Operation Murambatsvina (English: Operation Drive Out Trash or Operation Drive Out Rubbish), also officially known as Operation Restore Order, is a large scale Zimbabwean government campaign to forcibly clear slum areas across the country. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election A slum, as defined by the United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security The campaign started in 2005 and according to United Nations estimates has affected at least 2. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 4 million people.  Robert Mugabe and other government officials characterize the operation as a crackdown against illegal housing and commercial activities, and as an effort to reduce the risk of the spread of infectious disease in these areas. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society House generally refers to a Shelter or Building that is a Dwelling or place for Habitation by Human beings.
However, the campaign has met with harsh condemnation from Zimbabwean opposition parties, church groups, non-governmental organizations, and the wider international community. The international community is a vague term used in International relations to refer to all the countries of the world or to a group of them The United Nations has described the campaign as an effort to drive out and make homeless large sections of the urban and rural poor, who comprise much of the internal opposition to the Mugabe administration. Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing because they cannot afford or are otherwise unable to maintain regular safe and adequate shelter
Zimbabweans refer to the operation as "Zimbabwe's Tsunami", in reference to the devastation which followed the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea Earthquake that occurred at 005853 UTC on December 26 2004 with an Epicentre off the west coast of The crackdown has affected most of the major cities in the country, and the Zimbabwean government has stated its intention to widen the operation to include rural farming areas. Estimates of the number of people affected vary considerably. The latest United Nations figures estimate that it has led to the unemployment of 700,000 people and affected a further 2. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 4 million people countrywide.  Earlier, the Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum estimated that 64,677 families had been displaced, representing a total of approximately 323,385 people (this estimate was based on figures from 45 locations). However, according to the government only 120,000 people have been affected.
Whichever figures are correct, large numbers of people have been affected, all of whom are in need of emergency relief and resettlement following the loss of their homes and livelihood. The clearances have been condemned both internally and internationally. A report written by Anna Tibaijuka, the Executive Director of the UN Human Settlements Programme, was handed to the Zimbabwean government on July 21, 2005. Dr Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka is an Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Excerpts from the report, which calls for all demolitions to be stopped immediately,  were made public the following day and describe the operation as a "disastrous venture" which has violated international law and led to a serious humanitarian crisis. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster" is an event or series of events which represents a critical threat to the health safety security or wellbeing of a community The actions of the government are described as indiscriminate, unjustified and conducted without regard for human suffering. The Washington Post on February 7, 2008 described how some men and women displaced from Harare are now walking 28 km (18 miles) - 5 hours round-trip every day to work (furthermore without breakfast), because the individual bus fare for one day now costs nearly a week's wages - ZW$10 million. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Harare (həˈrɑreɪ or /həˈrɑri/ formerly Salisbury) is the Capital of Zimbabwe.
Overall responsibility for the clearances rests with the ruling party, ZANU-PF. The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF is a Zimbabwean Political party that was the ruling government in Zimbabwe The previous Chairperson of the Harare Commission, Dr. Jameson Kurasha, initiated Operation Murambatsvina weeks after the disputed elections were held there. A parliamentary election was held in Zimbabwe on March 31, 2005 to elect members to the Zimbabwe House of Assembly. The Harare Commission is currently running the affairs of the City of Harare despite the fact that there is a pending application to the High Court questioning its authority to do so. Harare (həˈrɑreɪ or /həˈrɑri/ formerly Salisbury) is the Capital of Zimbabwe. The Commission itself was appointed by Ignatious Chombo, the Minister of Local Government, Public Works and Urban Development, leading one Zimbabwean newspaper to comment that "President Mugabe, through the Minister of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing, Ignatious Chombo, is now effectively in control of the City of Harare". Ignatious Morgan Chombo (born August 1 1952) is a Zimbabwean politician currently serving as the Minister of Local Government Public Works and Urban 
Mugabe said the clearances are needed in order to carry out "a vigorous clean-up campaign to restore sanity" and he has described the program as an "urban renewal campaign. " Ignatious Chombo has described the operation in terms of 'restoring order': "It is these people who have been making the country ungovernable by their criminal activities actually. " The Zimbabwean Police Commissioner, Augustine Chihuri, said that Operation Murambatsvina was meant to "clean the country of the crawling mass of maggots bent on destroying the economy. "
While police have carried out most of the demolitions, they have been supported by the army and the green bombers. Many inhabitants have been forced to destroy their own homes, sometimes at gunpoint. 
