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There has been significant opposition to the Iraq War across the world. The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. Organised opposition to a possible future military attack against Iran by the United States (US is known to have started during 2005-2006 Opposition to the 2001 Afghanistan War consisted of tens to a hundred thousand protestors in the United States and the United Kingdom. See also War on Terrorism Criticism of the War on Terrorism (also named the War on Terror) addresses the issues morals Ethics, efficiency economics The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of Non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of Anti-personnel mines Opposition to US involvement in the Vietnam War is significant because domestic protest in the U Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of Nuclear weapons. Opposition to World War II was most vocal during its early period and stronger still before it started while Appeasement and Isolationism were considered viable diplomatic World War I was mainly opposed by Left-wing groups but there was also opposition by Christian Pacifist groups Opposition to the Second Boer War in Britain was modest when the war began on 11 October 1899 and was always less widespread than support for it let alone Popular opposition to the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865 was widespread This article concerns Loyalists in the American Revolution. For information on the role of those Loyalists in Canadian history after their emigration see United Empire In order to facilitate organized opposition to war Anti-war activists have often founded anti-war organizations A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support A draft dodger, draft evader or draft resister, is a person who avoids ("dodges" or otherwise violates the Conscription policies of the A peace movement is a Social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or Peace churches are Christian churches groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism. Peace camps are a form of physical Protest camp that is focused on Anti-war activity Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of Imperialism. Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Pacificism is the general Ethical opposition to War or Violence, except in cases where force is deemed absolutely necessary to advance the cause of Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas In the context of Revolutionary struggle vanguardism is a strategy whereby an organization (usually a Vanguard party) attempts to place itself at the center of the An anti-war book is a book that is perceived as having an Anti-war theme An anti-war film is a Film that emphasizes the pain horror and human costs of armed conflict An Anti-war Song is a Musical composition that either states anti-war sentiments directly or one which is perceived (by the public and/or critics as having
The opposition to the war manifested itself most visibly in a series of global protests against the Iraq War during February 2003, just prior the Iraq invasion beginning on March 20, 2003. There have been considerable protests against the Iraq War in the buildup to and following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia
Critics of the invasion claimed that it would lead to the deaths of thousands of Coalition soldiers and Iraqi soldiers and civilians, and that it would moreover damage peace and stability throughout the region and the World. Note This article describes rationales against the Iraq War; for parties opposing it see Opposition to the Iraq War The U Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place
Another oft-stated reason for opposition is the Westphalian concept that foreign governments should never possess a right to intervene in another sovereign nation's internal affairs (including terrorism or any other non-international affair). The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of Giorgio Agamben, the Italian philosopher, has also offered a critique of the logic of preemptive war. Giorgio Agamben (born 1942 in Rome) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia.
Others did accept a limited right for military intervention in foreign countries, but nevertheless opposed the invasion on the basis that it was conducted without United Nations' approval and was hence a violation of international law . The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards According to this position, adherence by the U. S. and the other great powers to the UN Charter and to other international treaties to which they are legally bound is not a choice but a legal obligation; exercising military power in violation of the UN Charter undermines the rule of law and is illegal vigilantism on an international scale. A vigilante is a person who ignores Due process of law and enacts their own form of Justice in response to a perception of insufficient response by the Benjamin B. Ferencz, who served as the U. Benjamin Berell Ferencz (born March 11, 1920) is an American Lawyer. S. 's Chief Prosecutor of Nazi war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials following World War II, has denounced the Iraq War as an aggressive war (named at Nuremberg as "the supreme international crime") and stated his belief that George W. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A war of aggression is a Military conflict waged in the absence of "a necessity of self-defense instant overwhelming leaving no choice of means and no moment of deliberation Bush, as the war's initiator, should be tried for war crimes. 
There was also skepticism of U. S. claims that Iraq's aggressively secular government had any links to Al-Qaeda, the Islamic fundamentalist terrorist group considered responsible for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U. Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The Islamic fundamentalism Arabic: usul (from usul the "fundamentals"] is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the S.
