The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and the United States. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It was founded in Loughgall, County Armagh, Ireland in 1795; its name is a tribute to Dutch-born Protestant king of Britain, William III of England (William II of Scotland), of the House of Orange-Nassau. Loughgall (in Irish Loch Gall) is a small Village in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. County Armagh ( Contae Ard Mhacha in Irish - from the height of Macha) is a county in Ulster in the north east of Ireland William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau) a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life William had defeated the Catholic army of James II at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne was a turning point in the Williamite claim on the English throne Observers have accused the Orange Institution of being a sectarian organisation, due to its goals and its exclusion of Roman Catholics as members, however some denominations of Protestants are also ineligible for membership. 
The Orange Institution commemorates William of Orange, the Dutch prince who became King of Great Britain and Ireland in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The Orange Institution, better known as the Orange Order is a Protestant Fraternal organisation based in Northern Ireland. William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union In particular, the Institution remembers the victories of William and his forces in Ireland in the early 1690s, especially the Battle of the Boyne. The Battle of the Boyne (Cath na Bóinne was a turning point in the Williamite claim on the English throne
The history of the Institution is tied in with the conflict of the late 1700s. It aimed to confront both the Catholic Defenders and the United Irishmen (generally Presbyterians) by consolidating the Protestant Churches against the Catholic church. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". The Defenders were a militant agrarian secret society in 18th century Ireland, who were involved in the United Irishmen rebellion of 1798. The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a Liberal political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought Parliamentary reform Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Inter rivalries between the Christian churches in Ireland, was especially prevalent since the Plantation of Ulster in the early seventeenth century. The Plantation of Ulster (Irish Plandáil Uladh) was a planned process of Colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster
The Orange Order was founded in Loughgall in County Armagh in 1795 after the Battle of the Diamond between the Catholic Defenders and the Protestant Peep O'Day Boys. Loughgall (in Irish Loch Gall) is a small Village in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. County Armagh ( Contae Ard Mhacha in Irish - from the height of Macha) is a county in Ulster in the north east of Ireland The Battle of the Diamond was a violent confrontation between the Catholic Defenders and the Protestant Peep O'Day Boys that took place on September 21, Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Peep O'Day Boys was a Protestant faction fighting group in 18th century Ireland, active in the 1780s and '90s and precursor of the Orange Order.  The three main founders were James Wilson, Daniel Winter and James Sloan. James Wilson was the founder of the Orange Institution, also known as the Orange Order The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly 
The 1790s were a time of agitation in Ireland, much of it led by the Society of United Irishmen, founded in October 1791 by Belfast democrats. The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a Liberal political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought Parliamentary reform They wanted a strong Irish Government and called for parliamentary reform with equal representation for all Irish males regardless of religion.  Shortly after the Order's establishment, the Governor of Armagh, Lord Gosford, gave his opinion of the new group to a meeting of magistrates: "It is no secret that a persecution is now raging in this country… the only crime is… profession of the Roman Catholic faith. Lawless banditti have constituted themselves judges…" However, against the background of the seditious activity the government backed the Orange Order from 1796. An outlaw or bandit is a person living the lifestyle of outlawry; the word literally means "outside the Law " by folk-etymology from the original  Thomas Knox, British military commander in Ulster, wrote in August 1796, "As for the Orangemen, we have rather a difficult card to play. Thomas Knox (died 1627 or 1628 was a Scottish Prelate from the 17th century . . we must to a certain degree uphold them, for with all their licentiousness, on them we must rely for the preservation of our lives and properties should critical times occur. "
Many Orangemen fought on the government side in the subsequent Irish Rebellion of 1798. The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798 Turn Oot 1798 or 1798 rebellion as it is known locally was an uprising in 1798 lasting several months against the Moreover, many were also involved in reprisal attacks after the rebellion, in which over 60 Catholic churches were burned. Such a reaction was fueled by some rebel atrocities against Protestants, such as the Scullabogue Barn massacre. The Scullabogue massacre was an action committed in Scullabogue (Carrigbyrne near New Ross, County Wexford, Ireland on 5 June 1798 In the wake of the rebellion, once its usefulness had passed, the Orange Order was once again seen by the authorities primarily as a threat to public order.
In the early nineteenth century, Orangemen were heavily involved in violent conflict with a Catholic secret society known as the Ribbonmen. Ribbonism, whose adherents were usually called Ribbonmen refers to the secret associations among 19th century lower class rural Irish Catholics, organised On July 19. 1823 the Unlawful Oaths Bill was passed, all oath-bound societies in Ireland were banned, including the Orange Order, which had to be dissolved and reconstituted. In 1825 a bill banning unlawful associations - largely directed at Daniel O'Connell who had revived his Catholic Association, compelled the Orangemen once more to dissolve their association. Daniel O'Connell ( 6 August 1775 &ndash 15 May 1847) ( Dónal Ó Conaill) known as The Liberator, or The Emancipator When however Westminster granted Catholic Emancipation in 1829, what the Orangemen had long dreaded had now happened: Catholics were free at last to take seats as MPs and play a part in framing the laws of the land. Catholic Emancipation (Fuascailt na gCaitliceach or Catholic Relief, was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th The likelihood of Catholic members holding the balance of power in the Westminster Parliament further increased the alarm of the Orangemen everywhere in Ireland, as to them it meant only one thing, - the possible revival of a Catholic-dominated Parliament controlled from Rome, and an end to the Protestant ascendancy. " Rome Rule " was a term used by Irish Unionists and Socialists to describe the belief that the Roman Catholic Church would gain political From this moment on, the Orange Order re-emerged in a new and even more militant form  .
