Operation Market Garden (September 17, 1944–September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II in the Netherlands and Germany. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands North Brabant ( Dutch: Noord-Brabant,) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country bordered by Belgium Gelderland ( English also Guelders) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Lower Rhine (Niederrhein kilometers 660 to 1033 of the Rhine River flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks KCB, KBE, DSO, MC (7 September 1895 &ndash 4 January 1985 was a British General Maxwell Davenport Taylor ( August 26, 1901 &ndash April 19, 1987) was an American Soldier and Diplomat Disambiguation for the Scottish character actor see Robert Urquhart (actor. James Maurice "Jumpin' Jim" Gavin (born as James Nally Ryan; March 22, 1907 - February 23, 1990) rose to the rank of Otto Moritz Walter Model ('modəl (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945 was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. Wilhelm Bittrich ( February 26, 1894 &ndash April 19, 1979) was an Obergruppenführer (rank equivalent to Lieutenant-General Kurt Student ( May 12, 1890 &ndash July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as The 1st Airborne Division was a Military formation that was raised and fought during World War II. The British Second Army existed in both the First and Second World Wars World War I During World War I, the army was formed on The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Through large-scale use of airborne forces, its tactical objectives were to secure a series of bridges over the main rivers of the German-occupied Netherlands to allow rapid advance by armored units. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The strategic purpose was to allow an Allied crossing of the Rhine river, the last major natural barrier to an advance into Germany. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The planned rapid advance from the Dutch-Belgian border into northern Germany, across the Maas (Meuse) and two arms of the Rhine (the Waal and the Lower Rhine), would have outflanked the Siegfried Line and made possible an encirclement of the Ruhr Area, Germany's industrial heartland. The Meuse (in Dutch and in German: "Maas" in Latin: "Mosa" in Celtic:"Mus" (the rootword presumingly River Waal is the main Distributary branch of River Rhine flowing to the central Netherlands for about 80 km (50 miles before joining the Nederrijn ("Lower Rhine" is the name of the Dutch part of River Rhine from the confluence at the town of Angeren of the cut-off Rhine bend of The original Siegfried line ( Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 The Ruhr Area, ( German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott, Kohlenpott or Revier) is an Urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia
The operation was initially successful with the capture of the Waal bridge at Nijmegen on September 20. Nijmegen (ˈnɛɪmeɣən) (obsolete spellings Nijmwegen Nymegen Nieumeghen &mdash Nimwegen in local dialect and in German, Nimègue in French Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. But it was a failure overall since the planned Allied advance across the Rhine at Arnhem had to be abandoned. Arnhem ( ( South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and Municipality, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The British 1st Airborne Division did not secure the bridge at Arnhem, and although they managed to hold out near the bridge far longer than planned, the British XXX Corps failed to relieve them. The 1st Airborne Division was a Military formation that was raised and fought during World War II. XXX Corps (30 Corps was a Corps within the British Army during World War II. The Rhine remained a barrier to the Allied advance until the offensives at Remagen, Oppenheim, Rees and Wesel in March 1945. Remagen is a town in Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. Oppenheim is a small town (about 7000 inhabitants on the Upper Rhine ( Rheinhessen) between Mainz and Worms. Commencing on the night of 23 March, 1945 during World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Due to the Allied defeat at Arnhem, the north of the Netherlands could not be liberated before winter and the Hongerwinter ('Hungerwinter') took tens of thousands of lives, particularly in the cities of the Randstad area. The Dutch famine of 1944 (known as hongerwinter ("Hunger winter" in Dutch was a Famine that took place in the Netherlands during the winter ImageRandstad_with_scalepng|400px|thumb|right|Schematic map of the Randstadcircle 528 380 26 Schiphol rect 426 356 498 436 Haarlemmermeer rect 399 166 479 245
After major defeats in Normandy in July to August 1944, remnants of German forces withdrew across the Low Countries and eastern France towards the German border by the end of August. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt In the north, the British 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery was advancing on a line running from Antwerp to the northern border of Belgium. The 21st Army Group was a formation comprising British and Canadian forces stationed in the United Kingdom Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn ||-||-||-||} Antwerp ( Dutch:, French: Anvers) is a City and Municipality in Belgium and the capital of the The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The First Canadian Army was just finishing their own offensive northward along the coast and were too fatigued to take part in major actions. The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. To their south, the U. S. 12th Army Group under General Omar Bradley was nearing the German border and had been ordered to orient on the Aachen gap with the U.S. First Army. The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful American military formation ever to take to the field Omar Nelson Bradley KCB ( February 12, 1893 &ndash April 8, 1981) was one of the main U ( Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, Italian: Aquisgrana, French, The First United States Army was a field army of the United States Army. In the south, the U.S. 6th Army Group under General Jacob L. Devers was advancing towards Germany after their landings in southern France. The Sixth United States Army Group was an Army Group of the Allies during World War II, and as contained armies from both the United States Army General Jacob "Jake" Loucks Devers ( September 8, 1887 - October 15, 1979) who is best remembered for his command of the Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France, on 15 August, 1944, as part of World War II.
On 4 September 1944 supply shortages halted the Allied advance. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Supply sources were limited to the shallow docks built on the original invasion beaches and the nearby deepwater port of Cherbourg at the tip of the Cotentin peninsula. The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a Peninsula in Normandy, forming part of the north-western coast of France The massive port of Antwerp lay intact in British hands, but the Scheldt estuary leading inland was still under German control. The Scheldt (Dutch Schelde, French Escaut, Latin Scaldis) is a 350 km[http //www Other important ports on the English Channel coast such as Dunkirk remained in German hands until May 1945. Dunkirk ( French: Dunkerque, dœ̃kɛʀk or; Dutch:; is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the Although over-the-beach supply operations outperformed expectations and enough supplies were present on the continent to support Allied operations, a shortage of transport to move these supplies forward created a bottleneck. At the beginning of September, Cherbourg had 70,000 tons of stockpiled supplies but no transport to move them. Regional railway transport was non-existent because of the pre-invasion airstrikes; train movement out of Normandy did not resume until August 30 and was very limited. An airstrike is a Military strike by Air forces on either a suspected or a confirmed enemy ground position Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and The situation was exacerbated by the fact that 1,400 British three-ton trucks were found to be useless because of faulty pistons in their engines — they could have moved 800 tons per day, enough for two divisions. A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers In an attempt to address this acute shortage of transport, three newly-arrived U. S. infantry divisions (the 26th, 95th, and 104th) were stripped of their trucks in order to supply Montgomery's British 21st Army Group to allow Operation Market Garden to proceed. The 95th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II. Similarly, the heavy artillery units of General Omar Bradley's US 12th Army Group were left west of the Seine, freeing their trucks to move supplies for other units. Omar Nelson Bradley KCB ( February 12, 1893 &ndash April 8, 1981) was one of the main U The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful American military formation ever to take to the field Organization of the Red Ball Express did much to lessen the impact of the transport shortage, but this ad hoc operation could not solve the problem. The Red Ball Express was an enormous Convoy system created by Allied forces to supply their forces moving through Europe following the breakout from the D-Day
Following the British and Canadian breakout from Caen and the closure of the Falaise pocket, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, favoured a broad advance eastwards to the Rhine across a wide front, combined with capture and clearance of the Channel ports and Antwerp. Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the During August 1944 the Falaise pocket was the area between the four towns of Trun, Argentan, Vimoutiers and Chambois near Falaise Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general  This strategy was contested by the field commanders, especially Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery who commanded the British 21st Army Group in the north, and General George Patton, commander of the US 3rd Army in the south. Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn For the 19th century Scottish jurist/politician see George Patton Lord Glenalmond. Both favored rapid, concentrated thrusts across the Rhine in their own sectors. With the supply situation deteriorating in early September, a broad advance became impossible; there were not enough supplies moving forward to keep all of the armies in "combat supply".
Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks, commander of the British XXX Corps that captured Antwerp, explained in his autobiography "A Full Life" how the Allies were crippled by a strategic error in the first days of September. Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks KCB, KBE, DSO, MC (7 September 1895 &ndash 4 January 1985 was a British It was assumed that the port of Antwerp would become usable as soon as the city had been captured; not one Allied commander realised that the Scheldt estuary leading to the port was mined and that the Germans had dug in on its banks, so preventing use of the port. Lieutenant-General Horrocks states that the correct action would have been to bypass Antwerp on 3-4 September and drive 24 kilometres (15 mi) north-west to Woensdrecht, so cutting off the Beveland isthmus, trapping the German 15th Army and allowing the Scheldt to be cleared for Allied shipping. The Allied failure to do this on 4 September allowed the Germans a two week respite, during which over 60,000 soldiers of the German 15th Army withdrew from Flanders and escaped across the Beveland isthmus into the Netherlands. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself  The continued closure of the Scheldt hugely exacerbated the Allies' supply problem.
Most Allied commanders favored pursuit of the seemingly shattered German armies. Omar Bradley (as well as his subordinate George S. Patton) and Montgomery both requested priority on supplies in order to cross the River Rhine in a single decisive thrust, instead of clearing the Scheldt to open the port of Antwerp. Omar Nelson Bradley KCB ( February 12, 1893 &ndash April 8, 1981) was one of the main U For the 19th century Scottish jurist/politician see George Patton Lord Glenalmond. Bradley and Patton favoured an attack east to take the city of Metz and into the industrial area of the Saarland, requiring passage of the Siegfried Line to the heavily defended Rhine. Metz (mɛs in French) is a city in the northeast of France, capital of the Lorraine région and Préfecture Saarland (ˈzaːɐ̯lant in German; French: Sarre) is one of the 16 federal states (German Bundesländer) of Germany. The original Siegfried line ( Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 Bradley suggested that Allied air transport should continue to be used to move supplies to the front, able to keep the front lines moving regardless of the existing problems to the rear. Bradley was indulgent with respect to Patton's requests, interpreting Eisenhower's orders in a manner that gave Patton free rein. On 5 September Bradley allowed Patton's US 3rd Army to advance to the Moselle, a move that stretched the US 1st Army, which was trying to cover the gap between Montgomery's 21st Army Group and the US 3rd Army. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. 