People whose homes have been demolished are being told to return to the rural areas or face further action from the Zimbabwe Republic Police and the dreaded Central Intelligence Organization. The Zimbabwe Republic Police (or ZRP) is the national police force of Zimbabwe, known until July 1980 as the British South Africa Police. The Central Intelligence Organisation ( CIO) is the national Intelligence agency or " Secret police " of Zimbabwe. Education Minister Aeneas Chigwedere claimed that there is "nobody in Zimbabwe who does not have a rural home". Aeneas Chigwedere (born 25 November 1939) is a Zimbabwean politician historian and educationist 
The Zimbabwean government has argued that Operation Murambatsvina is about restoring order (see Background section). However, the timing of the clearances, so soon after the disputed parliamentary elections on March 31, 2005, combined with the contradictory nature of the operation, has prompted commentators to state that there are alternative reasons for the demolitions, although most say a combination of many of these.
The opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) has argued that the government's main reason for Murambatsvina is to punish the urban poor for voting for the opposition during the March parliamentary elections. The Movement for Democratic Change ( MDC) is a Zimbabwean Political party. The cities are traditionally MDC strongholds, and, in fact, the Harare Commission that initiated the campaign was set up to override the governing powers of the elected MDC City Council. A city council is a form of Local government, usually covering a City or other Urban area, such as a Town. However, the retribution rationale is slightly undermined by the fact that some Zanu-PF supporters have also been caught up in the squatter camp clearances. Retributive justice is a Theory of Justice that considers that proportionate punishment is a morally acceptable response to Crime, with The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF is a Zimbabwean Political party that was the ruling government in Zimbabwe Shanty towns (also called Squatter camps or Favelas are settlements (sometimes illegal or unauthorized of impoverished people who live in improvised
Some commentators have noted the alarming similarity between the name of this operation and the Gukurahundi campaign conducted against the Matabele civilians in the early 1980s. The Gukurahundi ( Shona: "the early rain which washes away the Chaff before the spring rains" refers to an armed conflict between the Zimbabwe Government This article relates to the Ndebele people of Zimbabwe For other uses of the term please see Ndebele. The Gukurahundi campaign ultimately resulted in the demise of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) when it merged with Robert Mugabe's party in 1987. Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo ( June 19, 1917 &ndash July 1, 1999) was the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African People's Union Zimbabwe African People's Union is a defunct militant Communist organization and political party that fought for the National liberation of Zimbabwe from Zimbabwe African People's Union is a defunct militant Communist organization and political party that fought for the National liberation of Zimbabwe from Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) There has been speculation that the government is aiming to create a situation where the MDC has no choice but to merge with the ruling party.
Commentators also argue that by forcing urban voters out into the rural areas the cities will be de-populated of MDC supporters thus enabling the government to re-populate the shanty town areas with Zanu-PF supporters. Shanty towns (also called Squatter camps or Favelas are settlements (sometimes illegal or unauthorized of impoverished people who live in improvised Further, MDC supporters will be forced to return to live in areas traditionally viewed as Zanu-PF strongholds.
Science and Technology Deputy Minister Patrick Zhuwawo used state media to say that the government had demarcated nearly 10,000 residential stands at Whitecliff Farm for allocation to what he called "deserving people". Within a urban area there is a tendency for land uses to Aggregate.  The Independent, a Zimbabwe newspaper, has interpreted this to mean Zanu-PF supporters and supports the view by identifying the presence of "Zanu-PF sharks" at the centre where people were meant to sign up for new stands.  A different source reported that, in Bulawayo, a Zanu-PF representative was tasked with compiling a list of future stand beneficiaries and that the resulting list was dominated by the names of known Zanu-PF supporters. Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe, after the capital Harare, with a population of 676000 (UN Humanitarian Co-ordinator Zimbabwe 2005 now estimated One opposition supporter, whose name was not on the list, alleges that he was bluntly told that he supported the wrong party. 
It has also been speculated that the campaign, under the guise of destroying 'illegal' structures, is designed to whip up urban supporter anger towards the City Council that they elected. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Nearly all the inhabitants of the shanty town claim that they were originally moved there in 1992 after the Government promised them that it was only temporary until new housing was built and temporary housing will be brought in shortly. However True to Mugabe's form, no temporary housing was brought in Let alone any New housing projects were started, and people started developing their own houses/Shacks without any Government Support. Many demolished structures were built with City Council permission, and some victims claim that they have paid rates and taxes, meaning that their homes should therefore be legal in the eyes of the council. Rates ( pron 'Ratɨʃ is a Portuguese parish and town located in the municipality of Póvoa de Varzim. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Commentators have suggested that the injustice of demolishing a structure seen by the owner as legal could be designed to whip up anger against the MDC elected City Council, thus compromising the MDC's support base in the urban areas. In fact, as stated in the previous section, the operation was initiated outside the auspices of the City Council by the Harare Commission.