As a result illegal gatherings continued. In 1845 the ban was lifted, but the famous Battle of Dolly's Brae between Orangemen and Ribbonmen in 1849 led to a ban on Orange marches which remained in place for several decades. This was eventually lifted after a campaign of disobedience led by William Johnston of Ballykilbeg. William Johnston (1829-1902 was a nineteenth century Irish politician and member of the Orange Order.
By the later 19th century, the Order was in decline. However, its fortunes were revived by the spread of Protestant opposition to Irish nationalist mobilisation in the Irish Land League and then around the question of Home Rule. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of the late 19th century which sought to help poor Tenant farmers Its primary aim was to abolish The Irish Home Rule bills were bills introduced in the British House of Commons during the late 19th and early 20th centuries intended to grant self-government and The Order was heavily involved in opposition to Gladstone's first Irish Home Rule Bill 1886, and was instrumental in the formation of the Ulster Unionist Party. The First Home Rule Bill (official name Irish Government Bill 1886) was the first major attempt made by a British parliament to The Ulster Unionist Party ( UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or in a historic sense simply the Unionist Party The strength of Protestant opposition to Irish self-government under possible Roman Catholic influence, especially in the Protestant-dominated province of Ulster, led eventually to six Ulster counties remaining within the United Kingdom, as Northern Ireland. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of
In the first decade of the twentieth century, the Order suffered a split, when Thomas Sloane left the organisation to set up the Independent Orange Order. For the Ireland international footballer born in 1900 see Tom Sloan (footballer born 1900. The Independent Loyal Orange Institution is an off-shoot of the Orange Institution, a Protestant fraternal organisation based in Northern Ireland. Sloane had been suspended from the main Order after running against a Unionist candidate on a pro-labour platform in an election in 1902.
In 1912 the Third Home Rule Bill introduced by John Redmond of the Irish Parliamentary Party passed the British House of Commons in 1914 (was held up by the House of Lords for two years). The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the ( Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill) and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 John Edward Redmond (Seán Éamonn Mac Réamoinn (1 September 1856 &ndash 6 March 1918 was an Irish nationalist Politician, Barrister, MP The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP (commonly called the Irish Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The Orange Order, along with Irish Unionists and the British Conservative Party, were forthright in opposing the Bill. Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Order organised the 1912 Ulster Covenant a pledge to oppose Home Rule that was signed by up to 500,000 people. The Ulster Covenant was signed by just under half a million of men and women from Ulster, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest against the In 1911 some Orangemen began to arm themselves and train under the name Ulster Volunteers, and in 1913 the Ulster Unionist Council decided to bring these groups under central control, creating the Ulster Volunteer Force, a militia dedicated to resisting Home Rule. The Ulster Volunteers were a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block Home Rule for Ireland. The Ulster Unionist Party ( UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or in a historic sense simply the Unionist Party The Ulster Volunteers were a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block Home Rule for Ireland. There was a strong overlap between Orange Lodges and UVF units. A large shipment of rifles was imported from Germany to arm them in April 1914 in what became known as the Larne Gun Running. Larne Gun Running occurred in 1914 when loyalists in Ulster, Ireland, who were opposed to Home Rule in Ireland imported guns and ammunition Civil war looked likely to break out between the Ulster Volunteers and the nationalist Irish Volunteers. The Irish Volunteers ( Óglaigh na hÉireann) was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists.
However, the crisis was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 and the temporary suspension of the Home Rule Act placed on the statute books with Royal Assent. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an Many Orangemen served in the war with the 36th (Ulster) Division suffering heavy losses and commemorations of their sacrifice are still an important element of Orange ceremonies. The 36th (Ulster Division was a division of Lord Kitchener's New Army formed in September 1914
The Fourth Home Rule Act was passed as the Government of Ireland Act 1920, the north eastern part of Ulster was partitioned from Southern Ireland as Northern Ireland. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act Southern Ireland (Deisceart Éireann was the short lived autonomous region (or Constituent country) of the United Kingdom established on 3 May Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of This self governing entity within the United Kingdom was confirmed under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty Southern Ireland became first the Irish Free State then in 1949 the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe.
