Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning "work", is usually used in the sense of "a work of art". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. In Fine art, a work of art (or artwork or work) is a creation such as a Song, Book, Film, Video game, In this sense the plural of opus, "opera", is used to refer to the genre of music drama. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto
Since about the 17th century, many composers, such as Ludwig van Beethoven, have identified their musical works by opus numbers. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. This is abbreviated "Op. "; the plural is "Opp. " Throughout the nineteenth century, these were normally assigned by publishers who published groups of like works together, usually in sets of 3, 6, or 12. They consequently often have little relationship to chronological order of composition, even when this may be determined. Those works that did not happen to get published at the time lack opus numbers. Also, gaps and duplications in the numbering sequences, especially when multiple publishers are involved, are frequent. Some examples of this are discussed below under individual composers.
Many opus numbers, such as those of Mozart and Bach, are so useless and so adequately replaced by catalogs that they are no longer used to identify the works at all. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" The multiple-set opus numbers best-known today are those of the string quartets of Joseph Haydn. A string quartet is a Musical ensemble of four String instruments &mdash usually two Violins a Viola and Cello &mdash or a piece Haydn's Op. 76, for instance, consists of six quartets, known individually as Op. 76 No. 1, etc. , while his Op. 74 consists of three quartets, similarly identified.
19th Century and modern era
Starting about 1800, especially with the works of Beethoven, opus numbers tended to be assigned by the composer. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. These were usually applied to individual works, though later composers often continued to assign opus numbers to sets, especially of short piano pieces and songs. Gradually the connection between opus number and publication has been lost, and many composers since 1900 have given opus numbers to works that are not necessarily published at all. Consequently opus numbers, when present, are a better guide to chronology of composition, though they are not always reliable.
Beethoven was very selective in his early years about which works he assigned opus numbers to, omitting numbers even on some works he sent for publication. Many in this category have since his death been assigned numbers labeled "WoO", standing for "Werk ohne Opuszahl" or "work without an opus number. " However, in later years he published some very early works with higher opus numbers, and some works published posthumously were also given opus numbers.
The practice of posthumous opus numbers, sometimes but not always labeled "Op. posth. ", is most striking in the case of Felix Mendelssohn. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Subsequent to his death, many works were published by his heirs with opus numbers. For example, Mendelssohn published in his lifetime three symphonies, numbers 1-3, with the opus numbers 11, 52, and 56. Two symphonies composed between No. 1 and No. 2, but withdrawn by the composer, the "Italian" and the "Reformation", were published after his death and called No. 4 and No. 5 respectively, with the opus numbers 90 and 107.
Some composers, such as Cesar Franck and Béla Bartók, used opus numbers early in their careers but soon dropped them. César Franck (December 10 1822 – November 8 1890 a Composer, Organist and music teacher of Belgian and German origin who lived in France Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest Others, such as Carl Nielsen and Paul Hindemith, used them inconsistently. Carl August Nielsen (9 June 1865 &ndash 3 October 1931 was a conductor, Violinist, and Composer from Denmark. Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 &ndash 28 December 1963 was a German Composer, Violist, violinist teacher music theorist and conductor. Yet others have been strict and conscientious, most notably Sergei Prokofiev. Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев Sergéj Sergéjevič Prokófjev) ( - 5 March 1953 was a Russian composer who He habitually assigned opus numbers to works before beginning to compose them, leaving some fragmentary or planned works with opus numbers on his death. He even assigned new opus numbers to revised works; thus his Symphony No. 4 is both Op. 47 and Op. 112, and his Piano Sonata No. 5 is both Op. 38 and Op. 135, depending on the edition.
Because of the problems of using opus numbers to identify works particularly for composers from the baroque and classical eras, and the absence and scattered use of opus numbers by composers of all eras, many composers' works have been definitely catalogued by individual scholars, and in such cases their works may be unambiguously referred to by their thematic catalog abbreviations. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810
Individual examples of usage
- The works of Karl Friedrich Abel, while usually referenced by their original publication opus numbers (for example, his Op. Carl Friedrich Abel ( December 22, 1723 &ndash June 20 1787) was a German composer of the Classical era. 17 symphonies), also have catalog numbers assigned to them by Walter Knape in his Bibliographisch-thematisches Verzeichnis der Kompositionen von Karl Friedrich Abel (Cuxhaven: W. Knape, 1972).
- Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach's works have two numbering systems: the older Wotquenne numbering (abbreviated as Wq. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach ( March 8, 1714 &ndash December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer the second of five sons ) devised by Alfred Wotquenne in his catalog of Emanuel's music published in 1905, and the more complete and up-to-date numbering by E. Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning "work" is usually used in the sense of "a Work of art " Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Eugene Helm (abbreviated as H. ), as presented in Helm's Thematic Catalogue of the Works of C. P. E. Bach (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989).
- Johann Christian Bach's works are most often referred to by the opus numbers assigned by their original publishers, which can cause identification difficulties because different publishers used the same opus number. Johann Christian Bach ( September 5, 1735 &ndash January 1, 1782) was a Composer of the Classical era the eleventh and (For instance, "Op. 18" was used for three different sets of J. C. Bach works: "Six Grand Overtures," "Deux sinfonies," and "Four Sonatas and Two Duets," and three of his six Op. 6 symphonies also appear in his Op. 8 in a different order. ) Because of this, some have used C. S. Terry's John Christian Bach (2nd edition; London: Oxford University Press, 1967) as the basis for a de facto standard, using the page number and incipit number in Terry for identification even though these numbers were not assigned by Terry for cataloguing purposes. (For a convenient short listing of these numbers, see Christoph Wolff, et al. , The New Grove Bach Family [NY: Norton, 1983], pp. 341ff. . ) Numbers are also sometimes used from the Thematic Catalog in the Collected Works of Johann Christian Bach (gen. ed. Ernest Warburton; NY: Garland Publishing, 1985).
- Johann Sebastian Bach's works are referred to by their BWV or Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis numbers after the catalogue by Wolfgang Schmieder. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" BWV is also the SIL code for the Language Bahau River Kenyah spoken in Borneo.
- Wilhelm Friedemann Bach's works were catalogued by Martin Falck in 1913, and are often referred to by their F (or Falck) numbers. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach ( November 22, 1710 &ndash July 1, 1784) second child and eldest son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
- Dietrich Buxtehude's works are referred to by their Buxtehude-Werke-Verzeichnis numbers, abbreviated BuxWV, after the catalogue published by Georg Karstädt. Dieterich Buxtehude ( Dietrich, Diderich) (c 1637 &ndash 9 May 1707 was a German-Danish Organist, Lutenist
- Marc Antoine Charpentier's works are referred to by the H or Hitchcock numbers after Hugh Wiley Hitchcock. Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643 - February 24 1704 was a French composer of the Baroque era Hugh Wiley Hitchcock (b September 28, 1923; d December 5, 2007) was an American Musicologist.
- Antonín Dvořák's works are usually now referenced by B numbers, after Jarmil Burghauser's comprehensive catalogue which resolved a great many difficulties with the often misleading and duplicated opus numbers given by different publishers to Dvořák's works
- George Frideric Handel's works are often designated by HWV (Händel-Werke-Verzeichnis) numbers as given in the Verzeichnis der Werke Georg Friedrich Händels by Bernd Baselt. Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( (often pronounced in English as; DVOR-zhahk; September 8 1841 – May 1 1904 was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed Jarmil Michael Burghauser (born Jarmil Michael Mokrý, October 21, 1921, Písek – February 19, 1997, Prague (See this page at gfhandel.org for additional details. )
- Joseph Haydn's works are referred to by their Hob or Hoboken numbers after Anthony van Hoboken's 1957 classification. Anthony van Hoboken ( March 23 1887 &ndash November 1 1983) was a Dutch Musicologist. Hoboken assigned numbers to the string quartets, but these are generally still known by their opus numbers.