Montgomery initially suggested Operation Comet, a limited airborne coup de main to seize the bridge in Arnhem on September 7, but weather postponements and a fluid enemy situation made it evident that Arnhem was too distant a target for an unsupported airborne attack. A coup de main is a swift attack that relies on speed and surprise to accomplish its objectives in a single blow Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Comet was replaced by a more ambitious plan to bypass the Siegfried Line, cross the Rhine with large-scale forces, and trap the German 15th Army between Arnhem and the shores of the IJsselmeer: Operation Market Garden. The original Siegfried line ( Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 IJsselmeer (sometimes translated as Lake Ĳssel, alternative international spelling Lake Yssel) is a shallow lake of 1100 km² in the central Netherlands On 10 September Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, commander of the British 2nd Army under Montgomery, told Montgomery that he had doubts about this plan, and that he instead favored a strike north-eastwards between the Reichswald and the Ruhr to Wesel. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Wesel (ˈveːzəl is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Montgomery replied that he had just received a signal from London that something must be done to neutralise the V-2 launch sites around the Hague, which were bombarding London and Antwerp, and that the plan must therefore proceed. See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.  Furthermore, operations would be within range of aircraft flying from English bases, it would circumvent the strong defences of the Siegfried Line by hooking around its northern end, and a deep northern penetration would take the Germans by surprise. The original Siegfried line ( Siegfriedstellung) was a line of defensive forts and tank defenses built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916-1917 However, the plan had several problems. It required the British 2nd Army to drive northwards through terrain with numerous water obstacles to cross, and General Bradley pointed out that it would open a dangerous gap to the south between the 21st Army Group and the US 1st Army. Additionally, it entailed an armored advance up a single narrow road, built like a causeway with low-lying polder on both sides, restricting supply lines and the ability to use numerical strength to full advantage. A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments known as dikes, that forms an artificial hydrological entity meaning it has no connection with 
After meeting Lieutenant-General Dempsey, Montgomery flew to Brussels that afternoon (10 September) to meet Eisenhower. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Supply difficulties were so severe that tank transporters were being used to ferry parts of portable runways and basic supplies. The 2nd Army did not even have use of its heavy artillery and anti-aircraft guns. Montgomery requested Eisenhower's Chief Administrative Officer to leave the meeting, but insisted on his own remaining. He then tore a file of Eisenhower's messages to shreds in front of him, and argued for a concentrated northern thrust, simultaneously demanding priority of supply. Eisenhower, convinced that German forces faced imminent collapse, was equally adamant that advance on a broad front was correct. However, he consented to Operation Market Garden, giving it "limited priority" in terms of supplies, but insisted that he could not reduce support for the advance to the Saar.  In vain, Montgomery complained about this to the Vice-Chief of the Imperial General Staff in London. For their part, the American commanders were irritated by the priority accorded to the 21st Army Group.
Meanwhile General Patton had advanced so far that it became clear to Lieutenant-General Dempsey that the US 1st Army would not be able to cover the gap once Market Garden was launched. Hence the British VIII Corps would have to be detached from the main striking force to cover the south-eastern flank. There was not enough transport immediately available to move VIII Corps, necessitating a four day delay until 21 September. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. On 11 September Montgomery brought this argument to bear on Eisenhower, and on 12 September the Americans promised to give the British many trucks and 1,000 tons of their own supplies each day. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Both Montgomery and Bradley assumed that this meant that Eisenhower had accepted Montgomery's demand for a single concentrated, northern thrust to Berlin.
General Bradley thought that the advance of the US 3rd Army under General Patton was thus at risk, and warned Patton. Patton decided to advance immediately beyond the Moselle and become so engaged with the enemy that the fight could not be broken off, forcing supplies to be diverted south. Patton was told to conduct "a continuous reconnaissance", it being understood that this meant "unrelenting attack". Indeed, the US 12th Army Group's supplies, which Eisenhower had intended to divert to Montgomery, continued to be supplied to the US 1st Army and Patton's 3rd Army. Thus the supply situation leading up to Operation Market Garden was extraordinarily difficult.
Eisenhower's decision to launch Market Garden was mostly influenced by his desire to keep the retreating Germans under pressure. However, General Eisenhower was also under pressure from the U. S. to use the Airborne Army as soon as possible. After Normandy the airborne forces had been withdrawn to reform in England, forming the First Allied Airborne Army of two British and three U. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The First Allied Airborne Army was an Allied formation formed on 2 August 1944 by the order of General Dwight D S. airborne divisions, and a Polish brigade. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland After Normandy, plans for 18 airborne operations had been drafted, but then cancelled at short notice, mostly when Allied ground forces overran the intended drop zones. 
The plan of action consisted of two operations:
There were eight major water obstacles between the XXX Corps jumping-off point and the objective of the north bank of the Rhine, including several major rivers and three canals. Plans were made to seize bridges across all these obstacles nearly simultaneously. Although the smaller canals and rivers could be temporarily bridged by engineers of XXX Corps if the existing permanent bridges could not be seized, the larger rivers (the Waal at Nijmegen and the Rhine at Arnhem) could not be bridged by XXX Corps.
Highway 69 (later nicknamed "Hell's Highway") leading through the planned route was two lanes wide, generally raised above the surrounding flat terrain of polder. The ground on either side of the highway was too soft to support tactical vehicle movement.
A single 100 meter (100 yards) high hill, the Groesbeek ridge, lay in the 82nd Airborne's zone. Groesbeek is a Municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. Seizure and defence of this hill was considered vital to holding the highway bridges.
Market would employ three of the five divisions of the First Allied Airborne Army. A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers The First Allied Airborne Army was an Allied formation formed on 2 August 1944 by the order of General Dwight D The U. S. 101st Airborne Division, under Major General Maxwell D. Taylor, would drop in two locations just north of XXX Corps to take the bridges northwest of Eindhoven at Son and Veghel. General Maxwell Davenport Taylor ( August 26, 1901 &ndash April 19, 1987) was an American Soldier and Diplomat Eindhoven ( is a Municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence Son en Breugel ( is a Municipality in the southern Netherlands just outside of Eindhoven. Veghel ( pronounced) is a Municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. The 82nd Airborne Division, under Brigadier General James M. Gavin, would drop northeast of them to take the bridges at Grave and Nijmegen, and the British 1st Airborne Division, under Major-General Roy Urquhart, and the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade would drop at the extreme north end of the route, to take the road bridge at Arnhem and rail bridge at Oosterbeek. James Maurice "Jumpin' Jim" Gavin (born as James Nally Ryan; March 22, 1907 - February 23, 1990) rose to the rank of Grave ( is a Municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. Nijmegen (ˈnɛɪmeɣən) (obsolete spellings Nijmwegen Nymegen Nieumeghen &mdash Nimwegen in local dialect and in German, Nimègue in French The 1st Airborne Division was a Military formation that was raised and fought during World War II. Disambiguation for the Scottish character actor see Robert Urquhart (actor. Arnhem ( ( South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and Municipality, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Oosterbeek is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Renkum, about 5 km west of Arnhem.
The First Allied Airborne Army had been created on August 16 as the end result of British requests for a coordinated headquarters for airborne operations, a concept approved by General Eisenhower on June 20. Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Events 451 - Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius ' defeats Attila the Hun. The British had strongly hinted that a British officer—Lieutenant-General Frederick Browning in particular—be appointed its commander. Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Arthur Montague Browning GCVO, KBE, CB, DSO ( December 20, 1896 &ndash Since the bulk of both troops and aircraft were American, however, a USAAF officer, Major General Lewis H. Brereton, was named by Eisenhower on July 16 and appointed by SHAEF on August 2. The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. Lewis Hyde Brereton ( June 21, 1890 - July 20, 1967) was a military aviation pioneer and United States Army Air Forces general in the Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Brereton had no experience in airborne operations but had extensive command experience at the air force level in several theatres, most recently as commander of Ninth Air Force, which gave him a working knowledge of the operations of IX Troop Carrier Command. Ninth Air Force (Air Forces Central is a Numbered Air Force in Air Combat Command (ACC IX Troop Carrier Command was an operational command of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II and its immediate aftermath 
Market would be the largest airborne operation in history, delivering over 34,600 men of the 101st, 82nd, 1st Airborne Divisions and the Polish Brigade. 14,589 troops were landed by glider and 20,011 by parachute. Military gliders (an offshoot of common gliders) have been used by the military of various countries for carrying troops and heavy equipment (see Glider infantry Gliders also brought in 1,736 vehicles and 263 artillery pieces. 3,342 tons of ammunition and other supplies were brought in by glider and parachute drop. 
To deliver its 36 battalions of airborne infantry and their support troops to the continent, the First Allied Airborne Army had under its operational control the 14 groups of IX Troop Carrier Command, and after August 31, the 16 squadrons of both 38 Group (an organization of converted bombers providing support to resistance groups) and a transport formation, 46 Group. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne
The combined force had available 1,438 C-47/Dakota transports (1,274 USAAF and 164 RAF) and 321 converted RAF bombers. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Allied glider force had been rebuilt after Normandy until by September 16 it numbered 2,160 CG-4A Waco gliders, 916 Airspeed Horsas (812 RAF and 104 US Army), and 64 General Aircraft Hamilcars. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout However the U. S. had only 2,060 glider pilots available, so that none of its gliders would have a co-pilot but would instead carry an extra passenger. 