The Orange Order had a central place in the new state of Northern Ireland. James Craig 1st Viscount Craigavon, Bart, PC ( 8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist It acted as a basis for the unity of Protestants of all classes and as a mass social and political grouping. The Twelfth of July is a not a statutory public holiday in Northern Ireland, but is granted as a holiday each year by the Secretary of State by proclamation. The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is the chief minister in the Government of the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Northern Ireland All other public holidays in the UK are by Royal Proclamation. A proclamation (Lat proclamare, to make public by announcement is an official declaration  At its peak in 1965, the Order's membership was around 70,000, which meant that roughly 1 in 5 adult Protestant males were members.  It had very close ties to the ruling Unionist Party and the senior leadership of both frequently overlapped. James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, as Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, is quoted as stating:
|“||I am an Orangeman first and a politician and member of this parliament Stormont afterwards. James Craig 1st Viscount Craigavon, Bart, PC ( 8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940) was a prominent Irish unionist The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the De facto head of the Government of Northern Ireland. ||”|
|“||They still boast of Southern Ireland being a Catholic State. All I boast of is that we are a Protestant Parliament and a Protestant State. ||”|
In recent decades, the Order's influence has shrunk somewhat as it has lost a third of its membership since 1965, notably in Belfast and Derry. The Order's political influence suffered greatly when the Unionist-dominated Stormont parliament was prorogued in 1972. 
Traditionally, the Orange Order was affiliated with the institutions of establishment Unionism: the Ulster Unionist Party and Church of Ireland. It had a fractious relationship with the Democratic Unionist Party, Protestant paramilitaries, Independent Orange Order, and the Free Presbyterian Church. The Order urged its members not to join these organisations, and it is only recently that some of these intra-Unionist breaches have been healed. 
The Orange Institution in Ireland has the structure of a pyramid. At its base are about 1400 private lodges; every Orangeman belongs to a private lodge. Each private lodge sends six representatives to the district lodge, of which there are 126. Depending on size, each district lodge sends seven to thirteen representatives to the county lodge, of which there are 12. Each of these sends representatives to the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, which heads the Orange Order.
The Grand Lodge of Ireland has 373 members. As a result, much of the real power in the Order resides in the Central Committee of the Grand Lodge, which is made up of three members from each of the six counties of Northern Ireland (Londonderry, Antrim, Down, Tyrone, Armagh, and Fermanagh) as well as the two other County Lodges in Northern Ireland, the City of Belfast Grand Lodge and the City of Londonderry Grand Lodge, two each from the remaining Ulster counties (Cavan, Donegal, and Monaghan), one from Leitrim, and 19 others. There are other committees of the Grand Lodge, including rules revision, finance, and education.
Despite this hierarchy, private lodges are basically autonomous as long as they generally obey the rules of the Institution. Breaking these can lead to suspension of the lodge's warrant - essentially the dissolution of the lodge - by the Grand Lodge, but this rarely occurs. Private lodges may disobey policies laid down by senior lodges without consequence. For example, several lodges have failed to expel members convicted of murder despite a rule stating that anyone convicted of a serious crime should be expelled, and Portadown lodges have negotiated with the Parades Commission in defiance of Grand Lodge policy that the Commission should not be acknowledged. Portadown ( is a former market town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The Parades Commission is a quasi-judicial Non-Departmental Public Body responsible for placing restrictions on or banning outright any Parades in Northern Ireland
Private lodges wishing to change Orange Order rules or policy can submit a resolution to their district lodge, which may submit it upwards until it eventually reaches the Grand Lodge.
Members are required to be Protestant.  Most jurisdictions require both the spouse and parents of potential applicants to be Protestant, although the Grand Lodge can be appealed to make exceptions for converts. Members of the Order face the threat of expulsion for attending any Catholic religious ceremonies.
The Laws and Constitutions of the Loyal Orange Institution of Scotland of 1986 state, "No ex-Roman Catholic will be admitted into the Institution unless he is a Communicant in a Protestant Church for a reasonable period. " Likewise, the "Constitution, Laws and Ordinances of the Loyal Orange Institution of Ireland" (1967) state, "No person who at any time has been a Roman Catholic … shall be admitted into the Institution, except after permission given by a vote of seventy five per cent of the members present founded on testimonials of good character …" In the 19th century, Rev. Dr. Mortimer O'Sullivan, a converted Roman Catholic was a Grand Chaplain of the Orange Order in Ireland.
In the 1950s, Scotland also had a converted Roman Catholic as a Grand Chaplain—Rev. William McDermott.
The basis of the modern Orange Order is the promotion and propagation of "biblical Protestantism" and the principles of the Reformation. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time As such the Order only accepts those who confess a belief in a Protestant religion.
The Order considers the Fourth Commandment to forbid Christians to work, or engage in non-religious activity generally, on Sundays. The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that according to Judeo-Christian tradition were authored by God and given When the Twelfth of July falls on a Sunday the parades traditionally held on that date are held on the Monday instead. In March 2002 the Order threatened "to take every action necessary, regardless of the consequences" to prevent the Ballymena Show being held on a Sunday. Ballymena ( is a Town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland and the seat of Ballymena Borough Council.  The County Antrim Agricultural Association complied with the Order's wishes. County Antrim ( Contae Aontroma or simply Aontroim in Irish) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, and one of nine counties 
Some evangelical groups have claimed that the Orange Order is still influenced by freemasonry.  Many Masonic traditions survive, such as the organisation of the Order into lodges. The Order has a system of degrees through which new members advance. These degrees are interactive plays with references to the Bible. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin There is particular concern over the ritualism of higher degrees such as the Royal Arch Purple and the Royal Black Institutions. The Royal Arch Purple is a "higher degree" of initiation within most of the Orange Order although it is still outlawed by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland The Royal Black Institution, also known as the Royal Black Preceptory or The Imperial Grand Black Chapter Of The British Commonwealth is a Protestant fraternal society 
Parades form a large part of Orange culture. Orange Walks are a series of parades held annually by members of the Orange Order during the summer in Northern Ireland, to a lesser extent in Scotland The Twelfth is an annual Protestant celebration on 12 July, originating in Ireland. Parades are an important part of Northern Irish culture Although the majority of parades are held by ostensibly Protestant, unionist or Loyalist Most Orange lodges hold an annual parade from their Orange Hall to a local church. The denomination of the church is quite often rotated, depending on local demographics.
