Onion is a term used by many plants in the genus Allium. Elba New York is the name of two places in Genesee County New York: Elba (village New York Elba (town New York A frying pan, frypan, or skillet is a pan used for Frying, Searing, and browning foods Allium is the Onion Genus, with about 1250 Species, making it one of the largest plant genera in the world They are known by the common name "onion" but, used without qualifiers, it usually refers to Allium cepa. Allium cepa is also known as the 'garden onion' or 'bulb' onion and 'shallot'. A bulb is an underground vertical Shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases that are used as Food Storage organs by The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant
Allium cepa is known only in cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. and Allium asarense R. M. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.  However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. "
Onions, one of the oldest vegetables known to humankind, are found in a bewildering array of recipes and preparations, spanning almost the totality of the world's cultures; they are nowadays available in fresh, frozen, canned, pickled, and dehydrated forms. Onions can be used, usually chopped or sliced, in almost every type of food, including cooked foods and fresh salads, and as a spicy garnish; they are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. Depending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy and pungent or mild and sweet.
Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Onions are a staple food in India, and are therefore fundamental to Indian cooking. A staple food is a Food that forms the basis of a Traditional diet. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country They are commonly used as a base for curries, or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. Curry is the English description of any of a general variety of spicy dishes best known in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan
Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage, because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications. Science education is the field concerned with sharing Science Content and Process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community A microscope ( Greek: ( micron) = small + ( skopein) = to look or see is an instrument for viewing objects that are 
It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. In Caananite Bronze Age settlements, traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Ficus is a Genus of about 850 Species of woody Trees Shrubs Vines Epiphytes and hemi-epiphytes in the family The Date Palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible Fruit.  Onion is native to South Asia, and is widely used in Indian cuisine. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  However, it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. Archaeological and literary evidence such as the Book of Numbers 11:5 suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt, at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. The Book of Numbers, ( Bamidbar, meaning in the wilderness) is the fourth book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The leek, Allium ampeloprasum var porrum (L also sometimes known as Allium porrum, is a vegetable which belongs along with the Onion and Allium sativum L, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the Onion family Alliaceae. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions. The Egyptian pyramids are pyramid shaped structures located in Egypt, and were built as a tomb for dead pharaohs The radish ( Raphanus sativus) is an edible Root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre- 
The onion is easily propagated, transported and stored. The Ancient Egyptians worshipped it, believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of They believed that if buried with the dead, the strong scent of onions would bring breath back to the dead.
In ancient Greece, athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. Gladiators (gladiatores "swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword" from la ''gladius'' "sword" were professional fighters in Ancient Rome who fought In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay for their rent with onions and even give them as gifts.  Doctors were known to prescribe onions to facilitate bowel movements and erection, and also to relieve headaches, coughs, snakebite and hair loss. A snake is an elongate Reptile of the suborder Serpentes Like all reptiles snakes are covered in scales. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Haiti. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women, and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. However, recent evidence has proven that dogs, cats, and other animals should NOT be given onions in any form, due to toxicity during digestion. 
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 40 kcal 170 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Wide-ranging claims have been made for the effectiveness of onions against conditions ranging from the common cold to heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and other diseases. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Osteoporosis is a Disease of Bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture.  They contain chemical compounds believed to have anti-inflammatory, anticholesterol, anticancer, and antioxidant properties such as quercetin. Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces Inflammation. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules Quercetin is a Flavonoid and to be more specific a flavonol. It is the Aglycone form of a number of other flavonoid Glycosides, such as However, it has not been demonstrated that increased consumption of onions is directly linked to health benefits.
In many parts of the world, onions are used to heal blisters and boils. Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the infection of Hair follicles resulting in the localized accumulation of Pus and dead tissue A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Sea urchins are small globular spiny sea cat animals composing most of class Echinoidea. In the morning, the spikes will be in the onion. In the United States, products that contain onion extract are used in the treatment of topical scars; some studies have found their action to be ineffective,  while others found that they may act as an anti-inflammatory or bacteriostatic  and can improve collagen organization in rabbits. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Onions may be especially beneficial for women, who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause, by destroying osteoclasts so that they do not break down bone. Osteoporosis is a Disease of Bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. An osteoclast (from the Greek words for "bone" and "broken" is a type of Bone cell that removes Bone tissue by removing its Mineralized matrix
As onions are sliced, cells are broken, allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down amino acid sulphoxides and generate sulphenic acids. The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Alliinases are a class of enzymes found in plants of the genus Allium, such as garlic and onions In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this A sulfoxide is a Chemical compound containing a sulfinyl Functional group attached to two carbon atoms A sulfenic acid is an Organosulfur compound and Oxoacid with the general formula R[[sulfur S]] O[[hydrogen H]] where R ≠ H Sulphenic acids are unstable and spontaneously rearrange into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Syn-propanethial-S-oxide is a volatile gas that triggers tears when an Onion is cut The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye, where it reacts with the water to form a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. This acid irritates the nerve endings in the eye, making them sting. A nerve is an enclosed cable-like bundle of peripheral Axons (the long slender projections of Neurons. Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. 
Supplying ample water to the reaction or chewing gum while peeling onions prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. Eye irritation can, therefore, be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. Another way to avoid irritation is by not cutting off the root of the onion, or by doing it last, as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes.  Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. (Having a sharp knife and keeping the root of a halved onion on until the end also reduces the risk of cutting yourself if your knife slips). Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating, limiting the amount of gas generated. Having a fire, such as a candle or a burner, will help as the heat and flames will draw in the onion gas, burn it, and then send it up with the rest of the flame exhaust. In the heat, the chemical changes such that it no longer irritates the eyes. The volume of sulfenic acids released, and the irritation effect, differs among Allium species.
On January 31, 2008, the New Zealand Crop and Food institute led by Colin Eady created 'no tears' onions by using Australian gene-silencing biotechnology. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance Biotechnology is Technology based on Biology, especially when used in Agriculture, Food science, and Medicine. 
Onions may be grown from seed or, most commonly, from sets. The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year, resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year, but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned.
Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions, which are onions harvested while immature. Green onion is a name also used to refer to Allium fistulosum, the Welsh onion, which is said not to produce dry bulbs.
Brown and white onions
Flower head of a yellow onion
Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L. The leek, Allium ampeloprasum var porrum (L also sometimes known as Allium porrum, is a vegetable which belongs along with the Onion and ) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow, Northern Red, New York Bold, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. In general, the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins. 
Shallots have the most phenols, six times the amount found in Vidalia onion, the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Shallots also have the most antioxidant activity, followed by Western Yellow, New York Bold, Northern Red, Mexico, Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules Western Yellow onions have the most flavonoids, eleven times the amount found in Western White, the variety with the lowest flavonoid content. The term flavonoid (or bioflavonoid refers to a class of Plant Secondary metabolites According to the IUPAC nomenclature they can be classified into
For all varieties of onions, the more phenols and flavonoids they contain, the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provide. When tested against liver and colon cancer cells, Western Yellow, New York Bold and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. The milder-tasting varieties—Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia—showed little cancer-fighting ability. 
|Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005|
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
In the English vernacular, "an onion" is a difficult situation, the use stemming from the onion's tendency to irritate or inflame the eyes. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain Conversely, the term "onion" can be used to describe any state of being, as in the phrase, "[someone] really dices my onion!" It may also represent an object of many layers.
In some Scots dialects, onion is pronounced 'Ingin'.
An "Onion" is also an old slang term to decribe a person from Bermuda; a Bermudian. Bermuda is known to sprout some of best onions in the world, that is why they're (Bermudians) called "onions".
Feminist poet Carol Ann Duffy uses the onion as a metaphor of love and relationships in her poem "Valentine" (1993), one of the poems in her collection "Mean time"
Expressions referring to "layers of the onion" evoke the process of peeling back the layers of something (a person, reality, etc. Carol Ann Duffy (born December 23, 1955) is a British Poet, Playwright and Freelance Writer born in ), without however reaching a core - the centre of the onion being simply another layer. The metaphor is thus used to challenge the notion that there is a core/essence 'behind' surface layers, stressing the continuity between layer and core. Due to the number of layers in an onion it can also be used simply to evoke complexity - something having 'many layers', or 'always another layer behind this one".
This idea was used (& twisted) in the first Shrek movie, (Dreamworks LLC), when Shrek tries to explain to his partner, Donkey, that he is a complex person by telling him that 'Ogres are like onions. Shrek is a 2001 computer-animated American Comedy film, directed by Andrew Adamson and Vicky Jenson, and DreamWorks LLC, also known as DreamWorks Pictures, DreamWorks SKG, or DreamWorks Studios, is a major American Film studio ' (meaning that they have layers), to which Donkey replies 'Oh I get it. You leave them out in the sun too long and they go all brown and start sprouting little white hairs!'
In other languages too the onion has acquired different connotations, eg. , amongst the Khasi tribe in North East India, Onion or "piat" in the local dialect refers to someone who is present everywhere or in every social gathering.