There were many reports in the immediate aftermath of the 2005 parliamentary elections, widely viewed by the west as neither free nor fair, of potential mass uprisings against the government. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In fact, Catholic Archbishop Pius Ncube, a respected human rights activist and outspoken critic of the government, publicly called for a peaceful uprising before the elections took place, claiming that the elections had already been fixed. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead His Grace the Most Reverend Dr Pius Alick Mvundla Ncube (born December 31, 1946) served as the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Bulawayo Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change The word critic comes from the Greek el κριτικός ( el-Latn kritikós) "able to discern" which in turn derives from the word 
It has been argued that, by dispersing MDC supporters to remote rural locations, the Zanu-PF government would find it easier to control an angry population in the event of possible riots or mass protests. Riots are a form of Civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of Violence, Vandalism or other Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed David Coltart, the MDC's legal affairs spokesperson, described the operation as a sinister pre-emptive strike designed to remove the maximum possible number of people from urban areas to rural areas where they are easier to control". David Coltart (born October 4 1957 in Gwelo, Southern Rhodesia) is a Zimbabwean politician 
Other sources suggest that Mengistu Haile Mariam, who fled to Harare in 1991 and now acts as President Robert Mugabe's security adviser, warned the Zimbabwean leader that the swelling slum and backyard population in Zimbabwe was creating a fertile ground for a mass uprising. Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም məngɨstu hi lə maryam (born 1937 a repression campaign against the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party and
The Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum has advanced another reason for pre-emptively dispersing citizens living in opposition party strongholds. They point to the fact that the government faces an unprecedented economic crisis characterised by fuel and food shortages, rampant hyperinflation, and virtually no foreign currency. Certain figures in this article use Scientific notation for readability In order to resolve the crisis, they argue that the Zanu-PF government will be forced, against its will, to re-engage with the international community:
This means a reversal of its whole style of governing, adherence to the rule of law, an end to political violence and repression, opening of the press and media space, and a cessation of all interference with citizens basic freedoms.
The suggestion therefore is that if totalitarian controls were relaxed - to satisfy international principles and standards - the government would suddenly be exposed to protest and civic pressure. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private In other words, Operation Murambatsvina may be less to do with fear of protests immediately following the elections (which could be controlled using current methods which rely on a politicised police and army), and more to do with controlling the population after heavy-handed measures were dispensed with:
It is predicated on the observation that the greatest risk to repressive governments comes when they seek to liberalise. In general liberalization (or liberalisation) refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions usually in areas of social or economic policy 
Zimbabwean 2005 election experiences give some credence to this view. Anticipating electoral observers coming to the country, the government eased up on a few of its repressive tactics in the months immediately preceding the parliamentary elections. A delegate is a member of a group representing an organization (e The immediate effect was that MDC supporters felt confident and suddenly openly showed their support for their party in a way they hadn't been able to before. 
Zimbabwe has been fighting to keep control of the foreign currency market for the last few years by adopting a range of measures, usually spearheaded by Reserve Bank Governor Gideon Gono. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Gideon Gono (born November 29 1959) is the current Governor of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ and former CEO of the Jewel Bank, formerly  Sokwanele, a Zimbabwean civic action support group, describes Gideon Gono as having played a major role in Operation Murambatsvina. Sokwanele is a popular protest underground movement based in Zimbabwe.  In fact, Gideon Gono's appointment to Governor coincided with the beginning of a crackdown on illegal foreign currency dealings prompting one popular source of independent news to report that "one of his key areas of focus is the illegal foreign currency market". 
Sokwanele, in a different article, explains that the foreign currency market in Zimbabwe is broadly characterized by the formal market, the parallel market and the black market. Sokwanele is a popular protest underground movement based in Zimbabwe.  They describe the black market as follows:
Black market transactions happen on the streets, in the flea markets, and in back-rooms; sometimes for small sums of money like 20 US Dollars; and the deals often take place between individuals.
Commentators believe the government is specifically targeting the small scale black market traders through Operation Murambatsvina. The Age, an Australian newspaper, reported on how informal vendors at one market, dubbed 'The World Bank', maintains a facade of trading goods when their real business is dealing in hard cash, albeit very small amounts at a time.  (In fact, Bulawayo's 'The World Bank' was one of the markets targeted when Gono first become Governor of the Reserve Bank in . )
Few analysts believe that the small amounts seized from vendors in one operation could begin to meet the country's massive foreign currency shortfall. This has led to some describing the government's action as indicative of their extreme desperation.
But others have further suggested that the government may believe that customers, unable to trade their money on the black market, will be forced to bring it into the formal banking sector. In addition to that, customers who previously accessed products on the black market will be forced to return to buy them from the formal sector, which the government may believe will help to bring about an economic revival.