The highlights of the Orange year are the parades leading up to the celebrations on the Twelfth of July. The Twelfth, however, remains in places a deeply divisive issue, not least because of the triumphalism and anti-Catholicism of the Orange Order in the conduct of its Walks and criticism of its behaviour towards Roman Catholics.  In recent years, most Orange parades have passed peacefully. 
As of 2007, Grand Lodge of Ireland policy remained non-recognition of the Parades Commission, which it sees as explicitly founded to target Protestant culture since Protestants parade at ten times the rate of Catholics. The Parades Commission is a quasi-judicial Non-Departmental Public Body responsible for placing restrictions on or banning outright any Parades in Northern Ireland Grand Lodge is, however, divided on the issue of working with the Parades Commission. 40% of Grand Lodge delegates oppose official policy while 60% are in favour. Most of those opposed to Grand Lodge policy are from areas facing parade restrictions like Portadown District, Bellaghy, Derry City and Lower Ormeau. 
Monthly meetings are held in Orange Halls. Orange Halls on both sides of the Irish border often function as community halls for Protestants and sometimes those of other faiths, though this was more common in the past.  The halls quite often host community groups such as credit unions, local marching bands, Ulster Scots and other cultural groups as well as religious missions and Unionist political parties. A credit union is a Cooperative Financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members and operated for the purpose of promoting thrift providing credit Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and
Of the approximately 700 Orange Halls in Ireland, 282 have been targeted by arsonists since the beginning of the Troubles in 1968.  Paul Butler, a prominent member of Sinn Fein, has claimed the arson is a "campaign against properties belonging to the Orange Order and other loyal institutions" by nationalists. Paul Butler MLA ( Irish: Pól de Buitléir) is a republican politician in Northern Ireland. Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970  One occasion a member of Sinn Féin's youth wing was hospitalised after falling off the roof of an Orange Hall.  In a number of cases halls have been severely damaged or completely destroyed by arson while others have been damaged by paint bombings, graffiti and other vandalism.  The Order claims that there is considerable evidence of an organised campaign of sectarian vandalism by republicans. Grand Secretary Drew Nelson claims that a statistical analysis shows that this campaign emerged in the last years of the 1980s and continues to the present. 
One of the Orange Order's activities is educating members and the general public about William of Orange and associated subjects. Both the Grand Lodge and various individual lodges have published numerous booklets about William and the Battle of the Boyne, often aiming to show that they have continued relevance, and sometimes comparing the actions of William's adversary James II with those of the Northern Ireland Office. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James The Northern Ireland Office ( NIO) is a United Kingdom government department responsible for Northern Ireland affairs In addition, historical articles are often published in the Order's newspaper the Orange Standard and the Twelfth souvenir booklet. While William is the most frequent subject, other topics have included the Battle of the Somme (particularly the 36th (Ulster) Division's role in it), Saint Patrick (who the Order argues was not Catholic), and the Protestant Reformation. The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from July to November 1916 was among the largest battles of the First World War The 36th (Ulster Division was a division of Lord Kitchener's New Army formed in September 1914 Saint Patrick (Patricius Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Roman Britain -born Christian Missionary and is the Patron saint The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time
There are at least two Orange Lodges in Northern Ireland which represent the heritage and religious ethos of St Patrick. The best known of which is the Cross of Saint Patrick LOL (Loyal Orange lodge) 688, instituted in 1968 for the purpose of reclaiming the heritage of St Patrick. The lodge has had several well known members, including the late Rev Robert Bradford MP who was the lodge chaplain, the late Ernest Baird. Today Nelson McCausland MLA and Gordon Lucy, Director of the Ulster Society are the more prominent members within the lodge membership. In the 1970s there was also a Belfast lodge called Oidreact Eireann (Ireland's Heritage) LOL 1303, which argued that the Irish language and Gaelic culture were not the exclusive property of Catholics or republicans. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. 
