- Magmatic nickel-copper-iron-PGE deposits including
- Lateritic nickel ore deposits, examples include Goro and Acoje, (Philippines) and Ravensthorpe, Western Australia. In Geology a lode is the metalliferous Ore that fills a Fissure in a rock or a vein of ore deposited between layers of A conglomerate (kɒnˈglɒmərət is a rock consisting of individual stones that have become cemented together Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Witwatersrand is a low sedimentary range of hills at an elevation of 1700-1800 metres above sea-level which runs in an east-west direction through Gauteng in The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Jasperoid is a rare peculiar type of metasomatic alteration and occurs in two main forms sulfidic jasperoids and hematitic jasperoids In Geology, a stockwork is a complex system of structurally controlled or randomly oriented veins. Olympic Dam is a mining centre in South Australia located some 550 km NNW of Adelaide the capital city of South Australia. Porphyry copper deposits are Copper Orebodies which are associated with porphyritic Intrusive rocks Tombstone is a city in Cochise County, Arizona, United States, founded in 1879 by Ed Schieffelin in what was then the Arizona Territory Magnetite is not to be confused with Magnesite or Maghemite. Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic Mineral with chemical Skarn is a Metamorphic rock that is usually variably colored green or red occasionally grey black brown or white Cumulate rocks are Igneous rocks formed by the accumulation of Crystals from a Magma either by settling or floating Vanadium (vəˈneɪdiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol V and Atomic number 23 Magnetite is not to be confused with Magnesite or Maghemite. Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic Mineral with chemical Chromite is iron magnesium chromium oxide (Fe MgCr2O4 It is an Oxide Mineral belonging to the Spinel group Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray Kambalda type nickel ore deposits are a class of magmatic Nickel - Copper Ore deposit in which the physical processes of Komatiite volcanology Norilsk (Нори́льск is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Voisey's Bay is a Canadian Bay in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Lateritic nickel ore deposits are surficial Weathered rinds formed on Ultramafic rocks The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent.
Metamorphically reworked deposits
- Podiform serpentinite-hosted paramagmatic iron oxide-chromite deposits, typified by Savage River, Tasmania iron ore, Coobina chromite deposit
- Broken Hill Type Pb-Zn-Ag, considered to be a class of reworked SEDEX deposits
Carbonatite - alkaline igneous related
Sedimentary hydrothermal deposits
- Lead-zinc-silver, typified by Red Dog, MacArthur River, Mt Isa, etc
- Stratiform arkose-hosted and shale-hosted copper, typified by the Zambian copperbelt. Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits or VMS are a type of Metal Sulfide ore deposit, mainly Cu - Zn which are associated with and The was a rich source of Copper in Niihama, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Altogether there are sixteen known Iron Oxides and oxyhydroxides Chromite is iron magnesium chromium oxide (Fe MgCr2O4 It is an Oxide Mineral belonging to the Spinel group The Broken Hill Ore Deposit is located underneath Broken Hill in western New South Wales, Australia, and is the namesake for the town Carbonatites (kɑrˈbɒnətaɪt are Intrusive or extrusive Igneous rocks defined by mineralogy that comprises more than 50 volume-% Carbonate Tantalite, ] Mn) Ta 2 O 6] is a Mineral that is close to Columbite. Vermiculite is a natural Mineral that expands with the application of Heat. Phalaborwa is a town (131000 inhabitants situated in the Mopani district halfway up along the length of the Kruger National Park in the Limpopo province in The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are according to IUPAC, the collection of seventeen Chemical elements in the Periodic table, namely For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East A diatreme is a breccia filled Volcanic pipe that was formed by a gaseous explosion Kimberlite is a type of potassic Volcanic rock best known for sometimes containing Diamonds It is named after the town of Kimberley in South Africa Lamproites are ultrapotassic mantle -derived volcanic rocks. They have low CaO Al2O3 Na2O high K2O/Al2O3 Lamprophyres ( Greek λαµπρός (lamprós = "bright" and φύρω (phýro = to mix are uncommon small volume ultrapotassic Igneous rocks Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIF s are a distinctive type of rock often found in primordial ( Precambrian) Sedimentary Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted Channel iron deposits, also known as pisolitic iron ore are a major source of cheap high grade Iron ore exploited primarily in the Pilbara and Murchison A pisolite is a Sedimentary rock formed from pisoliths. These are concretions - often of calcium carbonate but commonly in rarer minerals - which resemble Ooids Heavy mineral Sands are a class of Ore deposit which is an important source of Zirconium, Titanium, Thorium, Tungsten, In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes. Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running Black sand is a heavy glossy partly Magnetic mixture of usually fine sands found as part of a Placer deposit. Skorpion Zinc is the 8th largest Zinc mine in the world producing Special High Grade (SHG Zinc Sedimentary exhalative deposits (abbreviated as SEDEX from SED imentary EX halative are Ore deposits which are interpreted to have been formed by release Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Red Dog, also known as Red Dog Poker or Yablon, is a Game of chance played with cards. Mount Isa is a city in North-West Queensland, Australia. It came into existence because the area holds vast mineral deposits