Some expressed puzzlement that the U. S. would consider military action against Iraq and not against North Korea, which claimed it already had nuclear weapons and had announced that it was willing to contemplate war with the U. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, S. This criticism intensified when North Korea conducted a nuclear weapons test on October 9, 2006. The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic People's Republic Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
There was also criticism of Coalition policy by those who did not believe that military actions would help to fight terror, with some believing that it would actually help Al-Qaeda's recruitment efforts; others believed that the war and immediate post-war period would lead to a greatly increased risk that weapons of mass destruction would fall into the wrong hands (including Al-Qaeda). A weapon of mass destruction ( WMD) is a weapon which can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e
Both inside and outside of the U. S. , some argued that the Bush Administration's rationale for war was to gain control over Iraqi natural resources (primarily petroleum). Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit These critics felt that the war would not help to reduce the threat of WMD proliferation, and that the real reason for the war was to secure control over the Iraqi oil fields at a time when US links with Saudi Arabia were seen to be at risk. "No blood for oil" was a popular protest cry prior to the invasion in March 2003.
Some opponents of the war also believed that there would be no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, and thus there was little reason for an invasion. Prominent among these was Scott Ritter, a former U. William Scott Ritter Jr (born July 15 1961 is noted for his role as a chief United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq from 1991 to 1998 and later for his S. military intelligence officer and then a United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq, and who in 1998 had been hawkish enough toward Iraq as to be admonished by U. Military intelligence (abbreviated MI int Commonwealth, or intel United Nations Special Commission ( UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created by the United Nations to ensure Iraq 's compliance with policies concerning For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. S. Senator Joseph Biden, "The decision of whether or not the country should go to war is slightly above your pay grade. " Investigations after the invasion failed to produce evidence of WMDs in Iraq (apart from a very small number of degraded chemical weapons shells buried and forgotten after the Iran-Iraq War ended in 1988).
The Iraq War has met with considerable popular opposition in the United States, beginning during the planning stages and continuing through the invasion subsequent occupation of Iraq. The months leading up to the war saw protests across the United States, the largest of which, held on February 15, 2003 involved between 300,000 - 400,000 protesters in New York City, with smaller numbers protesting in Seattle, San Francisco, Chicago, and other cities. The February 15, 2003 anti-war protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world against the imminent invasion of Iraq.
Consistent with the anti-war sentiment of the protests, in the months leading up to the Iraq War, American public opinion heavily favored a diplomatic solution over immediate military intervention. A January 2003 CBS News/New York Times poll found that 63% of Americans wanted President Bush to find a diplomatic solution to the Iraq situation, compared with 31% who favored immediate military intervention. That poll also found, however, that if diplomacy failed, support for military action to remove Saddam Hussein was above 60 percent. 
Days before the March 20 invasion, a USA TODAY/CNN/Gallup Poll found support for the war was related to UN approval. Nearly six in 10 said they were ready for such an invasion "in the next week or two. " But that support dropped off if the U. N. backing was not first obtained. If the U. N. Security Council were to reject a resolution paving the way for military action, only 54% of Americans favored a U. S. invasion. And if the Bush administration did not seek a final Security Council vote, support for a war dropped to 47%. 
Immediately after the 2003 invasion most polls within the United States showed a substantial majority of Americans supporting war, but that trend began to shift less than a year after the war began. Beginning in December 2004, polls have consistently shown that a majority thinks the invasion was a mistake. As of 2006, opinion on what the U. S. should do in Iraq is split, with a slight majority generally favoring setting a timetable for withdrawal, but against withdrawing immediately. However, in this area responses vary widely with the exact wording of the question. 
Since the invasion of Iraq, one of the most visible leaders of popular opposition in the U. S. has been Cindy Sheehan, the mother of Casey Sheehan, a soldier killed in Iraq. Casey Austin Sheehan ( May 29 1979 &ndash April 4 2004) was a Specialist in the United States Army who was killed by enemy Sheehan's role as an anti-war leader began with her camping out near President Bush's ranch in Crawford, Texas, and has continued since then with a nationwide tour and trips to Europe and South America.
Several prominent members of the military and national security communities, particularly those who favor a more realist approach to international relations, have been critical of both the decision to invade Iraq and the prosecution of the War.