The Order has been prominent in commemorating Ulster's war dead, particularly Orangemen and particularly those who died in the Battle of the Somme. There are numerous parades on and around 1 July in commemoration of the Somme, although the war memorial aspect is more obvious in some parades than others. There are several memorial lodges, and a number of banners which depict the Battle of the Somme, war memorials, or other commemorative images. In the grounds of the Ulster Tower Thiepval, which commemorates the men of the Ulster Division who died in the Battle of the Somme, a smaller monument pays homage to the Orangemen who died in the war. The Ulster Tower is a memorial to the men of the 36th (Ulster Division. The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, fought from July to November 1916 was among the largest battles of the First World War 
The Orange Order's view of history is usually not inaccurate, but could be criticised as outdated. It is reminiscent of the nineteenth century English historian Thomas Babington Macaulay, who argued that the Glorious Revolution which brought William into power was a major turning point in British and world history. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union Macaulay's interpretation was very influential but has come under sustained criticism in recent decades. Orange historiography tends also to be strongly biased in favour of William and against James, painting the former as an ideal ruler and the latter as a bigoted tyrant. It should be noted that few professional historians have a positive opinion of James, although most are also critical of William. Nationalists have from time to time criticised the Order for overlooking the fact that William was supported by the Pope in his campaigns against James' backer Louis XIV of France, and this fact is sometimes left out of Orange histories. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent However it appears in others. 
Occasionally the Order and the more fundamentalist Independent Order publishes historical arguments based more on religion than on history. British Israelism, which claims that the British people are descended from the Israelites and that Queen Elizabeth II is a direct descendant of the Biblical King David, has from time to time been advanced in Orange publications. British Israelism (sometimes called Anglo-Israelism) is the belief that many early Britons, Europeans and/or their royal families were direct lineal descendants For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible
The Order, from its very inception was an overtly political organisation.  In 1905 when the Ulster Unionist Council was formed, the Orange Order was entitled to send delegates to it's meetings, the decision-making body of the Ulster Unionist Party. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The Ulster Unionist Party ( UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or in a historic sense simply the Unionist Party The Ulster Unionist Party ( UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or in a historic sense simply the Unionist Party It used this to considerable effect in the Stormont period, and it (and not Paisley) was the force behind the UUP no-confidence votes in reformist Prime Ministers O'Neill (1969), Chichester-Clark (1969–71) and Faulkner (1972–74).  Although the UUP had long mulled over breaking the link, it was, in the end, the Orange Order that broke away in March 2005. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) attracted the most seats in an election for the first time in the 2003. The Democratic Unionist Party ( DUP) is the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland. Ian Paisley, who is not a member of the Orange Order, maintained a bitter campaign of conflict with the Order since 1951, when the Order banned members of Paisley's Free Presbyterian Church from acting as Orange chaplains and openly endorsed the Official Unionists (UUP) against independent Unionist parties like Paisley's. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926 styled The Rt Hon  Recently, however, Orangemen have begun voting for Paisley in large numbers due to their opposition to the Good Friday Agreement. The Agreement, most often referred to as the Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste Belfast Greeance or the Good Friday Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an  Relations between the DUP and Order have healed greatly since 2001, and there are now a number of high profile Orangemen who are DUP MPs and strategists. 
Recently, the Orange Institution has joined with the Royal Black Preceptory and the Independent Orange Institution in talks with the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and the Roman Catholic Church in order to explain the background to Orange parades and demonstrate the Institution's willingness to have dialogue with Catholics. The Social Democratic and Labour Party ( SDLP; Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre is one of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland
Several organisations are closely linked to the Orange Order, and often confused with it, or thought to be a part of the Order. Protestant marching bands, particularly flute bands of the 'blood and thunder' or 'kick the Pope' type, are also often inccurately assumed to be a part of the Order, and their parades referred to as Orange marches.
A distinct women's organisation grew up out of the Orange Order. Called the Association of Loyal Orangewomen of Ireland, this organisation was revived in December 1911 having been dormant since the late 1880s. They have risen in prominence in recent years, largely due to protests in Drumcree. Drumcree may also refer to the village of Drumcree County Westmeath Drumcree Church is the parish church of Drumcree a rural Church of Ireland parish  The women's order is completely separate from the main order, but sometimes participates in its parades.
The Independent Orange Institution was formed in 1903 by Thomas Sloane, who opposed the main Order's domination by Unionist Party politicians and the upper classes. The Independent Loyal Orange Institution is an off-shoot of the Orange Institution, a Protestant fraternal organisation based in Northern Ireland. For the Ireland international footballer born in 1900 see Tom Sloan (footballer born 1900. The Independent Order originally had radical tendencies, especially in the area of labour relations, but this soon faded. In the 1950s and 60s the Independents focussed primarily on religious issues, especially the maintenance of Sunday as a holy day. With the outbreak of the Troubles, Ian Paisley began regularly speaking at Independent meetings, although he is not and has never been a member. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926 styled The Rt Hon As a result the Independent Institution has become associated with Paisley and his Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster and Democratic Unionist Party. This Presbyterian denomination is not related to the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland or the Free Church of Scotland The Free The Democratic Unionist Party ( DUP) is the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland. Recently the relationship between the two Orange Institutions has improved, with joint church services being held. Some people believe that this will ultimately result in a healing of the split which led to the Independent Orange Institution breaking away from the mainstream Order. Like the main Order, the Independent Institution parades and holds meetings on the Twelfth of July. It is based mainly in County Antrim. County Antrim ( Contae Aontroma or simply Aontroim in Irish) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, and one of nine counties
The Royal Black Institution was formed out of the Orange Order two years after the founding of the parent body. The Royal Black Institution, also known as the Royal Black Preceptory or The Imperial Grand Black Chapter Of The British Commonwealth is a Protestant fraternal society Although it is a separate organisation, one of the requirements for membership in the Royal Black is membership of the Orange Order. The Royal Black is generally considered to be more religious and respectable and less controversial than the Orange Order.