- Stratiform tungsten, typified by the Erzgebirge deposits, Czechoslovakia
- Exhalative spilite-chert hosted gold deposits
- Mississippi valley type (MVT) zinc-lead deposits
- Hematite iron ore deposits of altered banded iron formation
The basic extraction of ore deposits follows the steps below;
- Prospecting or Exploration to find and then define the extent and value of ore where it is located ("ore body")
- Conduct resource estimation to mathematically estimate the size and grade of the deposit
- Conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. Tungsten (ˈtʌŋstən also known as wolfram (/ˈwʊlfrəm/ is a Chemical element that has the symbol W and Atomic number 74 Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Chert (ˈtʃɝt is a fine-grained Silica -rich Microcrystalline, Cryptocrystalline or Microfibrous Sedimentary rock that may contain Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc ore deposits are important and highly valuable concentrations of lead and zinc sulfide Ores hosted within carbonate ( Limestone Hematite, also spelt hæmatite, is the Mineral form of Iron(III oxide (Fe2O3 one of several Iron oxides Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIF s are a distinctive type of rock often found in primordial ( Precambrian) Sedimentary The Sudbury Basin, also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is the second largest known Impact crater or Astrobleme Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Prospecting is the physical search for Minerals Fossils precious metals or mineral specimens and is also known as Fossicking. Mineral exploration is the process undertaken by companies partnerships or corporations in the endeavour of finding Ore (commercially viable concentrations of minerals to Mineral resource classification is the systematic organization of information on Ores and other mineral deposits which contain economic value This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work.
- Conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the financial viability, technical and financial risks and robustness of the project and make a decision as whether to develop or walk away from a proposed mine project. " Feasibility Study " is also the title of an episode from The Outer Limits television show This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements and a cradle to grave analysis of the possible mine, from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their
- Development to create access to an ore body and building of mine plant and equipment
- The operation of the mine in an active sense
- Reclamation to make land where a mine had been suitable for future use
Ores (metals) are traded internationally and comprise a sizeable portion of international trade in raw materials both in value and volume. Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state after some process ( Industry, Natural disasters etc This is because the worldwide distribution of ores is unequal and dislocated from locations of peak demand and from smelting infrastructure.
Most base metals (copper, lead, zinc, nickel) are traded internationally on the London Metal Exchange, with smaller stockpiles and metals exchanges monitored by the COMEX and NYMEX exchanges in the United States and the Shanghai Futures Exchange in China. The London Metal Exchange or LME is the Futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and Futures contracts on base and
Iron ore is traded between customer and producer, though various benchmark prices are set yearly between the major mining conglomerates and the major consumers, and this sets the stage for smaller participants.
Other, lesser, commodities do not have international clearing houses and benchmark prices, with most prices negotiated between suppliers and customers one-on-one. This generally makes determining the price of ores of this nature opaque and difficult. Such metals include lithium, niobium-tantalum, bismuth, antimony and rare earths. Lithium (ˈlɪθiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Li and Atomic number 3 Niobium (naɪˈoʊbiəm or columbium (/kəˈlʌmbiəm/ is a Chemical element that has the symbol Nb and Atomic number 41 Tantalum (ˈtæntələm (formerly tantalium /tænˈtæliəm/ is a Chemical element with the symbol Ta and Atomic number 73 Bismuth (ˈbɪzməθ is a Chemical element that has the symbol Bi and Atomic number 83 Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are according to IUPAC, the collection of seventeen Chemical elements in the Periodic table, namely Most of these commodities are also dominated by one or two major suppliers with >60% of the world's reserves. The London Metal Exchange aims to add uranium to its list of metals on warrant.