On July 28, 2002, eight months before the invasion of Iraq, the Washington Post reported that “many senior U. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D S. military officers” including members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff opposed an invasion on the grounds that the policy of containment was working. The Joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the Armed services in the United States armed forces 
A few days later, Gen. Joseph P. Hoar (Ret. General Joseph P Hoar (born December 30 1934 is a retired US Marine Corps officer former Commander in Chief of United States Central Command. ) warned the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the invasion was risky and perhaps unnecessary. Morton Halperin, a foreign policy expert with the Council on Foreign Relations and Center for American Progress warned that an invasion would increase the terrorist threat. Morton H Halperin (born June 13, 1938) is an American expert on foreign policy and civil liberties The Council on Foreign Relations ( CFR) is an American Nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (at The Center for American Progress is an American liberal political policy research and advocacy organization 
In a 2002 book, Scott Ritter, a Nuclear Weapons Inspector in Iraq from 1991-98, argued against an invasion and expressed doubts about the Bush Administration’s claims that Saddam Hussein had a WMD capability. William Scott Ritter Jr (born July 15 1961 is noted for his role as a chief United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq from 1991 to 1998 and later for his A weapon of mass destruction ( WMD) is a weapon which can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e 
Brent Scowcroft, who served as National Security Adviser to President George H.W. Bush was an early critic. Brent Scowcroft (born March 19 1925 in Ogden Utah) was the United States National Security Advisor under Presidents Gerald Ford and George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 He wrote an August 15, 2002 editorial in The Wall Street Journal entitled "Don't attack Saddam," arguing that the war would distract from the broader fight against terrorism and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which should be the U. S. 's highest priority in the Middle East. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.  The next month, Gen. Hugh Shelton, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, agreed that war in Iraq would distract from the war on terrorism. General Henry Hugh Shelton (born January 2, 1942) is a retired American career military officer The Joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the Armed services in the United States armed forces 
Retired Marine Gen. Anthony Zinni, former head of Central Command for U. Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17 1943 is a retired four-star General in the United States Marine Corps and a former Commander in Chief of U S. forces in the Middle East and State Department's envoy to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, echoed many of Scowcroft's concerns in an October 2002 speech at the Middle East Institute. In a follow-up interview with Salon, Zinni said he was "not convinced we need to do this now," arguing that deposing Saddam Hussein was only the sixth or seventh top priority in the Middle East, behind the Middle East peace process, reforming Iran, our commitments in Afghanistan, and several others. Saloncom, part of Salon Media Group ( often just called Salon, is an online 
By January 19, 2003, TIME Magazine reported that “as many as 1 in 3 senior officers questions the wisdom of a preemptive war with Iraq. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and ”
On February 13, 2003 Ambassador Joseph Wilson, former charge d'affaires in Baghdad, resigned from the Foreign Service and publicly questioned the need for another War in Iraq. For information about the American political scandal pertaining to Joseph C In diplomacy chargé d’affaires ( French for “charged with (in charge of matters” is the title of two classes of diplomatic agents who head a diplomatic The United States Foreign Service is the diplomatic service of the United States government under the aegis of the Department of State.  After the War started, he wrote an editorial in the New York Times titled What I Didn't Find in Africa that discredited a Bush Administration claim that Iraq had attempted to procure uranium from Niger. 
John Brady Kiesling, another career diplomat with similar reservations, resigned in a public letter in the New York Times on February 27. John Brady Kiesling is a former US diplomat and author of "Diplomacy Lessons Realism for an Unloved Superpower"  He was followed on March 10 by John H. Brown, a career diplomat with 22 years of service,  and on March 19 by Mary Ann Wright, a diplomat with 15 years of service in the State Department following a military career of 29 years. John Brown is a Senior Fellow at USC Center on Public Diplomacy where he regularly publishes the Public Diplomacy Press Review Mary Ann Wright (born 1947 is a retired United States Army Colonel and retired official of the U  The war started the next day.
Lt. Col. Karen Kwiatkowski (Ret. Karen U Kwiatkowski (born 24 September 1960) is a retired US Air Force Lieutenant Colonel whose assignments included duties as a ) was political/military desk officer at the Defense Department’s office for Near East South Asia (NESA) in the months before the war. In December 2003 she began to write an anonymous column that described the disrupting influence of the Office of Special Plans on the analysis that led to the decision to go to war. The Office of Special Plans (OSP which existed from September 2002 to June 2003 was a Pentagon unit created by Paul Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith, and 
On June 16, 2004 twenty seven former senior U. S. diplomats and military commanders called Diplomats and Military Commanders for Change issued a statement against the war. Diplomats and Military Commanders for Change is an ad hoc organization in the United States of 27 retired Foreign Service and U  The group included:
Richard Clarke, former chief counter-terrorism adviser on the U.S. National Security Council for both the latter part of the Clinton Administration and early part of the George W. Henry Allen Holmes (born January 11, 1933) was the United States Ambassador to Portugal from 1982 to 1985 and a career diplomat Donald Franchot McHenry ( October 13 1936 -) was the United States Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations from September 1979 The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Merrill Anthony "Tony" McPeak (born January 9, 1936) is a former Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force. Jack Foust Matlock Jr (born 1929 is a former American Ambassador, career Foreign Service Officer, a teacher a Historian, and a linguist A National Security Council (NSC is usually an Executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 John Edward Reinhardt (born 1920 is a retired American Ambassador and Diplomat. The United States Information Agency ( USIA) which existed from 1953 to 1999 was a United States agency devoted to Public diplomacy. Ronald Ian “Ron” Spiers (born July 9, 1925) was a former career diplomat and United States Ambassador. Stansfield M Turner (born December 1, 1923 in Highland Park, Illinois, USA) was an Admiral and Director of Central near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The White House National Security Council ( NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President for considering National The United States Presidency of Bill Clinton, also known as the Clinton Administration, was the executive branch of the Federal Bush Administration, criticized the Iraq war along similar lines in his 2004 book Against All Enemies and during his testimony before the 9/11 Commission. Against All Enemies Inside America's War on Terror (ISBN 0-743-26823-7 is a 2004 book by former U 9/11 Commission ReportThe National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002 In addition to diverting funds from the fight against al-Qaeda, Clarke argued that the invasion of Iraq would actually bolster the efforts of Osama bin Laden and other Islamic radicals, who had long predicted that the U. Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March S. planned to invade an oil-rich Middle Eastern country.