The Apprentice Boys of Derry exist to commemorate the Siege of Derry in 1688-89, particularly the shutting of the city's gates by a group of apprentices. The Apprentice Boys Of Derry are a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership founded in 1814 For context see the Williamite War in Ireland and Jacobitism. Although they have no formal connection with the Orange Order, the two societies have overlapping membership and a similar outlook.
The Orange Order runs a number of charitable ventures including:
The Orange Institution spread throughout the English-speaking world and further abroad. The Orange Order treats charity as an important part of its mandate An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language. It is headed by the Imperial Grand Orange Council. It has the power to arbitrate in disputes between Grand Lodges, and in internal disputes when invited. The Council represents the autonomous Grand Lodges of Ireland, Scotland, England, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Ghana, Togo, and Wales. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland, but with members throughout For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the TOGO was a Japanese roller coaster design company famous for inventing the Stand-up roller coaster.
Famous Orangemen have included Dr Thomas Barnardo, who joined the Order in Dublin, Sir. Thomas John Barnardo ( 4 July 1845 — 19 September 1905) Irish Philanthropist, and founder and director of homes for destitute John A. Macdonald, who was Prime Minister of Canada, William Massey, who was Prime Minister of New Zealand, Harry Ferguson, inventor of the Ferguson Tractor, and Earl Alexander, the Second World War general. Sir John Alexander Macdonald GCB, KCMG, PC ( January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister William Ferguson Massey (often known simply as Bill Massey or " Farmer Bill " served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1912 Henry George (Harry Ferguson ( November 4, 1884 - October 25, 1960) had an important role in the development of the modern Agricultural Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis KG OM GCB GCMG CSI DSO
The Orange Order played an important role in the history of Canada, where it was established in 1830. The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland, but with members throughout Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Most early members were from Ireland, but later many English, Scots, and other Protestant Europeans joined the Order. Toronto was the epicentre of Canadian Orangeism: most mayors were Orange until the 1950s, and Toronto Orangemen battled against Ottawa-driven initiatives like bilingualism and Catholic immigration. A third of the Ontario legislature was Orange in 1920, but in Newfoundland, the proportion has been as high as 50% at times. Indeed, between 1920 and 1960, 35% of adult male Protestant Newfoundlanders were Orangemen, as compared with just 20% in Northern Ireland and 5%–10% in Ontario in the same period. 
The Toronto Twelfth is North America's oldest consecutive annual parade.
The Orange Order spread to England in 1807, and was used by the Tories against the Liberals. The Tories were any of a series of Political factions that existed in the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom, having its roots in the The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party  Most English lodges are based in the Liverpool area, including Toxteth.
The Orange Order has had a presence in Liverpool since at least 1819 when the first parade was held to mark the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne, on July 12. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. In its early years in the city the Twelfth was known as Carpenters Day due to the abundance of shipwrights who, having emigrated from Belfast, took part. The organisation was not just an association for migrants from Ireland however; their politics ensured that the majority of Orangemen were English-born. Indeed, the Institution in England was started by soldiers returning to the Manchester area from Ireland. The organisation was its strongest in the Toxteth and Everton areas of Liverpool. Many prominent Liverpudlians were members, including, reputedly, the founders of Liverpool Football Club.
In the nineteenth century the movement became very closely linked to the dominant Conservative and Unionist Party although in 1909 the Liverpool Protestant Party was founded by George Wise. The party returned several councilors but became defunct in 1974 after their power base was destroyed. Today, Orange Order members in Liverpool, almost unanimously, vote for the Conservative Party.
The Institution split in 1989 and some members left to attach themselves to the Independent Orange Order after a dispute about paramilitary flags. Today, the combined memberships stand at around 4,000.
The Orange Order in Liverpool holds their annual Twelfth parade in Southport, a seaside town north of Liverpool. The Institution also holds a parade there on Whit Monday whilst the Apprentice Boys hold their parade in June, also in Southport. The Black Institution holds their Southport parade on the first Saturday in August.
The Orange Order also parade in Liverpool on the Sunday prior to the Twelfth and on the Sunday after. These parades go to and from church. Other parades are held to commemorate significant events. For example, in July, the Apprentice Boys parade to and from church in commemoration of the Battle of the Somme.
A larger than usual Twelfth parade is being planned for 2008 to mark Liverpool's European Capital of Culture year by the Grand Lodge of England which will be held on 10 May 2008. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
In a trial for defamation involving the Rt Hon. George Galloway MP, in 2004, a UK Judge, Lord Kingarth, decided that the phrase which Mr Galloway had used to describe the Orange Order, as "sectarian, anti-Catholic, Protestant-supremacist" was fair comment on that organisation. George Galloway (born 16 August 1954 in Dundee) is a Scottish Politician, author and talkshow host noted for his Left-wing views confrontational style Trial details
The Orange Order in Ghana appears to have been founded by Scots-Irish missionaries some time during the 19th century. George Galloway (born 16 August 1954 in Dundee) is a Scottish Politician, author and talkshow host noted for his Left-wing views confrontational style Its rituals mirror those of the Orange Order in Ulster though it does not place restrictions on membership to those who have certain Roman Catholic family members. The Orange Order in Ghana is currently being subjected to attack by charismatic churches. 