Because the C-47s served as both paratrooper transports and glider tugs, and because IX Troop Carrier Command would provide all the transports for both British parachute brigades, this massive force could deliver only 60% of the ground forces in a single lift. This limitation was the primary factor in the decision to split the troop lift schedule into successive days. Ninety percent of the USAAF transports on the first day would drop parachute troops, with the same proportion towing gliders on the second day (the RAF transports were almost entirely used for glider operations). 
Because September 17 was on a dark moon, and in the days following it, the new moon did not rise until dawn, the drops had to be made by daylight. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec A dark moon describes the Moon during that time that it is invisible against the backdrop of the Sun in the Sky. This article is about the lunar phase for other uses see New Moon (disambiguation. (Airborne doctrine prohibited large scale operations in the absence of all light. ) The risk of Luftwaffe interception was judged small, given the crushing air superiority of Allied fighters, but strong concerns existed about the increasing number of flak units in the Netherlands, especially around Arnhem. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces General Brereton's experience with tactical air operations judged that flak suppression would be sufficient to permit the troop carriers to operate without prohibitive loss. Further, the invasion of Southern France had demonstrated that large scale daylight airborne operations were feasible. Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France, on 15 August, 1944, as part of World War II. 
Daylight operations, in contrast to those in Sicily and Normandy, would have much greater navigational accuracy and time-compression of succeeding waves of aircraft, tripling the number of troops that could be delivered per hour. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. The time required to assemble airborne units on the drop zone after landing would be reduced by two-thirds. 
Garden consisted primarily of XXX Corps and was initially spearheaded by the Guards Armoured Division, an elite British armoured formation, with the 43rd Wessex and 50th Northumbrian Infantry Divisions in reserve. XXX Corps (30 Corps was a Corps within the British Army during World War II. The 43rd (Wessex Infantry Division was a British Territorial Army division first formed in 1908 The 50th (Northumbrian Infantry Division was a 1st Line Territorial Army division during the Second World War. They were expected to arrive at the south end of the 101st Airborne Division's area on the launch day, the 82nd's by the second day and the 1st's by the fourth day at the latest. They would also deliver several additional infantry divisions to take over the defensive operations from the airborne troops, freeing them for other operations as soon as possible.
Four days was a long time for an airborne force to fight unsupported. In addition the Allied paratroopers lacked adequate anti-tank weapons. Anti-tank refers to any method of combating military Armored fighting vehicles notably Tanks The most common anti-tank systems Even so, before Operation Market Garden started it seemed to the Allied high command that the German resistance had broken. Most of the German 15th Army in the area appeared to be fleeing from the Canadians and they were known to have no Panzergruppen. Panzerwaffe ( German for "Armoured Force" or "Armoured Arm" It was thought that XXX Corps would face limited resistance on their route up highway 69 and little armour. An armoured fighting vehicle ( AFV) is a military Vehicle, protected by armour and armed with Weapons Most AFVs are equipped for driving in rugged Meanwhile, the German defenders would be spread out over 100 km (60 miles) trying to contain the pockets of airborne forces, from the British 2nd Army in the south to Arnhem in the north.
The rout of the German forces in July and August led the Allies to believe that the German army was a spent force unable to reconstitute its shattered units, but all was not what it seemed. The failure of the 21st Army Group to clear or cut off the Scheldt from the mainland allowed the German 15th Army (previously stuck in Pas de Calais waiting for an Allied invasion that never came) to ferry 86,000 men and 600 artillery pieces back into the mainland of the Netherlands, into the path of the planned attack. The 21st Army Group was a formation comprising British and Canadian forces stationed in the United Kingdom Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France. Its name is the French language equivalent of the Strait of Dover, which it borders
The arrival of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt as Wehrmacht Commander-in-Chief West in early September also helped stabilize the German front. For other meanings see Field Marshal (disambiguation Field marshal is a military officer rank Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt ( December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 Rundstedt, who replaced Field Marshal Walter Model, was generally detested by Hitler but well-respected by his troops, whom he had back in fighting condition within the week. Otto Moritz Walter Model ('modəl (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945 was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Rundstedt immediately began to plan a defence against what Wehrmacht intelligence said were 60 Allied divisions at full strength. 
Colonel General Kurt Student, the Wehrmacht's airborne pioneer, was put in command of what was euphemistically called the 'First Parachute Army'. Colonel General is a senior Military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries Kurt Student ( May 12, 1890 &ndash July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 The German 1st Parachute Army was formed in September 1944 to consolidate the various Luftwaffe Fallschirmjäger -Units and the Luftwaffe Field Division The 3,000 paratroopers, scattered across the Reich, were likely the only combat-ready reserve forces in Germany at the time. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers When these troops reached the Albert Canal, a Belgian waterway near the Dutch border which stood in the path of the Allied advance towards Berlin, they were dismayed to realise that at the canal Field-Marshal Model's "New German Line" was virtually non-existent, lacking any trenches or fortifications. The Albert Canal (Albertkanaal Canal Albert is a Canal located in northeastern Belgium, named after King Albert I of Belgium. Otto Moritz Walter Model ('modəl (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945 was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static Student's men "frantically" began preparing a defence along the southern edge of the canal, placing demolition charges to destroy the bridges that would aid the Allied march towards Berlin. Though stymied by the superior natural inclination of the northern side, Student later marvelled in his memoirs at the speed and precision with which the paratroopers worked.
Lieutenant General Kurt Chill, commanding the shattered 85th Division, established 'reception stations' at key bridge crossings in the Netherlands. Chill's actions gathered a miscellany of troops from various broken units into a semblance of military order, allowing Student to organize a defensive line. The German 719th Infantry Division was added to this force.
A coincidence had resulted in German Panzer forces being sent to the Arnhem area on 4 September. Rundstedt and his generals had agreed that Eisenhower would favour Patton in the anticipated offensive. Accordingly, in one of his final orders as Commander-in-Chief West, Model had ordered the II SS Panzer Corps, including the 9th SS and 10th SS Panzer divisions under the command of Lieutenant General Wilhelm Bittrich, to rest and refit in a "safe" area. The IISS-Panzerkorps was a German Waffen-SS armoured Corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World The 9 Waffen SS Panzerdivision "Hohenstaufen", also known as SS-Panzergrenadier-Division 9, SS-Panzergrenadier-Division 9 Hohenstaufen or Lieutenant General is a Military rank used in many countries The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the Wilhelm Bittrich ( February 26, 1894 &ndash April 19, 1979) was an Obergruppenführer (rank equivalent to Lieutenant-General The place chosen happened to be the area around Arnhem with the 9th SS scattered in various towns and villages to the north of the city and the 10th SS stationed 15 km (9 miles) further to the east.
Both SS divisions were very weak. Their combined strength amounted to no more than 7,000 men, enough for approximately one division. They retained few heavy weapons following the retreat from Normandy. On the eve of the battle, the 9th SS Panzer regiment had no tanks, the 9th SS Artillery regiment based in Dieren had no guns, and neither the 19th nor 20th SS Panzer Grenadier regiments based in Zutphen and Rheden respectively, had any heavy weapons. Dieren is a town in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Rheden, between Zutphen and Arnhem. Zutphen is a city in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. Rheden is a Municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. Nevertheless the fortuitous selection of Arnhem as a rest area meant that there were an additional 3,000 combat-ready troops available to fight the British airborne drop and at least a few serviceable tanks, armoured cars, and assault guns.
Several reports about the German movements by the Dutch resistance had reached Allied command by September 10, including identification of German armour units. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Although planning was in its later stages, SHAEF Chief of Staff General Walter Bedell Smith flew to 21st Army Group headquarters to suggest several possible changes in the plan which Montgomery was unable or unwilling to institute. Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF, pronounced "shāf" was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith GBE KCB ( October 5, 1895 – August 9, 1961) was Dwight When an aerial reconnaissance flight returned with pictures clearly showing German tanks only 15km (9 miles) from the British drop zones, they were dismissed by Montgomery, with the (unfounded) assumption that the tanks were broken down. Reconnaissance (also scouting) is a military and medical term denoting exploration conducted to gain information In Parachuting, a drop zone or DZ is the area above and around a location where a parachutist jumps and expects to land
IX Troop Carrier Command's transport aircraft had both to tow gliders and drop paratroopers, duties that could not be performed simultaneously. Although every division commander requested two drops the first day, Brereton's staff scheduled only one lift based on the need to prepare for the first drop by bombarding German flak positions for half a day, and a weather forecast on the afternoon of September 16, (which soon proved erroneous), that the area would have clear conditions for four days, so allowing drops on these days. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers 
The first day's lift involved all the U. S. parachute regiments but only half the British parachute troops, none of the Polish, and only three battalions of glider troops. Virtually no combat support units were delivered on D-day. D-Day may also refer to Decimal Day in the United Kingdom. D-Day is a term often used in Military parlance to denote A precarious timetable at the mercy of the weather resulted in the 101st Airborne Division being without its artillery for two days, the 82nd Airborne its artillery for a day and its glider infantry regiment for four days, and the British 1st Airborne division its fourth brigade until the fifth day. The longer the time required to complete the air drops, the longer each division had to devote forces to defending the drop and landing zones, weakening their offensive power.
Drop Zone selection was poor, particularly at Arnhem. The RAF coordinator refused to drop near the town on the north side of the target bridge because of flak guns at Deelen. EDE or Equinox Desktop Environment is a small Desktop environment that is meant to be simple and fast Another suitable drop zone just to the south of the bridge was rejected because it was thought to be too marshy for landing gliders containing the force's heavier equipment. The inexperienced airborne commanders deferred to the RAF's concerns, and thus the three principal landing and drop zones were 8-10 km (5-6 miles) from the bridge, with the fourth being 13 km (8 miles) away (Hibbert 1962).
Since the division would arrive over two days, the forces landing on the first day would have to take the bridge while simultaneously holding the drop zones, ensuring the force would be divided for over 24 hours. Realizing the seriousness of the problem, the plan was then hastily changed to use a small force of machine-gun equipped jeeps to seize the bridge in a coup de main with three battalions following on foot. For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. Jeep is an Automobile Marque (and registered trademark of Chrysler. A fourth battalion would hold the drop zones with the glider pilots until the final two lifts arrived. The Glider Pilot Regiment was a specialist British unit of the Second World War.
After one week preparations were declared complete; by comparison the planning and training for the airborne drops at Sicily and Normandy had taken months. One United States Air Force historian noted that Market was the only large airborne operation of World War II in which the USAAF "had no training program, no rehearsals, almost no exercises, and a. . . low level of tactical training. "
Planning tasks were done badly or not at all. Because it placed reinforcement and resupply of ground forces at the mercy of the weather, the decision to make only one drop per aircraft on September 17 was "disastrous" in the words of the United States Army's historical study of the operation. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Communications planning was poor, and the 1st Airborne Division would be out of touch with most other headquarters for most of the battle. No arrangements were made for close air support. The drops were scheduled to occur from south to north to aid the ground-based northward advance of XXX Corps from the Belgian border; this gave the Germans early warning of possible operations to seize bridges across the Waal and Rhine, critically reducing the time available to the northernmost Allied airborne units at Arnhem to capture the Rhine bridge before they would be attacked.
Gavin, commanding the U. S. 82nd Airborne Division, was skeptical of the plan. In his diary he wrote, "It looks very rough. If I get through this one I will be very lucky. " He was also highly critical of Browning, writing that he ". . . unquestionably lacks the standing, influence and judgment that comes from a proper troop experience. . . his staff was superficial. . . Why the British units fumble along. . . becomes more and more apparent. Their tops lack the know-how, never do they get down into the dirt and learn the hard way. "
Operation Market Garden opened with Allied success all around. The first landing was in daylight for accuracy, and almost all of the troops arrived on top of their drop zones without incident. In the 82nd Airborne Division, 89% of troops landed on or within 1,000 meters (1000 yards) of their correct drop zones, and 84% of gliders landed on or within 1,000 meters (1,000 yards) of their landing zones. This contrasted with previous operations where night drops had resulted in units being scattered by up to 19 km (12 miles). Losses to enemy aircraft and flak were light; German flak was described in reports as "heavy but inaccurate".
In the south the 101st met little resistance and captured four of five bridges. The bridge at Son was blown up as they approached it, after being delayed by a short engagement with two German anti-tank guns. Later that day several small attacks by the German 59th Infantry Division (a 15th Army unit that had escaped across the South Beveland isthmus because of the failure of XXX Corps to seal it off) were beaten off, while small units of the 101st had moved south of Son.
To their north the 82nd arrived, and the small group dropped near Grave took the bridge in a rush. They also succeeded in capturing one of the vitally important bridges over the Maas-Waal canal, the lock-bridge at Heumen. The main effort of the 82nd was to seize the Groesbeek Heights and set up a blocking position there, to prevent a German armour attack out of the nearby Reichswald (a forest in Germany, near the border) and to deny the Heights to German artillery observers. Some soldiers of the 82nd landed on Dutch soil, and then moved a few yards over German ground without knowing it. Both Gavin and Browning felt this must be the Division's priority. The 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment was tasked with taking the 600 meters (600 yards) long Nijmegen highway bridge if possible, but because of miscommunication they did not start until late in the day. During World War II, the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment ( 508th PIR or Red Devils) was a Regiment of the 82d Airborne Division which Had they attacked earlier they would have faced only a dozen Germans. By the time the 508th attacked, troops of the 9th SS Reconnaissance Battalion were arriving. The attack was stopped, leaving the Nijmegen bridge in German hands.
This was vital. Unlike some of the bridges to the south, which were over smaller rivers and canals that could be bridged by engineering units, the Nijmegen and Arnhem bridges crossed two arms of the Rhine that could not be bridged easily. A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive defensive and logistical structures for Warfare Other duties include the If either of the Nijmegen or Arnhem bridges were not captured and held, the advance of XXX Corps would be blocked and Operation Market Garden would fail.
The 1st Airborne Division landed without major incident, but problems associated with the poor plan began almost immediately. The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles was an Infantry Regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments Only half of the Division arrived with the First Lift, and only half of these, the 1st Parachute Brigade, could advance on the bridge. An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies primarily via Aircraft. The remaining troops had to defend the drop zones overnight awaiting the arrival of the Second Lift on the following day. Thus the Division's primary objective had to be tackled by less than a half brigade. While the paratroopers marched eastwards to Arnhem, the Reconnaissance Squadron was to race to the bridge in their jeeps and hold it until the rest of the Brigade arrived. The unit set off to the bridge late, and having travelled only a short distance the vanguard was halted by a strong German defensive position; the squadron could make no further progress.
This had grave consequences. Five hours after the initial landing, feeling that the British were tied down in Arnhem, the Reconnaissance Battalion of the 9th Waffen-SS Panzer Division was able to cross the Arnhem bridge and drive to Nijmegen and the bridge over the Waal branch of the Rhine. WAAL ("The Whale" is a Classic rock radio station broadcasting at 99 No British airborne unit was at this bridge.
Two of the three battalions of the 1st Parachute Brigade were slowed down by small German units of a training battalion which had quickly established a thin blocking line covering the obvious routes into Arnhem. A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel John Frost's 2nd Battalion, which was advancing eastwards along the southernmost road into Arnhem, near the Rhine, found its route largely undefended. They arrived at the bridge in the evening and set up defensive positions at the north end. Two attempts to capture the arched steel bridge and its southern approach were unsuccessful. Of the other battalions, the 3rd had only covered half the distance to the bridge when they halted for the night, the rear of their column being under attack and needing time to catch up. The 1st Battalion was similarly fragmented, yet pushed on around the flank of the German line throughout the night. Frequent skirmishes resulted in their making little more progress.
Some loss of communication between the bridge and Divisional Headquarters in one of the drop zones was expected, because 13 km (8 miles) separated them and the main radio used throughout the Division was the Type 22 set designed to have an effective range of just 5 km (3 miles) (Hibbert 2002, p. 99-100). However, the British radios did not function at any range; some had difficulty receiving signals from just a few hundred meters and others received nothing at all. Moreover it was found after landing that the radios had been pre-set to different frequencies, two of which coincided with those of German and British public broadcasting stations (ibid. ). Other theories have been advanced to explain the greatly reduced range of the 1st Airborne Division's radio sets. Modern tests using Type 22 sets have suggested that large deposits of iron in the soil could have been to blame. It is also possible that repeated operational stand-bys and cancellations (over a dozen drops were planned and then cancelled in the weeks prior to the operation) had led to sloppy battery charging procedures and lax supervision of this task. Thus communication between 1st Airborne units was poor while German defences were being coordinated and reinforced.
The only means of calling for close air support was through two special American units dropped with the 1st Airborne Division. These units were equipped with "Veeps": jeeps having Very High Frequency SCR-193 crystal sets. Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. It was found impossible to communicate with aircraft on the higher of two frequencies allocated for this purpose, and the sets could not be tuned to the lower frequency (Hibbert & 2002 p100). Despite efforts to re-tune them, the sets were soon destroyed by mortar fire, cutting the 1st Airborne's only possible link with RAF fighter-bombers. The pilots were under orders not to attack on their own initiative since from the air there was no easy way to distinguish friend from foe. Together with poor weather, this led to a critical lack of air support.
Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks refused to commit his troops until he received confirmation that the airborne forces had landed, having had experience of previous Airborne operations that had been cancelled at short notice. Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks KCB, KBE, DSO, MC (7 September 1895 &ndash 4 January 1985 was a British XXX Corps therefore did not start its advance until 14:35, and soon ran into infantry and anti-tank units dug in on the road. The force was delayed several hours, and several Guards Armoured Division's tanks were lost. As dusk fell at 17:00, they were still 15 km (9 miles) south of Eindhoven and behind schedule. Eindhoven ( is a Municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence The common doctrine for armour at that time was to halt at night, and although some night attacks had been made with armour by 21st Army Group in Normandy during Operation Totalise, no attempt was made here. The Irish Guards commander, Colonel Joe Vandeleur was told by the Guards Armoured Division Chief of Staff to "take your time. Brigadier John Ormsby Evelyn 'JOE' Vandeleur DSO and Bar ON ( 14 November 1903 &ndash 4 August 1988) was a British . . " because the bridge at Son had been blown. In fact the loss of the bridge at Son made a fast advance urgent, so that XXX Corps engineers could begin work on a replacement.
On the German side, it was soon clear what was happening. Field Marshal Walter Model was staying at the Tafelberg Hotel in Oosterbeek, a village to the west of Arnhem, when the British began to land in the countryside to the west of Oosterbeek. Otto Moritz Walter Model ('modəl (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945 was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. Oosterbeek is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Renkum, about 5 km west of Arnhem. Initially confused, he concluded that they were commandos attempting to kidnap him. In Military science, the term commando can refer to an individual a Military unit, or a raiding style of military operation. He made a mad dash for a safer location. Meanwhile, Wilhelm Bittrich, commanding the 2nd SS Panzer Corps, had a clearer head and immediately sent a reconnaissance company of the 9th SS Panzer Division to Nijmegen to reinforce the bridge defence. Wilhelm Bittrich ( February 26, 1894 &ndash April 19, 1979) was an Obergruppenführer (rank equivalent to Lieutenant-General The IISS-Panzerkorps was a German Waffen-SS armoured Corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World Nijmegen (ˈnɛɪmeɣən) (obsolete spellings Nijmwegen Nymegen Nieumeghen &mdash Nimwegen in local dialect and in German, Nimègue in French By midnight, however, Model had gained a clear picture of the situation and issued orders that proved beneficial to the successful defence of Arnhem. The confusion usually attendant upon defending against airborne operations was absent at Arnhem, and the advantage of surprise was largely nullified by an alert reaction. Arnhem ( ( South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and Municipality, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Allied weather forecasters correctly predicted that England would be covered in fog on the morning of September 18th. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated The Second Lift was postponed three hours as a result, and thick low clouds began to develop over the southern part of the battle zone that spread during the day over the entire area, hampering both resupply and air support missions. (Seven of the next eight days had poor weather, and all air operations were cancelled on September 22 and September 24. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. )
The 1st and 3rd Parachute Battalions pushed towards the Arnhem bridge during the early hours of 18 September and made good progress, but they were frequently halted in skirmishes as soon as it became light. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated With their long and unwieldy columns having to halt to beat off attacks whilst the troops in front carried on unaware, the Germans would delay segments of the two battalions, fragment them, and mop up the remnants.
Early in the day the 9th SS Reconnaissance Battalion, sent south the day before, concluded it was not needed in Nijmegen and returned to Arnhem. Though aware of the British troops at the bridge, it attempted to cross by force and was beaten back with heavy losses, including its commanding officer, SS-Hauptsturmführer Paul Gräbner.
By the end of the day the 1st and 3rd Parachute Battalions had entered Arnhem, and were within 2 km (1 mile) of the bridge with approximately 200 men, one-sixth their original strength. Most of the officers and non-commissioned officers had been killed, wounded, or captured. The Second Lift, delayed by fog and jumping onto a landing zone under heavy attack, landed at full strength (the 4th Parachute Brigade, consisting of the 10th, 11th and 156th Battalions of the Parachute Regiment, commanded by Brigadier-General John Winthrop Hackett) and C and D Companies of the 2nd South Staffordshire Regiment. This article is about the British Army officer and author for information about the musician see John Hackett (musician. The Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales' (or simply "Staffords" for short was an Infantry Regiment of the British Army, part of the
Grave proved to be well defended, and German forces continued to press on the 82nd deployed on the Groesbeek heights to the east of Nijmegen. The 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment defended successfully against German attacks in Horst, Grafwegen, and Riethorst. Early in the day, German counterattacks seized one of the Allied landing zones, where the Second Lift was scheduled to arrive at 13:00. The 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment attacked at 13:10 and cleared the LZ by 14:00, capturing 16 German flak pieces and 149 prisoners. Delayed by weather in Britain, the Second Lift did not arrive until 15:30. This lift brought in elements of the 319th and 320th Glider Field Artillery battalions, the 456th Parachute Field Artillery battalion, and medical support elements. Twenty minutes later, 135 B-24 bombers dropped supplies from low level (100 ), 80% of which were recovered.
Faced with the loss of the bridge at Son, the 101st unsuccessfully attempted to capture a similar bridge a few kilometers away at Best, finding the approach blocked. Other units continued moving to the south and eventually reached the northern end of Eindhoven. At about noon they were met by reconnaissance units from XXX Corps. At 16:00 they made radio contact with the main force to the south and told them about the Son bridge, asking for a Bailey bridge to be brought forward. The Bailey bridge is a portable pre-fabricated Truss Bridge, designed for use by Military engineering units to bridge up to 60 m (200 ft gaps XXX Corps passed through Eindhoven and bivouacked south of Son, where they waited for the Royal Engineers to erect the Bailey bridge.
At the end of two days the XXX Corps advance was behind schedule, and the Nijmegen and Arnhem bridges were still in German hands.
During the early morning hours the 1st Parachute Brigade began its attack towards Arnhem Bridge with the 1st Battalion leading, supported by remnants of the 3rd Battalion, with the 2nd South Staffordshires on the 1st Battalion's left flank and the 11th Battalion following behind. As soon as it became light the 1st Battalion was spotted, and halted by fire from the main German defensive line. Trapped in open ground and under heavy fire from three sides, the 1st Battalion disintegrated and what remained of the 3rd Battalion fell back. The 2nd South Staffordshires were similarly cut off and, save for about 150 men, overcome by midday. The 11th Battalion, which had stayed out of much of the fighting, was now overwhelmed in exposed positions while attempting to capture high ground to the north. With no hope of breaking through, the 500 remaining men of these four battalions withdrew westwards in the direction of the main force, 5 km (3 miles) away in Oosterbeek. Oosterbeek is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Renkum, about 5 km west of Arnhem.
The 2nd Battalion and attached units, by now amounting to approximately 600 men, were still in firm control of the northern approach ramp to the Arnhem bridge. The Germans recognised that they would not be moved by infantry attacks such as those that had been bloodily repulsed on the previous day, so instead they heavily shelled the short British perimeter with mortars, artillery, and tanks, systematically demolishing each house to enable their infantry to exploit gaps and dislodge the defenders. Although in constant, heavy battle against enormous odds, the British clung fiercely to their positions and the perimeter remained largely unaltered.
To the north of Oosterbeek the 4th Parachute Brigade led an attempt by the 1st Airborne Division to break through the German lines, but communication difficulties and significant enemy resistance caused the attack to fail with heavy losses. The Division, scattered far and wide and hard pressed by the enemy on all sides, had lost its offensive capability. Unable to help Lt. -Col. Frost at the bridge, the remaining soldiers attempted to withdraw into a defensive pocket at Oosterbeek and hold a bridgehead on the north bank of the Rhine.
The parachute elements of the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade had remained in England because of dense fog. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Their gliders, however, mainly carrying anti-tank guns and vehicles, were able to take off but had the misfortune to arrive above the landing zone just as the 4th Parachute Brigade was retreating across it, and the gliders came under fire from German units pursuing the Brigade.
At 08:20, the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment made contact with XXX Corps at Grave. This enabled the Regiment to move on to other missions and place the 3rd Battalion in division reserve. By the afternoon of 19 September, advance units of XXX Corps were arriving in Nijmegen. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. By this time, according to the original plan, they were due in Arnhem. A combined effort to take the Nijmegen bridge was mounted by two companies from the Guards Armoured Division and the 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The attack got within 400 meters (400 yards) of the bridge before being stopped; skirmishing continued throughout the night. A plan was developed to attack the south end of the bridge again while the 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, planned to cross the river in boats 2 km (1 mile) downstream and then attack the north end. The boats, requested for late afternoon, never arrived. Once again XXX Corps was held up in front of a bridge.
The 1st and 5th battalions, Coldstream Guards, were attached to the division. Her Majesty's Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, also known officially as the Coldstream Guards (COLDM GDS is a Regiment of the British Army, part of A resupply attempt by 35 C-47s (out of 60 sent) was unsuccessful; the supplies were dropped from a high altitude and could not be recovered.
At 09:50 the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment was going forward to Wijchen, to attack the Edithbridge from its south end. Wijchen is a Municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, at. The bridge was secured. After this fierce engagement they pushed on to the traffic bridge south of Wijchen. Wijchen is a Municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, at. Another fierce engagement followed, and this bridge too was secured.
To their south, units of the 101st sent to take Best the day before were forced to yield to German counterattacks during the morning. British tanks arriving during the day helped push back the Germans by late afternoon. Later a small force of Panther tanks arrived at Son and started firing on the Bailey bridge. The Panther ( was a Tank fielded by Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945 These too were beaten back by anti-tank guns that had recently landed, and the bridge was secured.
Lt. Colonel John Frost's force at the bridge continued to hold out and established communication via the public telephone system with 1st Division at around noon, to learn that the division had no hope of relieving them and that XXX Corps was stopped to the south in front of Nijmegen bridge. Major General John Dutton (Johnny Frost CB, DSO & Bar, MC, DL (31 December 1912 - 21 May 1993 was a British By the afternoon the British positions around the north end of Arnhem bridge had weakened considerably. Casualties, mostly wounded, were high from constant shelling. An acute lack of ammunition, especially anti-tank munitions, enabled enemy armour to demolish British positions from point-blank range. Food, water, and medical supplies were scarce, and so many buildings were on fire and in such serious danger of collapse that a two-hour truce was arranged to evacuate the wounded (including Lieutenant-Colonel Frost) into German care and captivity. Frederick Gough took over as commander when Frost left. Colonel Charles Frederick Howard Gough, MC, TD ( 16 September, 1901 &ndash 19 September, 1977) was a British
The Germans overcame remaining pockets of resistance throughout the day, gaining control of the northern bridge approaches and permitting reinforcements to cross the span and reinforce units further south near Nijmegen. The remaining British troops continued to fight on fiercely, some with just fighting knives, but by early Thursday morning almost all had been taken prisoner. The last radio message broadcast from the bridge - "Out of ammo, God save the King" - was heard only by German radio intercept operators.
While it was estimated that the entire 1st Airborne Division, 10,000 strong, would only need to hold the Arnhem bridge for two days, in fact just 740 had held it for twice as long against far heavier opposition than anticipated. While 81 British soldiers died defending Arnhem bridge, German losses cannot be stated with any accuracy, though they were certainly extremely heavy; 11 units known to have participated in the fighting reported 50% casualties after the battle. In memory of the fighting there, the bridge has been renamed the "John Frost Bridge". Gavin called Frost's stand "the outstanding independent parachute battalion action of the war. "
Further west, the remnants of the 1st Airborne Division were gathering at Oosterbeek for their last stand; those already in place were not seriously challenged by the enemy throughout the day. The 1st Airborne Division was a Military formation that was raised and fought during World War II. To the east of the village, the 1st, 3rd and 11th Parachute Battalions and 2nd South Staffordshires were organised into a defensive position, and in desperate fighting later in the day they bloodily repulsed an enemy attack which threatened to cut the division off from the Rhine and so seal the fate of their fragile bridgehead. The Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales' (or simply "Staffords" for short was an Infantry Regiment of the British Army, part of the
In the woods to the west of Oosterbeek, the 4th Parachute Brigade was fighting its way towards the divisional perimeter but was under severe attack from German troops, supported by artillery, mortars and tanks, some mounting flame-throwers. Their casualties were heavy; the 10th Battalion reached Oosterbeek in the early afternoon but with only 60 men.
Further in the rear, the 156th Parachute Battalion was being more hard pressed and was forced to fight off numerous enemy attacks before mounting counter-attacks of their own; indeed it is a credit to the battalion that they were so successful in these respects that the Germans did not know they were fighting men who were in full retreat. The battalion, down to 150 men, mounted a desperate bayonet charge to capture a hollow in the ground in the woods, in which they remained pinned by enemy attacks for the next eight hours. Towards the end of the day the 75 men who could, fixed bayonets and made a highly successful break through the German lines, and so retreated into the Allied pocket at Oosterbeek.
Boats ordered by the 82nd Airborne the day before failed to arrive until afternoon, and a hasty daylight assault crossing was ordered. At about 15:00 the 3rd Battalion, 504th PIR, made the crossing in 26 canvas assault boats into well-defended positions. The American unit had no training on the British-made boats. A shortage of paddles required some troopers to paddle the craft with rifle butts. About half the boats survived the crossing under heavy fire; survivors then assaulted across 200 meters (200 yards) of open ground on the far bank and seized the north end of the bridge. German forces withdrew from both ends of the bridge, which was then rushed by Guards tanks and the 2nd Battalion, 505th PIR, securing the bridge after four days of struggle. The costly attack was nicknamed "Little Omaha" in reference to Omaha Beach. Omaha Beach was the Code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings
To the east, German attacks on the heights made significant progress, capturing the only remaining bridge suitable for tanks. A counterattack at Mook by elements of the 505th PIR and 4th Battalion, the Coldstream Guards, forced the Germans back to their line of departure by 20:00. However, the 508th PIR lost ground at Im Thal and Legewald when attacked by German infantry and tanks. By now it was evident that the Germans' plan was to cut the highway, which would split up the Airborne units and cut off the advance elements of XXX Corps.
To the south the running battles between the 101st and various German units continued. Eventually several Panther tanks managed to cut the roads, but pulled back when low on ammunition.
When Lieutenant-General Dempsey of the 2nd Army met Brigadier General Gavin, commander of the U. S. 82nd Airborne Division, he is reported to have said (in reference to the Nijmegen attack), "I am proud to meet the commander of the greatest Division in the world today. "
Approximately 3,584 survivors of the 1st Airborne Division established themselves in the buildings and woods around Oosterbeek with the intention of holding a bridgehead on the north side of the Rhine until XXX Corps could arrive. Throughout the day their position was heavily attacked on all sides. In the southeast the Lonsdale Force (the remnants of the 1st, 3rd, and 11th Parachute Battalions and 2nd South Staffordshires) repulsed a major attack aided by the fire of the divisional light artillery. In the north the 7th King's Own Scottish Borderers were almost overrun during the afternoon, but a counterattack with bayonets restored the situation and the heavily depleted battalion moved further south to occupy a narrower front. The most serious attack of the day was made at dawn against "B" Company, 1st Battalion, Border Regiment, which controlled a vital area of high ground in the southwestern tip of the perimeter overlooking the Heveadorp ferry crossing at Driel, which was the division's only straightforward means of receiving reinforcements from the south. The company was attacked by enemy armour and infantry, using captured French tanks equipped with Flame Throwers, and the heights were lost. Counterattacks failed and the remnants of the company were redeployed. The division was left in a precarious position, controlling just 700 meters (700 yards) of the riverbank. The division refused to yield ground to similar attacks elsewhere on their front.
A resupply attempt by RAF Stirlings of 38 Group was disrupted by the only effective Luftwaffe fighter interception during the entire operation. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Fw 190s intercepted the Stirlings at low altitude and shot down 7 of one line of 10, and 15 overall. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Anti-aircraft fire accounted for 8 further losses. The Fw 190s were able to penetrate the screen of Allied fighters sent to cover the drop when one group, the U. S. 56th Fighter Group, was late in arriving in its patrol sector between Lochem and Deventer. The 56th Fighter Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War and as the 56th Operations Group, is a current Lochem is a Municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. Deventer is a Municipality and City in the Salland region of the Dutch Province of Overijssel. The 56th, however, did redeem itself to an extent by shooting down 15 of the 22 Fw 190s as they departed the area. 
After two days of weather-related delay, the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade under Major-General Stanislaw Sosabowski finally entered the battle on the afternoon of September 21, delivered at about 17:15 by 114 C-47s of the U. Genbryg Stanisław Franciszek Sosabowski ( 8 May 1892 - 25 September 1967) was a Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. S. 61st and 314th Troop Carrier Groups. Two of the brigade's three battalions were dropped amidst heavy German fire, opposite the 1st Airborne Division's position on a new drop zone south of the Rhine near the village of Driel. Driel is a town of 3250 inhabitants in the municipality of Overbetuwe near Arnhem in the Netherlands. Poor coordination by the RAF and persistent attacks by Luftwaffe aircraft caused their supplies to be dropped 15 km (9 miles) away, on the opposite side of the Rhine.
Planning to use the Heveadorp ferry to reinforce the division, they soon discovered that the opposite bank was dominated by the enemy and that the ferry was missing; it was later found downstream past the road bridge, unserviceable. Unable to help the British, the Polish withdrew to Driel for the night. The 1st Airborne Division made radio contact during the day with guns of the 64th Medium Regiment of XXX Corps Artillery which had advanced with the ground forces and were assigned to provide the division with artillery support. Unlike many others, this radio link endured throughout the battle and the regiment provided valuable fire support to the division.
Despite the capture of Nijmegen bridge and the clearing of the town on the previous evening, the Guards Armoured Division did not begin to advance until some 18 hours later, at noon. Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks claimed he needed this delay to sort out the confusion among his troops that had resulted from the battle in Nijmegen. Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks KCB, KBE, DSO, MC (7 September 1895 &ndash 4 January 1985 was a British This was a controversial decision that has been examined often in the years since. Half of the division had been detached to assist the 82nd Airborne Division elsewhere as the Germans sought to cut off the tip of the advance. The remainder of the Guards Armoured Division was short of fuel and exhausted from its difficult fight to secure Nijmegen. The Market/Garden plan depended upon a single highway as the route of advance and resupply. This imposed a delay since other units could not be deployed on alternate routes to sustain the forward momentum. Brigadier General Gavin's diary comment was: "Had Ridgway been in command at that moment, we would have been ordered up that road in spite of all our difficulties, to save the men at Arnhem. " The historian Max Hastings wrote "It reflected poorly on the British Army. . . ".
The delay enabled the Germans to considerably shore up their defences to the south of Arnhem, aided by use of the bridge following their capture of its northern end. The advance of the Guards, hindered by marshes that prevented off-road movement, was soon halted by a firm German defensive line. The Guards not having the strength to outflank it, the 43rd Division was ordered to take over the lead, work its way around the enemy positions and make contact with the Polish at Driel. However, the 43rd was 30 km (20 miles) away and there was a traffic jam between it and Nijmegen. It was not until the following day, Friday, that the whole division finally crossed the River Waal and began its advance.
The Germans, clearly starting to gain the upper hand, continued their counterattacks all along the path of XXX Corps, although the Corps still managed to advance and the 101st Airborne Division continued to exploit its gains.
At about 15:00, 406 C-47 glider tugs and 33 C-47 cargo carriers executed a resupply mission for the 82nd Airborne Division. About 60% of the supplies were recovered (351 of the gliders were counted effective), partly with the help of Dutch civilians. Most of the 82nd and 101st, reinforced with British armour units, were engaged in defensive missions with the objective of holding the highway corridor. Small attacks were fought all along the corridor.
After the victory of the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment at Wijchen the Germans tried to attack the Edithbridge from the north end. The 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment requested the 101st Airborne Division for help. Advancing directly, they couldn't get close enough to the Germans. It looked like another failure to secure the bridge. But the 101st then headed into Wijchen. Ultimately the Germans were not strong enough to defend their position and had to abandon the bridges in Wijchen to the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment.
The Germans, wary after unsuccessful and costly attacks the previous day, shelled and mortared the airborne positions heavily in lieu of additional direct assaults. By the end of the battle some 110 artillery pieces had been brought into place around Oosterbeek as the Germans shifted to the tactics that had worked so well at the Arnhem bridge. Direct attacks were limited in nature, conducted against specific positions and even individual houses. Numerous well-sited British anti-tank guns also caused German reluctance to attack directly. The survivors of the 1st Airborne were outnumbered 4 to 1. – The Polish 1st Parachute Brigade at Driel, unable to cross the Rhine, nonetheless caused a major redeployment of German forces. Fearing a Polish attempt to recapture Arnhem bridge or, worse, an attempt to cut the road to the south and so trap the 10th SS Panzer Division then blocking the route of the Guards Armoured Division northwards to Arnhem, the Germans withdrew 2,400 troops from Oosterbeek. They were moved south of the river to engage the Polish paratroopers at Driel, making attacks with little real effect throughout the day.
The fog lifted as leading elements of the 43rd Division attempted to advance to Driel, exposing them to German fire. They arrived in Driel during the evening. Lacking assault craft, an unsuccessful attempt was made that night to put elements of the Polish brigade across the river. British and Polish engineers on both sides of the Rhine had worked throughout the day to improvise a crossing using small boats linked by signals cable, but the cable consistently broke, forcing the Polish troops to slowly row across against the strong current. The attempt was made under enemy observation and fire, and only 52 soldiers of the 8th Polish Parachute Company survived the crossing before a halt was called at dawn.
While much of the corridor along "Hell's Highway" was firmly in Allied hands, German counterattacks were still being mounted along its length. During the previous night, two mixed armoured formations on either side of Highway 69 attacked between Veghel and Grave; one group managed to cut the highway and prevent any further advance to Arnhem.
The Germans had figured out what the Poles were attempting to do, and they spent the rest of the day trying to cut off the British in their northern bridgehead from the riverside. The British managed to hold on, and both sides suffered heavy losses. The Germans also attacked the Poles on the south side in order to tie them down, but several tanks arrived from XXX Corps and they were beaten off. Boats and engineers from the Canadian army also arrived that day, and another river crossing that night landed another 150 troops of the Polish 3rd Parachute Battalion on the northern bank of the Rhine.
To the south several more German attacks from their position astride the road were stopped, but the road was still cut. XXX Corps then sent a unit of the Guards Armoured Division 19 km (12 miles) south and re-took the road. The rest of the force to the north continued to wait for infantry to move up, still only a few kilometers south of Arnhem.
Another German force successfully attacked the road to the south of Veghel and set up defensive positions for the night. Veghel ( pronounced) is a Municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It was not clear to the Allies at this point how much of a danger this represented, but the principal objective of Operation Market Garden, i. e. the Allied crossing of the Rhine, was essentially abandoned this day, and the decision made to go over to the defensive with a new front line in Nijmegen. A front line is a line of confrontation in an Armed conflict, most commonly a War. Nevertheless, an attempt was made on Sunday night to reinforce the 1st Airborne Division with the 4th Battalion, The Dorsetshire Regiment. Two companies were put across the river, however the location of the crossing point was ill-advised and the Dorsets landed among prepared German positions. Fragmented by their landing and immediately pinned down, of the 315 men who crossed only 75 reached Oosterbeek; the remainder were taken prisoner. As a result of this failure, it was decided to withdraw the 1st Airborne Division from its bridgehead on the northern side of the Rhine.
At dawn, the 1st Airborne Division received their orders to withdraw across the Rhine. This could not be effected until nightfall, and in the meantime the division struggled to survive. In a departure from their cautious, attritional tactics of the previous days, the Germans formed two potent SS battlegroups and made a significant thrust along a narrow front in the eastern sector. This succeeded in breaking through the thin front line, and for a time the division was in peril. However, the attack met with increasing resistance as it pushed deeper into the British lines, and was finally broken up by a heavy bombardment of the 64th Medium Regiment.
Employing every ruse to give the Germans the impression that their positions were unchanged, the 1st Airborne Division began its withdrawal at 22:00. British and Canadian engineer units ferried the troops across the Rhine, covered by the Polish 3rd Parachute Battalion on the north bank. By early the next morning they had withdrawn 2,398 survivors, leaving 300 men to surrender on the north bank at first light, when German fire prevented their rescue. Of approximately 10,600 men of the 1st Airborne Division and other units who fought north of the Rhine, 1,485 had died and 6,414 were taken prisoner, of whom one third were wounded.
To the south the newly-arrived 50th (Northumbrian) Division attacked the Germans holding the highway, and secured it by the next day. The British 50th (Northumbrian Division was a first-line Territorial Force division. Allied positions in the Nijmegen Salient, as it came to be known, were manned throughout the rest of September and October by airborne units, then handed over to the First Canadian Army in November 1944 and remained unchanged until February 1945 when Operation Veritable was launched on the Rhineland, advancing east instead of north towards Arnhem. The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. Operation Veritable was the northern part of the Second World War pincer movement by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery 's 21st Army Group
|German||2,000 approx. Killed in action ( KIA or K I A) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own forces by other WIA is a Three letter abbreviation standing for Wounded In Action. Missing in action is a status assigned to a member of the armed services who is reported missing following combat Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers||6,000 approx.||8,000 approx.||8,000 approx.|
|British and Canadian||6,000||6,946||13,398||+17,000|
In addition to Allied and German losses, numerous Dutch were killed, including several soldiers and officers in British service as well as resistance fighters and civilians. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands A green area near the bridge was named after the Dutch officer: Jacob Groenewoud Plantsoen.
Operation Market Garden led to high losses in the elite Allied Airborne units. After the offensive operation was called off, these light units were left holding defensive positions, a role for which they were not equipped. The frontage held by Allied forces along their northwestern front in the Low Countries also doubled, making it difficult to mass forces for vital offensive operations in the area that took place in late 1944, such as the Battle of the Scheldt and Operation Aintree. The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of Military operations of the First Canadian Army, led by Lieutenant General Guy Simonds. The Battle of Overloon was a Second World War battle between Allied forces and the German army which took place in and around the village of Overloon in the south-east In order to accomplish these two simultaneous offensives and make up for the heavy casualties that had been sustained during Operation Market Garden, troops were brought in from the front near Aachen and from the Ardennes. ( Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, Italian: Aquisgrana, French, For the political subdivision of France see Ardennes (department. The Germans exploited the thin Allied presence in the Ardennes in December 1944 by launching the Ardennes offensive, which resulted in the Battle of the Bulge. The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945 was a major German offensive launched towards the end of World War II through the forested Ardennes Mountains
Operation Market Garden has remained a controversial battle for several reasons. Both Allied tactics and strategy have been debated. The operation was the result of a strategy debate at the highest levels of Allied command in Europe. Much post-war analysis has thus probed the alternatives that were not taken, such as giving priority to first securing the Scheldt estuary. Military historians have also pointed to the weakened Allied strategic position in the Low Countries as a result of the defeat at Arnhem.
Among the controversial aspects of the plan was the necessity of all the major bridges being taken in order for success. Little contingency had been made in the event of blown bridges along the route. The terrain was also ill-suited for the mission of XXX Corps. It is therefore surprising in retrospect that the plans placed so little emphasis on capturing the important bridges immediately with forces dropped directly on them. In the case of Veghel and Grave, where this was done, the bridges were captured with only a few shots being fired. The decision to drop the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division on the Groesbeek Heights, several kilometers from the Nijmegen Bridge, has been questioned, because it resulted in a critical delay of the capture of the span. Brereton had ordered that the bridges along XXX Corps' route should be captured with "thunderclap surprise". Both Browning and Gavin considered holding a defensive blocking position on the ridge a prerequisite for holding the highway corridor.
Gavin generally favoured accepting the higher initial casualties involved in dropping as close to objectives as possible in the belief that distant drop zones would result in lower chances of success. However, in this case, with the 82nd responsible for holding the centre of the salient, he and Browning decided the ridge must take priority. Combined with the 1st Airborne Division's delays within Arnhem, which left the Arnhem bridge open to their traffic, the Germans were given vital hours to reinforce their hold on the bridge.
The actions of XXX Corps have also been questioned. Their advance was characterized by what was widely perceived, at the time, as a lack of drive. For example, XXX Corps did not jump off until mid-afternoon of the first day and were delayed by pockets of German resistance and the need for engineers to replace the bridge destroyed at Son. They arrived at Nijmegen on September 19 when the plan called for them to be in Arnhem by that afternoon. Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. Their major unexpected delay arose from the need to support the 82nd's assaults on Nijmegen and its bridges. After the river had been crossed, the Guards allegedly waited 18 hours to resume their advance; in the words of Colonel Reuben Tucker (commander of the 504th) the Guards ". Major General Reuben Henry Tucker III (b Ansonia Connecticut, on January 29, 1911 - d . . stopped for tea". While not literally true (and misunderstanding the habit of British soldiers to "brew-up" in any circumstances - a tradition continued to this day in the British Army), Tucker's statement summed up the view some U. S. troops had of the XXX Corps units. Ridgway added that he was "much dissatisfied with the apathy and lack of aggressiveness of the British forces".
However, one cannot shift all the blame to the British forces for the operation's failure (in the words of Montgomery: Seemingly, every allied victory is an American success, every Allied defeat is a British failure), as the American commanders decision to fly just one drop a day instead of two greatly reduced the amount of troops and equipment on the ground. Also, some have blamed the American pilot's lack of co-ordination, as in Normandy, some units landed off target. There was also some dissension between British and American forces and resistance forces in the Netherlands as well as lack of proper intelligence, adequate equipment, a breakdown in communications and a total underestimation of the German forces in the area.
Several weeks prior to the plan taking shape, the British had captured Antwerp and its all-important port facilities. This action had the potential to greatly shorten the Allies' supply lines and trap Gustav-Adolf von Zangen's 15th Army of 80,000 men on the south side of the Scheldt Estuary. Gustav-Adolf von Zangen ( 7 November 1892 &ndash 1 May 1964) was a German General and the commander of the German Instead, Von Zangen's men, with most of their heavy equipment including their artillery, escaped by boat to the South Beveland peninsula. In September, the peninsula could have been sealed by a short advance of only 24 km (15 miles) past Antwerp. Instead, because priority on supplies went to Market Garden, the First Canadian Army paused at Antwerp and then fought the Battle of the Scheldt in October at the cost of thousands of casualties. The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation in Europe during the Second World War. The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of Military operations of the First Canadian Army, led by Lieutenant General Guy Simonds. In the aftermath of Market Garden, Antwerp was not made operational until November 28. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events By October 1, over 240 Allied supply ships were waiting, unable to unload their cargo because of the limited port facilities on the continent. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
Arnhem bridge was not the only available Rhine crossing. In fact, had the Market Garden planners realized that a ferry was available at Driel, Frost's paratroops might well have secured that instead of the Arnhem bridge, making a profound difference in the campaign because at a shorter distance away from their western drop and landing zones--the whole of the 1st Brigade could have concentrated to hold the Osterbeek heights instead of just one battalion farther away at the road bridge. In this case, Arnhem was "one bridge too many". At a minimum, had XXX Corps pushed north, they would have arrived at the south end and secured it, leaving the way open for another crossing to the north at some other point. There was the smaller possibility of arriving with Frost's force intact. This perceived "lack of guts" caused some bitterness at the time.
The commander of XXX Corps advocated another course of action. About 25 km (16 miles) to the west was another bridge similar to Arnhem, at Rhenen, which he predicted would be undefended because of all the efforts being directed on Oosterbeek. Rhenen is a Municipality and a City in the central Netherlands. This was in fact the case, but the corps was never authorised to take the bridge; if they had, it is almost certain they would have crossed unopposed into the rear of the German lines. By this time, it appears that Montgomery was more concerned with the ongoing German assaults on Market Garden's lengthy 'tail'.
Despite the heroism, bad choices were made throughout, and opportunities were ignored. The commander of the Glider Pilot Regiment had asked for a small force with gliders to land on the southern side of the bridge at Arnhem to quickly capture it, but he was denied. The Glider Pilot Regiment was a specialist British unit of the Second World War. This was surprising in light of the fact that in Normandy, the British 6th Airborne Division had used such coup-de-main tactics successfully to take smaller bridges. In Britain, the commander of the British 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division, whose troops were slated to fly into a captured airfield, pleaded with his superiors to allow a brigade to fly in with gliders to assist Major-General Urquhart's trapped forces; this was also denied, though under the circumstances probably sensibly, as glider landings on undefended landing zones before the eyes of an alert enemy could have resulted in catastrophe. However, there was another airfield near Grave, and if the 52nd Lowland had been landed there, they might have freed up British units supporting the 82nd Airborne, and might have allowed them to reach Arnhem sooner. Polish 1st Parachute Brigade commander Major-General Stanisław Sosabowski was prepared to try a dangerous drop through the fog which held up his deployment but again was refused. Genbryg Stanisław Franciszek Sosabowski ( 8 May 1892 - 25 September 1967) was a
The Dutch resistance was ignored by the British forces at Arnhem, although they worked with the U. S. airborne divisions. There was a very good reason for this: Britain's spy network in the Netherlands had been thoroughly and famously compromised — the so-called England game, which had only been discovered in April 1944. de Das Englandspiel, also called Unternehmen Nordpol ( Operation North Pole) was an enormous Counter intelligence operation launched by the German Intelligence Perhaps assuming that the Dutch resistance would be similarly penetrated, British intelligence took pains to minimise all civilian contact. U. S. units, without this bad experience, made active use of Dutch help. As things turned out, the simple knowledge of the Driel ferry, or of the underground's secret telephone network could have changed the outcome of the operation, especially since Allied radio equipment was malfunctioning, having to rely on messengers. The latter was very important: it would have given the XXX Corps and Airborne High Command knowledge about the dire situation at Arnhem.
After the war, claims arose that the Dutch resistance had indeed been penetrated. One high-ranking Dutch counterintelligence officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Oreste Pinto, published a popular book, "Spy Catcher", part-memoir and part counterintelligence handbook. In it, he claimed that one of the leading figures in the Dutch resistance, Christiaan Lindemans ("King Kong" to his men) had been a German agent and had betrayed Operation Market Garden to the Germans. Lindemans was arrested in October 1944, but committed suicide in his cell in 1946 while still awaiting trial. In 1969, French journalist and historian Anne Laurens concluded that Lindemans had been a double agent. 
Market Garden was a very high-risk plan that required a willingness to take risks at the tactical, small-unit level. Unfortunately, the detailed planning and leadership required at that level was not always present. The 1st Airborne Division, the least experienced working as a whole division, was given the most difficult, distant objective. XXX Corps was also criticized for its inability to keep to the operation's timetable. Its lead unit, the Guards Armoured Division, was led by a commander (Allan Adair) whom Montgomery had sought to remove prior to D-Day. Major General Sir Allan Henry Shafto Adair 6th Baronet GCVO, CB, DSO, MC and Bar Mentioned in Dispatches four times This action was blocked due to Adair's popularity. Gavin regretted giving his division's most critical tasks (Groesbeek ridge and Nijmegen) to the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment rather than his best regiment, Tucker's 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. During World War II, the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment ( 508th PIR or Red Devils) was a Regiment of the 82d Airborne Division which The 504th Infantry Regiment known during World War II, as the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment ( 504th PIR) was and still is a Regiment of the 82nd
Eisenhower believed until his death that Market Garden was a campaign that was worth waging. Even so, Cornelius Ryan quotes Eisenhower as saying, ". Cornelius Ryan, ( 5 June 1920 &ndash 23 November 1974) was an Irish-American Journalist and Author mainly known . . I don't know what you heard in Britain, but the British have never understood the American system of command. . . I never heard from the British any golden paeans of praise. And you're not going to hear it now, particularly from people like Montgomery. " But Eisenhower kept these views to himself, not revealing them until long after hostilities had ended.
For his part, Montgomery called Market Garden "90% successful" and said:
American General Dwight Eisenhower was full of praise for the airborne warriors.
He said, 'There has been no single performance by any unit that has more greatly inspired me or more excited my admiration than the nine day action by the lst British Parachute Division between September 17 and 25'.
After Operation Market Garden failed to establish a bridgehead across the Rhine, Allied forces were forced to launch offensives on two fronts in the south of the Netherlands at the same time. To secure shipping to the vital port of Antwerp they advanced northwards and westwards, taking the Scheldt estuary in the Battle of the Scheldt. The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of Military operations of the First Canadian Army, led by Lieutenant General Guy Simonds. Allied forces also advanced eastwards in Operation Aintree in order to secure the banks of the river Meuse as a natural boundary for the established salient. The Battle of Overloon was a Second World War battle between Allied forces and the German army which took place in and around the village of Overloon in the south-east This attack on the German bridgehead west of the Meuse near Venlo was for the Allies an unexpectedly protracted affair, which included the Battle of Overloon. Venlo ( is a Municipality and a City in the southeastern Netherlands. The Battle of Overloon was a Second World War battle between Allied forces and the German army which took place in and around the village of Overloon in the south-east
In February 1945, Allied forces in Operation Veritable advanced from the Groesbeek heights which had been conquered during Market Garden, and into Germany, crossing the Rhine in March during Operation Plunder. Operation Veritable was the northern part of the Second World War pincer movement by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery 's 21st Army Group Commencing on the night of 23 March, 1945 during World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, However, the Allied forces had by then shifted to a broad front strategy, having crossed the Rhine days earlier much further south at Remagen and at Oppenheim. Remagen is a town in Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. Oppenheim is a small town (about 7000 inhabitants on the Upper Rhine ( Rheinhessen) between Mainz and Worms. As a result of Operation Plunder, the city of Arnhem was finally liberated by I Canadian Corps on 14 April 1945 after two days of fighting. Mention of the "Battle of Arnhem" brings to mind the doomed Operation Market Garden, which has become synonymous with the name of the town Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar A surrender of the remaining German forces in the west of the Netherlands was signed on May 5.
The prized Arnhem bridge did not survive the war. Sint-Oedenrode ( is a Municipality and a city in the South of the Netherlands. It was replaced with a bridge of similar appearance after the war and was renamed John Frostbrug ("John Frost Bridge") for Colonel Frost in September 1978.
A memorial near Arnhem reads: "To the People of Gelderland; 50 years ago British and Polish Airborne soldiers fought here against overwhelming odds to open the way into Germany and bring the war to an early end. Instead we brought death and destruction for which you have never blamed us. This stone marks our admiration for your great courage remembering especially the women who tended our wounded. In the long winter that followed your families risked death by hiding Allied soldiers and Airmen while members of the resistance led many to safety. "
On September 16, 1994, 101st Airborne veterans revealed a war monument 'Monument for the Dutch' in Sint-Oedenrode. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The monument is a gift from the veterans to the civilians who fought alongside of the U. S. troops, much to the surprise and relief of the U. S. soldiers. The inscription on the monument is in English and reads "Dedicated to the people of the Corridor by the veterans of the 101st Airborne Division, in grateful appreciation of their courage, compassion and friendship".
The operation is also memorialized at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, home of the 82nd Airborne Division. Each of the major drop zones on the post is named for a major WW2 jump; the Holland, Nijmegen, and Netherlands Drop Zones commemorate Operation Market Garden.
Several museums in the Netherlands are dedicated to Operation Market Garden, including: National Liberation Museum in Groesbeek, Wings of Liberation Museum Park in Schijndel and Airborne Museum Hartenstein in Oosterbeek. Groesbeek is a Municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. Schijndel ( is a Municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. The Airborne Museum at Oosterbeek in The Netherlands is dedicated to the Battle of Arnhem in September 1944 Oosterbeek is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is located in the municipality of Renkum, about 5 km west of Arnhem.