- Franz Liszt's works are referred to by their S or Searle numbers after Humphrey Searle's 1960s classification The Music of Liszt. Humphrey Searle ( August 26, 1915 - May 12, 1982) was a British Composer. Alternately, R is used to refer to Peter Raabe's 1931 reference Franz Liszt: Leben und Schaffen. Peter Raabe ( November 27, 1872, Frankfurt an der Oder — April 12, 1945, Weimar) was a German composer and
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opus numbers are particularly scattered and useless and are no longer used at all (for instance, there are two sets of violin sonatas both called Op. A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo Violin, which is nearly always accompanied by a Piano or other keyboard instrument or by Figured bass 1). His works are always referred to by their K or Köchel numbers, after Ludwig von Köchel. Ludwig Alois Ferdinand Ritter von Köchel (ˈkœçəl (January 14 1800 – June 3 1877 was a Musicologist, writer composer Botanist and publisher In continental Europe, the German abbreviation "KV" for Köchel-Verzeichnis is more common; see that entry for an explanation of the differing K numbers found between the first and subsequent editions of Köchel's catalog. This is a complete list of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, listed chronologically. See also: List of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- Antonio Rosetti's works are usually given with catalog numbers by Sterling E. This is a selective list of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, listed by genre. Antonio Rosetti (c 1750– June 30, 1792, born Anton Rössler changed to Italianate form by 1773 was a classical era Composer and Double Murray, Chairman of the Department of Music History at West Chester University of Pennsylvania, although older numbers from Oskar Kaul's 1912 Rosetti catalog sometimes appear as well. Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting For example, Rosetti's popular "La Chasse" symphony is numbered as "Murray A20/Kaul I:18. "
- Domenico Scarlatti's harpsichord works have two major numbering systems: the L or Longo numbers after Alessandro Longo's edition for piano, and the K or Kirkpatrick numbers after Ralph Kirkpatrick's facsimile edition (K is sometimes written as Kk to distinguish it from Köchel numbers - see Mozart above). Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26 1685 – July 23 1757 was a Neapolitan Composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. A harpsichord is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. Alessandro Longo ( 31 December 1864, Amantea – 3 November 1945, Naples) was an Italian Composer The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers Ralph Kirkpatrick ( June 10, 1911 &ndash April 13, 1984) was a musician Musicologist and Harpsichordist born in Leominster A newer ordering, by Giorgio Pestelli, has led to P numbers appearing in some places.
- Franz Schubert's works are referred to by their D or Deutsch numbers after Otto Erich Deutsch's catalogue. Otto Erich Deutsch ( September 5, 1883 &ndash November 23, 1967) was an Austrian Musicologist. Schubert's opus numbers are very scattered, unchronological, and mostly posthumous, but a few of them are occasionally seen.
- Antonio Soler's keyboard sonatas are usually referred to by their R number, after the catalogue compiled by Father Samuel Rubio. Antonio Francisco Javier José Soler Ramos, usually known today as Padre Antonio Soler (baptized December 3 1729 – died December 20 1783 was a Spanish Composer
- Antonio Vivaldi's works are referred to by their RV or Ryom-Verzeichnis numbers after Peter Ryom's catalogue. Peter Ryom (born May 31 1937 in Copenhagen) is a Danish musicologist. Some of his works were published in opus sets, and these numbers are often still used as well.
- Richard Wagner's works are referred to by their WWV or Wagner-Werke-Verzeichnis numbers, which also include his non-musical work.
- Carl Maria von Weber's works may appear by opus or by J. Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber ( 18 December 1786 in Eutin, Holstein, Germany - 5 June 1826 in London number, the latter referring to Friedrich Wilhelm Jähns, Carl Maria von Weber in Seinen Werken: Chronologisch-Thematisches Verzeichnis Seiner Sämmtlichen Compositionen (1871). A list of Weber's works in order of Jähns catalogue number can be found at List of compositions by Carl Maria von Weber. The following is a complete list of compositions by Carl Maria von Weber in order of both Opus number and catalogue number
- In a parody of this, the works of P. D. Q. Bach are assigned "Schickele" numbers, after Peter Schickele, the works' sole discoverer (and, in reality, their composer). P D Q Bach is a fictional composer invented by musical satirist "Professor" Peter Schickele. Johann Peter Schickele (born July 17 1935) is an American Composer, musical educator and parodist, best known for his comedy music Schickele numbers are not sequential but are intended as jokes (a Christmas work is S. 359 because 25 December is the 359th day of the (non-leap) year.
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