New Zealand's first Orange lodge was founded in Auckland in 1842, only two years after the country became part of the British Empire, by James Carlton Hill of County Wicklow. The Auckland metropolitan area or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country County Wicklow (Contae Chill Mhantáin is a county on the east coast of Ireland, immediately south of Dublin. The lodge initially had problems finding a place to meet, as several landlords were threatened by Irish Catholic immigrants for hosting it.  The arrival of large numbers of British troops to fight the New Zealand land wars of the 1860s provided a boost for New Zealand Orangeism, and in 1867 a North Island Grand Lodge was formed. The New Zealand Wars, sometimes called the Land Wars and also once called the Māori Wars, were a series of conflicts that took place in New Zealand The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. A decade later a South Island Grand Lodge was formed, and the two merged in 1908. The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. 
From the 1870s the Order was involved in local and general elections, although Rory Sweetman argues that 'the longed-for Protestant block vote ultimately proved unobtainable'.  Processions seem to have been unusual before the late 1870s: the Auckland lodges did not march until 1877 and in most places Orangemen celebrated the Twelfth and November 5 with dinners and concerts. The Twelfth is an annual Protestant celebration on 12 July, originating in Ireland. The emergence of Orange parades in New Zealand was probably due to a Catholic revival movement which took place around this time. Although some parades resulted in rioting, Sweetman argues that the Order and its right to march were broadly supported by most New Zealanders, although many felt uneasy about the emergence of sectarianism in the colony.  From 1912 to 1925 New Zealand's most famous Orangeman, William Massey, was Prime Minister. William Ferguson Massey (often known simply as Bill Massey or " Farmer Bill " served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1912 During World War I Massey co-led a coalition government with Irish Catholic Joseph Ward. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Sir Joseph George Ward 1st Baronet, GCMG (1856 - 1930 was Prime Minister of New Zealand on two occasions in the early 20th century
Te Ara: The Encyclopaedia of New Zealand argues that New Zealand Orangeism, along with other Protestant and anti-Catholic organisations, faded from the 1920s. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand is an Online encyclopedia created by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage of the New Zealand Government.  The Order has certainly declined in visibility since that decade, although in 1994 it was still strong enough to host the Imperial Orange Council for its biennial meeting.  However parades have ceased, and most New Zealanders are probably unaware of the Order's existence in their country. The New Zealand Order is unusual in having mixed-gender lodges, and at one point had a female Grand Master. 
Before the partition of Ireland the Orange Order was an island-wide organization, although strongest in areas with larger Protestant populations. The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. The Order's headquarters were in Dublin, which at one stage had more than 300 private lodges. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. After partition the Order declined rapidly in southern Ireland. Although the gardai usually protected Orange marches, republican antagonism was such that most parades were eventually cancelled. ga '''''Garda Síochána na hÉireann''''' (ˈgaːrdə ʃiːˈxaːnə nə ˈheːɾʲən Irish for "Peace Guard of Ireland" often rendered The last July 12 parade in Dublin took place in 1937. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. The last Orange parade in the Republic of Ireland is at Rossnowlagh, County Donegal, an event which has been largely free from trouble and controversy. Rossnowlagh ( Irish: Ros Neamhlach) is a seaside resort located in County Donegal, in the north-west of Ireland. County Donegal (ˌdʌnəˈgɔːl Irish: Contae Dhún na nGall.  It is held on the Saturday before the Twelfth as the day is not a holiday in the Republic. There are still Orange lodges in nine counties of the Republic - counties Cavan, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Laois(Queen's County), Leitrim, Louth, Monaghan and Wicklow, but most either do not parade or travel to other areas to do so. Cavan (ˈkævən) is the county seat of County Cavan in Ireland. County Cork (Contae Chorcaí is the most southerly and the largest of the modern counties of Ireland. Donegal ( Irish: Dún na nGall) is a town in County Donegal, in the Province of Ulster, in Ireland. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. County Laois (liːʃ Contae Laoise in Irish) formerly also Laoighis or Leix, is a County in the midlands of Ireland, Louth is the name of several locations around the world County Louth, Ireland the village of Louth in County Louth Monaghan (Muineachán is a town in Ireland, the administrative capital of County Monaghan. Wicklow ( is the County seat of County Wicklow in Ireland. Located south of the capital Dublin on the east coast of the island it has a population 
In 2005, controversy was generated when the organisers of Cork's St Patrick's Day parade (in the Republic of Ireland) invited representatives of the Orange Order to parade in the celebrations, part of the year-long celebration of Cork's position of European Capital of Culture. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast Saint Patrick's Day (Lá ’le Pádraig or Lá Fhéile Pádraig) colloquially St Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one Calendar year during which it is given a chance to showcase its The Order accepted the invitation and was to parade with their wives and children alongside Chinese, Filipino and African community groups in an event designed to recognise and celebrate cultural diversity. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Filipinos or the Filipino people are the citizens of the Philippines. Subsequently, after consultation with the Garda Síochána (the Irish police service), the Order's grand secretary, Drew Nelson, said both his organisation and the parade organisers were disappointed that the Order would not be attending the festivities. ga '''''Garda Síochána na hÉireann''''' (ˈgaːrdə ʃiːˈxaːnə nə ˈheːɾʲən Irish for "Peace Guard of Ireland" often rendered He added that he welcomed the invitation and hoped the Order would be able to participate in the event next year. A Church of Ireland clergyman, Rev. The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. David Armstrong, spoke out against the invitation.