The World Bank reports that China was the top importer of ores and metals in 2005 followed by the USA and Japan. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e
As compared with 2005-20067 at the end of 2007 - beginning of the year 2008 the Iron ore prices on FOB/CIF terms increased considerably, at least at 50-55%. The prices were increased after CVRD, which is the world's biggest iron ore producer, has agreed to increase its contract prices, continuing its previleged position on this market.
Price FOB Brazil reached 141-144 U$D/MT CIF Europe came up to 185-188 U$D/MT.
Important ore minerals
See also Argentite was primarily treated as a Mineral belonging to the Galena group cubic Silver Sulfide ( Ag2S) occasionally Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Baryte ( Ba[[Sulfur S]] O 4 is a Mineral consisting of Barium sulfate. Bauxite is the most important Aluminium Ore. It consists largely of the minerals Gibbsite Al(OH3 Boehmite γ-AlO(OH and WikipediaNaming The Mineral beryl is a Beryllium Aluminium cyclosilicate with the Chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO36 Bornite is a Sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu 5 Fe[[sulfur S]]4 that crystallizes in the Orthorhombic system Cassiterite is a Tin Oxide Mineral, SnO2. It is generally opaque but is translucent in thin crystals Chalcocite, copper(I sulfide (Cu2S is an important Copper Ore mineral Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Chalcopyrite (ˌkælkoʊˈpaɪraɪt kal-co-pie-right —"kal" as in " cal endar" "co" as in co de is a Copper Chromite is iron magnesium chromium oxide (Fe MgCr2O4 It is an Oxide Mineral belonging to the Spinel group Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red Mercury(II sulfide ( Hg[[sulfide S]] or native Vermilion, the common Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Cobaltite is a Sulfosalt mineral composed of Cobalt, Arsenic and Sulfur, Co[[arsenic As]] S. Ferrocolumbite, also called niobite, niobite-tantalite, columbate and columbite ] Mn)( Nb, Ta)2 Tantalite, ] Mn) Ta 2 O 6] is a Mineral that is close to Columbite. Coltan is the colloquial African name for Columbite - Tantalite, a metallic Ore from which is extracted the elements Niobium and Galena is the natural mineral form of Lead sulfide. It is the most important Lead Ore mineral Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Placer mining (pronounced "plass-er" refers to the mining of alluvial deposits for Minerals This may be done by open-pit (also called open-cast Hematite, also spelt hæmatite, is the Mineral form of Iron(III oxide (Fe2O3 one of several Iron oxides Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic titanium-iron oxide Mineral which is iron-black or steel-gray Magnetite is not to be confused with Magnesite or Maghemite. Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic Mineral with chemical Molybdenite is a mineral of Molybdenum disulfide, Mo[[sulfur S]]2 Pentlandite is an Iron - Nickel sulfide ( Fe, Ni)9 S 8 Pentlandite usually has a NiFe ratio of close to 11 Pyrolusite is a Mineral consisting essentially of Manganese dioxide ( Mn[[oxygen O]]2 and is important as an Ore of manganese Scheelite is a Calcium Tungstate Mineral with the Chemical formula Ca[[tungsten W]] O 4 Sphalerite (( Zn, Fe) S) is a Mineral that is the chief Ore of Zinc. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Mineral resource classification is the systematic organization of information on Ores and other mineral deposits which contain economic value Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be utilized for economic and/or industrial purposes The various theories of ore genesis explain how the various types of mineral deposits form within the Earth's crust.
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- Rock that contains utilitarian materials; primarily a rock containing metals or gems which -- at the time of the rock's evaluation and proposal for extraction -- are able to be separated from its neighboring minerals and processed at a cost that does not exceed those materials' present-day, intrinsic, econmomic values.
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