Similar arguments were made in a May 2004 interview and an August 2005 article by Lt. Gen. William Odom, former Director of the National Security Agency. William Eldridge Odom ( June 23, 1932 — May 30, 2008) was a retired U The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government 
In April 2006, six prominent retired generals publicly criticized Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's handling of the war, and called for his resignation. Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9 1932 is a United States Businessman, Politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President  The group included two generals who commanded troops in Iraq: Maj. Gen. Charles H. Swannack, Jr. (Ret. Charles H Swannack Jr is a former officer in the United States Army. ) and Maj. Gen. John Batiste (Ret. Major General John Batiste (*ca 1953 is a retired officer of the United States Army. ).  One of the generals, Lieut. Gen. Greg Newbold (Ret. Lieutenant General Gregory S Newbold is a retired United States Marine Corps 3-star general who served as Director of Operations (J-3 for the Joint Chiefs of Staff ), who served as the Pentagon's top operations officer during the months leading up to the invasion, also published an article that month in Time Magazine entitled "Why Iraq Was a Mistake. " 
On September 12, 2007, two retired U. S. Army generals, Lt. Gen. Robert Gard and Brig. Gen. John Johns, joined Sen. Gary Hart in publishing a statement calling for withdrawal from Iraq. For the football player see Gary Hart (footballer. Gary Hart (born Gary Warren Hartpence, November 28, 1936 Robert Gard is the Senior Military Fellow at the Center for Arms Control and Non Proliferation, John Johns is on the board of directors for the Council for a Livable World, and Gary Hart is the Council's chairman. The Council for a Livable World is a non partisan non profit policy organization focused on political action to reduce nuclear weapons and increase national security The Council was founded 
In October of 2007, Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez, former commander of coalition forces in Iraq, called the 2007 "surge" a "flawed strategy", and suggested that the political leadership in the US would have been court martialed for their actions, had they been military personnel. Lieutenant General Ricardo S Sanchez (born 1951 is a retired United States Army general who served as the V Corps commander of coalition forces 
There have been several individual refusals to ship (e. g. , Pablo Paredes, and 1st Lt. Pablo Paredes (b 1981, The Bronx, New York) was a Petty Officer Third Class and weapons-control technician in the United States Navy Ehren Watada) or to carry out missions (e. Ehren Watada (born 1978 is a First Lieutenant of the United States Army who in June 2006 refused to deploy to Iraq for his unit's assigned rotation g. 343rd Quartermasters).  Soon after the war began, 67% of surveyed US soldiers in Iraq told Stars and Stripes that the invasion was worthwhile, though half described their units' morale as "low. Stars and Stripes is the Newspaper published for the United States Armed Forces overseas "  A Zogby poll in March 2006 found that 72% of US soldiers in Iraq say the war should be ended within a year, and a quarter say that all troops should be withdrawn immediately. John Zogby (born 1948) is an American political pollster and first senior fellow at The Catholic University of America 's Life Cycle Institute 
Iraq Veterans Against the War (IVAW) was formed in 2004 to help antiwar soldiers network and seek solidarity from one another. Iraq Veterans Against the War ( IVAW) is an advocacy group of active duty military personnel Iraq War veterans Afghanistan War veterans and other IVAW held a Winter Soldier event, from March 13 through March 16, 2008, during which U. Iraq Veterans Against the War ( IVAW) is an advocacy group of active duty military personnel Iraq War veterans Afghanistan War veterans and other Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common S. veterans will speak of their experiences during the Iraq War. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign  The Pacifica Radio network is broadcasting the proceedings live, and streaming audio and video of the event is also available. Pacifica Radio is a network of five independently operated non-commercial listener-supported Radio stations in the United States that is known for its progressive 
|Congressional opposition to|
U. S. wars and interventions
|1812 North America|
House Federalists’ Address
|1917 World War I|
Filibuster of the Armed Ship Bill
|1970 Southeast Asia|
Repeal of Tonkin Gulf Resolution
|1973 Southeast Asia|
War Powers Resolution
|1974 Covert Ops (General)|
House Concurrent Resolution 63
Opinion in the U. Robert Marion La Follette Sr nicknamed "Fighting Bob" La Follette ( June 14, 1855 June 20, 1925) was an American The Neutrality Acts were a series of laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia The Ludlow Amendment was a proposed amendment to the Constitution of the United States which called for a national Referendum on any Declaration of The McGovern-Hatfield amendment (alternately Hatfield-McGovern amendment) was a proposed amendment in 1970 during the Vietnam War that if passed would have required The Cooper-Church Amendment was introduced in the United States Senate during the Vietnam War. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (officially the Southeast Asia Resolution Public Law 88-408 was addressed by Lyndon B The Case-Church Amendment was a piece of Legislation that prohibited U The War Powers Act of 1973 ( also referred to as the War Powers Resolution is a resolution of the Congress of The United States of America that stated that the President of The Hughes-Ryan Act is a 1974 United States federal law that amended the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 The Clark Amendment was an amendment to the US Arms Export Control Act of 1976 named for its sponsor Senator Dick Clark (D-Iowa The Boland Amendment was the name given to three US legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984 all aimed at limiting US government assistance to the The surge is a phrase commonly used to describe United States President George W S. Congress leading up to the Iraq War generally favored a diplomatic solution, while supporting military intervention should diplomacy fail. The October 11, 2002 resolution that authorized President Bush to use force in Iraq passed the Senate by a vote of 77 to 23, and the House by 296 to 133.  Leading opponents of the resolution included Senators Russ Feingold and Edward Kennedy. Russell Dana "Russ" Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (born February 22 1932 is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic
As the war progressed and the insurgency began to develop into what many believe is a civil war in Iraq, Congressional support for the Iraq campaign began to wane. Following the US -launched 2003 invasion of Iraq, the situation deteriorated and by 2007 the conflict between Iraqi Sunni and Shi'a factions was A flashpoint came on November 17, 2005, when Representative John Murtha, a Vietnam combat veteran who voted to authorize the war and is widely regarded as an ardent supporter of the military, introduced a resolution calling for U. John Patrick “Jack” Murtha Jr (born 17 June 1932 is an American politician from the U The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia S. forces in Iraq to be "redeployed at the earliest practicable date" to stand as a quick-reaction force in U. S. bases in neighboring countries such as Kuwait. The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed 
Since the introduction of the Murtha resolution, many members of Congress, particularly in the Democratic Party, have rallied around the strategy of a phased troop withdrawal. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. In the 2007 Congressional session, critics of the war have sought to tie additional war appropriations to a specific timetable for withdrawal. On March 23, 2007, the House of Representatives passed an Iraq spending bill that requires that troops begin withdrawing in March 2008 and that most US forces be out of Iraq by August 31, 2008. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate.  This bill is still under debate in the U. S. Senate.
Congressional critics of the war have also opposed President Bush's plan to send an additional 20,000 U. S. soldiers to Iraq. On January 10, 2007, Senator Dick Durbin gave the Democratic response to this plan by saying: "We have given the Iraqis so much. . . Now, in the fourth year of this war, it is time for the Iraqis to stand and defend their own nation. "
The Iraq War was the defining issue of the 2004 U. S. presidential campaign. All of the Republican candidates and most of the Democratic candidates supported the war, although most of the Democrats also criticized the war's prosecution. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party.
Howard Dean, former governor of Vermont, was notable for his opposition to the war, in particular because his early lead in the polls was largely attributed to his anti-war position. Howard Brush Dean III, (born November 17 1948 is an American Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Dennis Kucinich, another candidate for the Democratic nomination, favored replacement of the U. Dennis John Kucinich (kuˈsɪnɪtʃ (born October 8[[ 946]] is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives and was a candidate for S. occupation force with one sponsored by the UN, as did Ralph Nader's independent presidential candidacy. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Ralph Nader (born February 27 1934 is an American Attorney, Author, Lecturer, political activist, and independent candidate for President
John Kerry, the Democratic nominee for President in 2004, voted to authorize the invasion, and said during his campaign that he stood by his vote. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. He also argued during the campaign that "the way he (President Bush) went to war was a mistake. " The debate about Iraq war is already a major theme in the 2008 U. S. presidential election campaign.
In the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign, candidates Representative Ron Paul, Senator Barack Obama, Senator Chris Dodd, Dennis Kucinich, and Mike Gravel are some of the most outspoken critics of the Iraq War. The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled for Tuesday November 4 2008 will be the 56th consecutive Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944) is an American Lawyer and Democratic Politician, who is currently serving Dennis John Kucinich (kuˈsɪnɪtʃ (born October 8[[ 946]] is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives and was a candidate for Maurice Robert "Mike" Gravel (grəˈvɛl (born May 13 1930 is a former Democratic United States Senator from Alaska, who served two terms from Ron Paul has said that "The war in Iraq was sold to us with false information. The area is more dangerous now than when we entered it. We destroyed a regime hated by our direct enemies, the jihadists, and created thousands of new recruits for them. This war has cost more than 3,000 American lives, thousands of seriously wounded, and hundreds of billions of dollars. " Barack Obama was not a senator at the time of the voting of the Iraq War Resolution, but has repeatedly voiced his disapproval of it both before and after his senatorship, saying at an anti war rally in Chicago on October 2, 2002: "I am not opposed to all wars. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. I’m opposed to dumb wars. "  Dodd voted in favor of the Iraq War Resolution in 2002, but Dodd has since become an opponent of the war. " Iraq Resolution " and " Iraq War Resolution " are popular names for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002  Dodd has said the Iraq War has been waged “for all the wrong reasons” and that it is eroding both the nation's security and its moral leadership. The term homeland security refers to the broad national effort by all levels of government to protect its territory from hazards both internal and external natural and man-made 
Around the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation of Iraq, polling data indicated that opposition to military action against Iraq was widespread in Europe . The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Iraq War|2007 in Iraq|2008 in IraqThe post-invasion period in Iraq
'Anti-Bush' and anti-war sentiments were reflected in many western European countries, generally with the populace less sympathetic to the U. A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical A stencil is a Template used to draw or paint identical letters, Symbols, Shapes or Patterns every S. stance even when the government in a given country (e. g. the United Kingdom, or Italy) aligned themselves with the U. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest S. position. Opinion polls showed the population was against the war, with opposition as high as 90% in Spain and Italy, and also widespread in Eastern Europe. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  Some suggested that the reason for the EU's negative view of the war are Europe's economic interests in the region . However, the electorates of France and Germany were strongly opposed to the war and it would have been difficult for their governments to fail to reflect these views. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
After the first UN resolution, the US and the UK pushed for a second resolution authorising an invasion. The French and German governments, amongst others, took the position that the UN inspection process should be allowed to be completed. France's then-Foreign Minister, Dominique de Villepin received loud applause for his speech against the Iraq War at the United Nations on February 14, 2003. Dominique de Villepin (born Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (dɔminik də vilpɛ̃ &mdash) on 14 November 1953 in Rabat, Morocco Neither of these countries have sent troops to Iraq. However, despite popular opinion in their countries, the governments of Italy and Spain supported the war politically and militarily, although Spain ceased to do so after the election of a Socialist government in 2004 partly due to anger about the war in Iraq. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, commonly abbreviated by its Spanish initials PSOE ( P artido S ocialista O brero E spañol is
In the United Kingdom, both the governing Labour Party and the official opposition Conservative Party were in favour of the invasion. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Liberal Democrats insisted on a U. The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the N. resolution; they opposed the war as a result. Outside parliament, anti-war sentiment was more widespread: the 15 February 2003 protest in London attracted between 750,000 and 2,000,000 supporters from various walks of life. The February 15, 2003 anti-war protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world against the imminent invasion of Iraq. Prominent politicians and other individuals expressing anti-war views included: Charles Kennedy, Sir Menzies Campbell, Robin Cook, Tony Benn, George Galloway, Chris Martin, Ms. Dynamite, and Bianca Jagger. Charles Peter Kennedy (born 25 November 1959 is a British politician. Sir Walter Menzies Campbell CBE QC (born 22 May 1941) commonly known as Ming Campbell, is a British Politician Robert Finlayson Cook (28 February 1946 &ndash 6 August 2005 better known as " Robin Cook " was a Politician in the British Labour Anthony "Tony" Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925 formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British Socialist Politician. George Galloway (born 16 August 1954 in Dundee) is a Scottish Politician, author and talkshow host noted for his Left-wing views confrontational style Christopher Anthony John Martin (born 2 March 1977 is the English lead Singer-songwriter, Pianist, and occasional rhythm Guitarist of the Bianca Jagger (born Bianca Pérez-Mora Macías on May 2, 1950) is a social and Human rights advocate also former model
Opinion polls showed that the population of nearly all countries opposed a war without UN mandate, and that the view of the United States as a danger to world peace had significantly increased. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.   
On September 13, 2002, US Catholic bishops signed a letter to President Bush stating that any "preemptive, unilateral use of military force to overthrow the government of Iraq" could not be justified at the time. Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. They came to this position by evaluating whether an attack against Iraq would satisfy the criteria for a just war as defined by Catholic theology. Just War theory is a Doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin studied by moral Theologians Ethicists and international 
The Vatican also came out against war in Iraq. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Archbishop Renato Raffaele Martino, a former U. Renato Raffaele Martino (born 23 November 1932) is an Italian Cardinal Deacon, and President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace N. envoy and current prefect of the Council for Justice and Peace, told reporters that war against Iraq was a preventive war and constituted a "war of aggression", and thus did not constitute a just war. A Preventive war or Preventative war is a War initiated under the belief that future conflict is inevitable though not imminent The foreign minister, Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, expressed concerns that a war in Iraq would inflame anti-Christian feelings in the Islamic world. On February 8, 2003, Pope John Paul II said "we should never resign ourselves, almost as if war is inevitable. Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Pope " 
Both the outgoing Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, and his successor, Rowan Williams, spoke out against war with Iraq. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the } George Leonard Carey Baron Carey of Clifton PC FKC (born 13 November 1935) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1991 to 2002 Rowan Douglas Williams, PC, DD, DCL, FBA, (born 14 June 1950 in Swansea, Wales) is an Anglican
The executive committee of the World Council of Churches, an organization representing churches with a combined membership of between 350 million and 450 million Christians from over 100 countries,  issued a statement in opposition to war with Iraq, stating that "War against Iraq would be immoral, unwise, and in breach of the principles of the United Nations Charter. The World Council of Churches ( WCC) is an international " 
Jim Wallis of Sojourners Magazine has argued that, among both evangelical Christians and Catholics, "most major church bodies around the world" opposed the war. The Reverend Jim Wallis (b June 4 1948, Detroit Michigan) is an evangelical Christian writer and political activist best known as the founder Sojourners Magazine, a monthly publication of the Christian social justice organization Sojourners was first published in 1971 under the original title of The Post-American. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". 
Across the world popular opposition to the Iraq war has led to thousands of protests since 2002, against the invasion of Iraq. There have been considerable protests against the Iraq War in the buildup to and following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. They were held in many cities worldwide, often co-ordinated to occur simultaneously worldwide. After the simultaneous demonstrations, on February 15, 2003, the largest in total turnout, New York Times writer Patrick Tyler claimed that they showed that there were two superpowers on the planet: the United States and world public opinion. The February 15, 2003 anti-war protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world against the imminent invasion of Iraq. " Second Superpower " is a term used to conceptualize a global Civil society as a world force comparable to or counterbalancing the United States of America The United States of America —commonly referred to as the As the war drew nearer, other groups held candlelight vigils and students walked out of school.
The February 15, 2003, worldwide protests drew millions of people across the world. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. It is generally estimated that over 3 million people marched in Rome, between one and two million in London, more than 600,000 in Madrid, 300,000 in Berlin, as well as in Damascus, Paris, New York, Oslo, Stockholm, Brussels, Johannesburg, Montreal - more than 600 cities in all, worldwide. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous (called Christiania from 1624 to 1878 and Kristiania from 1878 to 1924 is the Capital and largest city of Norway. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Johannesburg ( Pronounced /jō-hān'ĭs-bûrg'/ is the largest city in South Africa. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec This demonstration was listed by the 2004 Guinness Book of Records as the largest mass protest movement in history. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U
There has been a debate among those opposed to the U. S. invasion and subsequent occupation of Iraq in developed countries about how to relate to forces within Iraq.