In February 2008 it was announced that the Orange Order was to be granted nearly €250,000 from the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. The Department of Community Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs (An Roinn Gnóthaí Pobail Tuaithe agus Gaeltachta is a department of the Government of Ireland. The grant is intended to provide support for members in border areas and fund the repair of Orange Halls, many of which have been subject to vandalism. 
The Grand Orange Lodge of Scotland is the largest Orange Lodge outside Northern Ireland. The Grand Orange Lodge of Scotland is the autonomous Grand Lodge that organises the Orange Institution in Scotland. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Most lodges are concentrated in west central Scotland around Glasgow, Motherwell, and parts of Renfrew and Ayr. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom North Lanarkshire ( Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath in Gaelic) is one of 32 Council areas in Scotland. Renfrewshire ( Siorrachd Rinn Friù in Scottish Gaelic) is one of 32 Council areas of Scotland. Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir ʃir̴əxg̊ iɲiɾʲˈaːɾʲ is a Registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland, However, the Order is also very strong in West Lothian, and, to a lesser extent East Lothian, but not in Edinburgh. West Lothian ( Lodainn an Iar in Gaelic) is one of the 32 unitary Council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy area. East Lothian ( Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 Unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Lodges are also based in the North East of Scotland, the most northerly lodges are located in Aberdeen, Alford, Peterhead and Inverness. Aberdeen ( pronounced; Aiberdeen Obar Dheathain is Scotland 's third most populous city and one of Scotland's 32 local government council Peterhead is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It is Aberdeenshire's largest settlement having a population of approximately 19000 Inverness (Inbhir Nis iɲɪɾʲˈniʃ is a city in northern Scotland. The orders presence in the North of Scotland can be located to the fishing industry and imposition of workers from Belfast and Glasgow to the north and north east and migration of fishermen in the opposite direction. The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking culturing processing preserving storing transporting marketing or selling fish or fish products Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom
In 1881, fully three quarters of Orange lodge masters were born in Ireland and, when compared to Canada, Scottish Orangeism has been both smaller (no more than two percent of adult male Protestants in west central Scotland have ever been members) and more of an Ulster ethnic association which has been less attractive to the native Protestant population.  The strongest predictor of Orange strength in a Scottish county for the period 1860–2001 is the proportion of Irish-Protestant descent in the county. 
Scottish Orangeism's political influence crested between the wars, but was effectively nil thereafter as the Tory party at all levels began to move away from Protestant politics toward a more neo-liberal economic agenda. 
The Grand Orange Lodge of Scotland has spoken out against Scottish independence, and on 24 March 2007, a parade of 12,000 Orangemen marched through Edinburgh's Royal Mile to celebrate the Act of Union. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. The Royal Mile is the popular name for the succession of streets which form the main thoroughfare of Edinburgh's Old Town. 
Cymru LOL 1922 is at this time the only Orange lodge sitting within the Welsh border.
In 1871, in New York City, Mayor Hall and Superintendent Kelso, head of the New York Police Department, issued a decree on 10 July banning the 12 July demonstration. The City of New York Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Nine people had been killed and more than a hundred injured (including children) during the parade the year before, when a riot broke out after the paraders had angered Irish Catholics with Orangeist songs and slogans. Irish Catholics is a term used to describe people of Roman Catholic background who are Irish or of Irish descent. The ban appalled many people who saw it as bowing down to a form of violent censorship by Irish Catholic immigrants. The New York Times had a July 11 headline, Terrorism Rampant. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. City Authorities Overawed by the Roman Catholics. The ban was revoked by State Governor John T. Hoffman, after pressure from the city's elite. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous John Thompson Hoffman ( 10 January 1828 24 March 1888) was born in Ossining in Westchester County New York. He promised the paraders protection by the state and Federal authorities if the city of New York could not provide it, although it is not clear if this was realistic. The parades petered out.
Tim Pat Coogan argues that in America Orangeism also “manifested itself” in movements as the Know Nothings and the Ku Klux Klan and it also proved useful to employers as a device for keeping Protestant and Catholic workers from “uniting for better wages and conditions. Timothy Patrick Coogan (born 1935 is an Irish Historian, broadcaster and newspaper columnist The Know Nothing movement was a Nativist American political movement of the 1850s Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are ”
Grand Masters, of the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland:
Orders from other movements: