One Thousand and One Nights (Arabic: كتاب ألف ليلة وليلة - kitāb 'alf layla wa-layla; Persian: هزار و یک شب - Hezār-o yek šab) is a collection of stories collected over many centuries by various authors, translators and scholars in various countries. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language These collections of tales trace their roots back to ancient Arabia and Yemen, ancient India, ancient Asia Minor, ancient Persia (especially the Sassanid Hazār Afsān Persian: هزار افسان, lit. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya This article is about the history of South Asia prior to the Partition of British India in 1947 Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Thousand Tales), ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamian Mythology, ancient Syria, and medieval Arabic folk stories from the Caliphate era. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history Though the oldest Arabic manuscript dates from the fourteenth century, scholarship generally dates the collection's genesis to somewhere between AD 800-900.
What is common throughout all the editions of The Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryar (from Persian: شهريار generally meaning king or sovereign) and his wife Scheherazade (from Persian: شهرزاده generally meaning townswoman) and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves. A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc is a narrative technique whereby an introductory main story is composed at least in part for the purpose of This is a list of characters within the Medieval collection of Middle Eastern Folk tales One Thousand and One Nights. Scheherazade (ʃəˌhɛrəˈzɑːd -ˈzɑːdə sometimes Scheherazadea, Persian transliteration Shahrazad or Shahrzād (شهرزاد Šahrzād The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1001 or more "nights. "
The collection, or at least certain stories drawn from it (or purporting to be drawn from it) became widely known in the West during the nineteenth century, after it was translated - first into French and then English and other European languages. At this time it acquired the English name The Arabian Nights' Entertainment or simply Arabian Nights. The best known stories from The Nights include "Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp," "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves," and "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor. Aladdin (an Anglicisation of the Arabic name (originally Syrian Alāʼ ad-Dīn, Arabic: علاء الدين literally "nobility of the faith" Ali Baba ( Arabic, Persian: علي بابا is a Fictional character based in Ancient Arabia. " Ironically these particular stories, while they are genuine Middle Eastern folk tales, were not part of the "Nights" in its Arabic versions, but were interpolated into the collection by its early European translators.
The main frame story concerns a Persian king and his new bride. This article provides a list of stories within Richard Francis Burton 's translation of One Thousand and One Nights. A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc is a narrative technique whereby an introductory main story is composed at least in part for the purpose of The king, Shahryar, upon discovering his former wife's infidelity has her executed and then declares all women to be unfaithful. He begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next morning. Eventually the vizier cannot find any more virgins. A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian Scheherazade, the vizier's daughter, offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. Scheherazade (ʃəˌhɛrəˈzɑːd -ˈzɑːdə sometimes Scheherazadea, Persian transliteration Shahrazad or Shahrzād (شهرزاد Šahrzād On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade tells the king a tale, but does not end it. The king is thus forced to keep her alive in order to hear the conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins (and only begins) another. So it goes for 1,001 nights.
The tales vary widely: they include historical tales, love stories, tragedies, comedies, poems, burlesques and various forms of erotica. Burlesque is a genre of entertainment also known as Travesty. Numerous stories depict djinn, magicians, and legendary places, which are often intermingled with real people and geography; the historical caliph Harun al-Rashid is a common protagonist, as are his alleged court poet Abu Nuwas and his vizier, Ja'far al-Barmaki. GEnie (General Electric Network for Information Exchange was an online service The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Hārūn al-Rashīd (and Persian: هارون الرشيد) also spelled Harun ar-Rashid; English: Aaron the Upright, Aaron the Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami ( 750 &ndash 810) known as Abū-Nuwās ( Arabic: ابونواس) was one of the greatest of classical Ja'far bin Yahya Barmaki (جعفر بن يحيى ja`far ben yaḥyā (767-803 was the son of a Persian Vizier ( Yahya ibn Khalid) of the Arab Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, and that story may have another one told within it, resulting in a richly-layered narrative texture.
The different versions have different individually detailed endings (in some Scheherazade asks for a pardon, in some the king sees their children and decides not to execute his wife, in some other things happen that make the king distracted) but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life.