Analysts also point out that the government publicly holds market traders responsible for runaway inflation so the action could also partly be about retribution against them. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time
Zanu-PF's drive towards resolving its economic crisis has included strengthening its historical ties with China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National  The state-controlled newspaper, The Herald, reported on Robert Mugabe's support for Operation Murambastvina, and on his view that the economy was beginning to receive serious and significant investments from the Far East:
We should not look back, for, looking back, means back to our political enemies and detractors. The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. Industry must recognise this new direction (Look East policy)
This has led some to speculate that the destruction of the shanty towns are partly in support of Chinese business interests in Zimbabwe. Shanty towns (also called Squatter camps or Favelas are settlements (sometimes illegal or unauthorized of impoverished people who live in improvised China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A report co-authored by Catholic Archbishop Pius Ncube stated that:
Speculation over the motives behind Operation Murambatsvina has pointed to the removal of local competition threatening newly arrived Chinese businessmen whose stores sell cheap and often poor quality goods. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead His Grace the Most Reverend Dr Pius Alick Mvundla Ncube (born December 31, 1946) served as the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Bulawayo It is estimated that, as a result of the government's aggressive 'Look East' policy, up to 10,000 Chinese citizens have moved into the country, and some have moved onto farms taken from highly skilled commercial farmers, notably to grow tobacco for China's 300 million smokers. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. 
As well as practical support of Chinese business interests, many have suggested that Operation Murambatsvina also demonstrates an adherence to a 'Look East' ideology and is evidence that Zanu-PF has embraced an Asian model of government where individual rights are often subverted for the good of the masses, or the regime. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics The word regime (occasionally spelled " régime " particularly in older texts refers to a set of conditions most often of a Political nature  Robert Mugabe's approach to governance has prompted regular comparisons between him and Pol Pot. Governance relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. Saloth Sar ( May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998) also known as Pol Pot, was leader of the Communist movement known as 
Operation Murambatsvina has been widely condemned by Zimbabwean non-governmental organisations, churches, legal organizations, and the opposition Movement for Democratic Change as well as many other groups in Zimbabwe.
The international community has also condemned the operation with nations and international organizations strongly attacking the Zimbabwean government's policy.
Kate Hoey MP called on former British Prime Minister Tony Blair to encourage South Africa to use its regional influence to put pressure on Zimbabwean authorities to cease the crackdown. Catharine Letitia Hoey, known as Kate Hoey (born 21 June 1946, Belfast) is a Labour Party politician in the United Kingdom A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
The New Zealand Minister of Foreign Affairs Phil Goff has expressed his condemnation of the operation by suggesting in a radio interview a boycott of the planned tour by the Zimbabwean cricket team of New Zealand in late 2005/early 2006. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Minister of Foreign Affairs is a major ministerial portfolio in the government of New Zealand. Philip Bruce Goff (born 22 June, 1953) generally known as Phil Goff, is the current Minister of Defence of New Zealand. The Zimbabwean cricket team is a national Cricket team representing Zimbabwe.
United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has called upon African leaders to speak out against the Operation and to increase pressure on the Zimbabwean authorities to end the evictions. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs Condoleezza Rice (born November 14 1954 is the 66th United States The African Union has rejected these calls stating it has 'more serious concerns'. The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African  For example, South African President Thabo Mbeki has questioned why Western leaders are so concerned about Zimbabwe while not paying the same amount of attention to far more dire African emergencies, such as civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which, according to many sources, has killed up to five million people in recent years while leaving much of the country under the control of armed criminal bands. Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008 The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan had dispatched special envoy Anna Tibaijuka to Zimbabwe to study the effects of the campaign and report back her findings. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security See also General Secretary. A number of International organizations, Communist parties and other bodies use the title Secretary Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations Dr Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka is an Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT The report is highly critical of the government, prompting one news source to say that the report used "language unusually harsh for the United Nations".  Excerpts of the report describe the operation as disastrous and inhumane, representing a clear violation of international law. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards The executive summary stated:
Operation Restore Order, while purporting to target illegal dwellings and structures and to clamp down on alleged illicit activities, was carried out in an indiscriminate and unjustified manner, with indifference to human suffering, and, in repeated cases, with disregard to several provisions of national and international legal frameworks.
On May 23, 2007 the Geneva-based Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions and another group, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights, sought independent legal opinion. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne This concluded that the evictions in Zimbabwe were a widespread and systematic attack against a civilian population, as part of state policy. 
In a 45-page response to the highly-critical report by UN envoy Anna Tibaijuka, President Robert Mugabe's government says it acted in the public interest, and denied that it was responsible for the deaths of several people during clean-up operation, and was carried out in compliance with the government's laws, the state-controlled Herald newspaper reported on August 17, 2005. Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The government said Tibaijuka had used value-laden and judgemental language, which clearly demonstrated in-built bias against it and the operation.