Prior to the invasion, while it was common to accuse opponents of providing objective, if not intentional, support to Saddam,   none of the major antiwar organizations declared any support for him, however limited.  After the invasion and the toppling of Saddam's regime, some who had opposed it now supported continuing U. S. occupation, arguing that the U. S. ' intervention had given it an obligation to stabilize the country. However, those who remained opposed to the U. S. presence had to determine their approach to the developing armed insurgency and peaceful opposition to the occupation carried out by groups like the Worker-Communist Party of Iraq (WCPI). The Iraqi insurgency is composed of diverse mix of militias foreign fighters all Iraqi units or mixtures using violent measures against the US-led Coalition in Iraq The Worker-Communist Party of Iraq ( Arabic: Hizb al-Shuyu'i al-'Ummali al-'Iraqi) is a Marxist Political party in Iraq and amongst
The most virulent divide has been about whether to support the insurgency. Of the major Western antiwar organizations, United for Peace and Justice has never supported the insurgency, but Act Now to Stop War and End Racism and the Stop the War Coalition have a more ambivalent stance on this subject. United for Peace and Justice ( UFPJ) is a coalition of more than 1300 international and U Act Now to Stop War and End Racism — also known as International A The Stop the War Coalition (StWC (informally just Stop the War) is a United Kingdom Anti-war group set up on 21 September 2001 Of the smaller groups which participate in these coalitions, none support suicide bombings of Iraqi civilians, but some support violence against coalition soldiers. This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants
At a 2004 conference in Japan, Eric Ruder, of the U. S. -based International Socialist Organization, presented a case for supporting the guerrillas. This article is about the International Socialist Organization in the United States. Citing the primarily decentralized and domestic nature of the insurgency,  the fact that a clear majority of attacks are directed against U. S. and British forces,  and widespread Iraqi support for violent resistance,  Ruder argues that the insurgents' cause and methods are, on the whole, just and deserves support. He claims that the Iraqi right to self-determination precludes Western opponents of the occupation placing conditions on their support of the Iraqi resistance, and argues that, "If the Iraqi resistance drives the U. Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their S. out of Iraq, it would be a major setback for Bush's agenda and the agenda of the U.S. imperialism. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. American Empire is a term referring to the political economic military and cultural influence of the United States. This would be a tremendous victory for our side -- making it much more difficult for the U. S. to choose a new target in the Middle East or elsewhere in trying to impose its will. " 
Sato Kazuyoshi, President of the Japanese Movement for Democratic Socialism, argues otherwise. Reporting on the discussion at the 2004 conference, he writes that, "We cannot support, nor extend our solidarity to, them on the grounds that their strategy excludes many Iraqi citizens -- above all, women -- and do great harm on the civilians, and will bring the Iraqi future society under an Islamic dictatorship. " He cites in turn Mahmood Ketabchi of the WCPI, who criticizes Iraqi guerrilla groups for Baathist and Islamist connections, and attacks Ruder's view as a "Left Nationalism" which ignores divisions within Iraq. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Countering the response that the best way to ensure that progressive forces, not reactionary ones, dominate post-occupation Iraq would be for progressives to take the lead in fighting the occupation, Ketabchi argues that this is not possible due to the present situation in Iraq. Nevertheless, he claims, "We do not have to choose between the US and Iraqi reactionary forces. Opposition to the US is not a progressive stand per se. What matters is the kind of future that this opposition represents and objectives it pursues. " A third alternative is represented by what Kazuyoshi calls the "Civil Resistance. Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed " 
In Britain, positions have ranged from groups including the Socialist Workers Party (Britain) and Workers Power that take a similar line to the ISO as mentioned above, to groups such as the Alliance for Workers Liberty (who identify with the third camp tradition within Trotskyism) which opposes the insurgency, while supporting the democratic, working-class anti-occupation movement in Iraq. The Socialist Workers Party ( SWP) is the largest political party of the Far left in Britain that stands in the revolutionary socialist tradition The Alliance for Workers' Liberty (AWL also known as Workers' Liberty, is a Marxist group based in the United Kingdom. The third camp, also known as third camp socialism or third camp Trotskyism, is a branch of Socialism which aims to support neither Capitalism Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
See also Worldwide government positions on war on Iraq for pre-war positions. This article is about the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. For more information on this particular part of the topic see Support and opposition for the 2003 invasion of Iraq
The following countries have protested formally and officially the prosecution of this war. They oppose the Iraq War in principle, citing in some cases that they believe it is illegal, and in others that it required a United Nations mandate. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The 54 countries named below include all 7 of the most populous countries of the world (other than the USA), which 7 comprise half of the world's population. The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time