The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature. While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophy, and in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen—and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life. Galen ( Greek: Γαληνός Galēnos; Latin: Claudius Galenus, Aelius Galenus, Claudius Aelius Galenus, or
The tales in the collection can be traced to the Indian, Persian, Egyptian, and Arab ancient storytelling traditions. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Persian literature ( spans two and a half millennia though much of the pre- Islamic material has been lost The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding  Many stories from Indian and Persian folklore parallel the tales as well as Jewish sources.  These tales were probably in circulation before they were collected and codified into a single collection. This work was further shaped by scribes, storytellers, and scholars and evolved into a collection of three distinct layers of storytelling by the 15th century:
The Indian folklore is represented by certain animal stories, which reflect influence from ancient Sanskrit fables. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The influence of the Baital Pachisi collections is notable. Baital Pachisi or Vetala Panchvimshati (" Twenty five tales of Baital " or Vikram and The Vampire is a collection  The Jataka is a collection of 547 stories, which are for the most part moral stories with an ethical purpose. The Jātaka Tales ( Sanskrit जातक and Pali, Malay: jetaka Lao: satok refer to a voluminous body of Folklore -like literature The Tale of the Bull and the Ass and the linked Tale of the Merchant and his Wife are found in the frame stories of both the Jataka and the Arabian Nights. 
The influence from the folklore of Baghdad is represented by the tales of the Abbasid caliphs; the Cairene influence is made evident by Maruf the cobbler. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Tales such as Iram of the columns are based upon the pre-Islamic legends of the Arabian peninsula; motifs are employed from the ancient Mesopotamian tale of Gilgamesh. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Gilgamesh was the son of Lugalbanda and the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II first dynasty of Uruk ruling circa 2600 BC according to the Sumerian king Possible Greek influences have also been noted. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions 
The first European version of the Book of the Thousand and One Nights (1704-1717) was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text and other sources. Antoine Galland ( April 4, 1646 &mdash February 17, 1715) was a French Orientalist and Archaeologist, most  This 12-volume book, Les Mille et une nuits, contes arabes traduits en français ("Thousand and one nights, Arab stories translated into French"), included stories that were not in the original Arabic manuscript. "Aladdin's Lamp" and "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" appeared first in Galland's translation and cannot be found in any of the original manuscripts. He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo, a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna Diab. Syrians today are an overall indigenous Levantine people closely related to their immediate neighbours like the Lebanese and (to a lesser extent Jordanians A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac "
Galland's version of the Nights were immensely popular throughout Europe, and later versions of the Nights were written by Galland's publisher using Galland's name without his consent.
A well-known English translation is that by Sir Richard Francis Burton, entitled The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885). Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (19 March 1821 &ndash 20 October 1890 was an English Explorer, Translator, writer Unlike previous editions his ten-volume translation was not bowdlerized. Thomas Bowdler ( IPA /ˈbaʊdlə/ ( July 11, 1754 &ndash February 24, 1825) was an English Physician who published Though printed in the Victorian era it contained all the erotic nuances of the source material replete with sexual imagery and pederastic allusions added as appendices to the main stories by Burton. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings For a generalized discussion of relations between men and boys see main article Pederasty The practice of pederasty in the Middle East Burton circumvented strict Victorian laws on obscene material by printing a private edition for subscribers only rather than publicly publishing the book. His original ten volumes were followed by a further six entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night, which were printed between 1886 and 1888.
Recent versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J. C. Mardrus, translated into English by Powys Mathers, and, notably, a critical edition based on the 14th century Syrian manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, compiled in Arabic by Muhsin Mahdi and rendered into English by Husain Haddawy, by and large the best English language version to date. Joseph Charles Mardrus (1868-1949 born in Cairo, was a French physician and a noted translator Edward Powys Mathers ( 28 August, 1892 &ndash 3 February, 1939) was an English Translator and Poet, and also Muḥsin Mahdī ( June 21 1926 – July 9 2007) was universally acclaimed as the doyen of medieval Arabic and Islamic philosophy
In 2005, Brazilian scholar Mamede Mustafa Jarouche started publishing a thorough Portuguese translation of the work, based on the comparative analysis of a series of different Arabic manuscripts. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. The first three volumes of a planned five- or six-volume set have already been released, comprising the complete Syrian branch of the book (volumes 1 and 2) and part of the later Egyptian branch (volume 3 and onwards). 
هزار ره صفت هفت خوان و رويين دژ
فرو شنيدم و خواندم من از هزار افسان
A thousand times, accounts of Rouyin Dezh and Haft Khān
I heard and read from Hezār Afsān (literally Thousand Fables)
The influence of the versions of the Nights on World Literature is immense. Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the work by name in their own literature. Henry Fielding ( April 22, 1707 &ndash October 8, 1754) was an English Novelist and Dramatist known for his Naguib Mahfouz (نجيب محفوظ Nagīb Maḥfūẓ ( December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian Novelist
Examples of this influence include:
There have been many adaptations of The Nights for both television and cinema.
The atmosphere of The Nights influenced such films as Fritz Lang's 1921 Der müde Tod, the 1924 Hollywood film The Thief of Bagdad starring Douglas Fairbanks, and its 1940 British remake. Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang ( December 5, 1890 &ndash August 2, 1976) was an Austrian German - American Events Entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures Corporation and Louis B The Thief of Bagdad is a 1924 Douglas Fairbanks swashbuckler Adventure film which tells the story of a thief who falls in love with the daughter Douglas Fairbanks ( May 23 1883 – December 12 1939) was an American Actor, Screenwriter, director The year 1940 in film involved some significant events Events February 7 - Walt Disney 's animated Film The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Thief of Bagdad is a British 1940 fantasy film directed by Ludwig Berger, Michael Powell and Tim Whelan, with uncredited contributions by Several stories served as source material for The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926), the oldest surviving feature-length animated film. The Adventures of Prince Achmed (Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed (مغامرات الامير احمد is a 1926 feature-length animated film by the
One of Hollywood's first feature films to be based on The Nights was in 1942, with the movie called Arabian Nights. The year 1942 in film involved some significant events in particular the release of a film consistently rated as one of the greatest films of all time It starred Maria Montez as Scheherazade, Sabu Dastagir as Ali Ben Ali and Jon Hall as Harun al-Rashid. María Montez ( June 6, 1912 - September 7, 1951) was a Dominican -born Motion picture actress who gained fame and popularity Sabu Dastagir ( January 27, 1924 &ndash December 2, 1963) was a Film Actor of Indian South Asian origin—although Jon Hall ( February 23, 1915 &ndash December 13, 1979) was an American Film Actor. The storyline bears virtually no resemblance to the traditional version of the book. In the film, Scheherazade is a dancer who attempts to overthrow Caliph Harun al-Rashid and marry his brother. After Scheherazade’s initial coup attempt fails and she is sold into slavery, many adventures then ensue. Maria Montez and Jon Hall also starred in the 1944 film Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. The year 1944 in film involved some significant events Events July 20 - Since You Went Away is released Ali Baba ( Arabic, Persian: علي بابا is a Fictional character based in Ancient Arabia.
In 1959 UPA released an animated feature about Mr. Magoo, based on 1001 Arabian Nights.
Osamu Tezuka worked on two (very loose) feature film adaptations, the children's film Sinbad no Bōken in 1962 and then Senya Ichiya Monogatari in 1969, an adult-oriented animated feature film. was a Japanese manga artist, Animator, producer and Medical doctor, although he never practiced medicine Adult animation is animation that is targeted at Adults For western audiences the primary reason for a program to be described as "adult animation" is adult humor
The most commercially successful movie based on The Nights was Aladdin, the 1992 animated movie by the Walt Disney Company, which starred the voices of Scott Weinger and Robin Williams. Aladdin is a 1992 animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation, and released by Walt Disney Pictures on November 25 The year 1992 in film involved many significant films (For more about films in foreign languages check sources in those languages The bouncing ball animation (below consists of these 6 frames Scott Eric Weinger (born October 5 1975) is an American Actor and Screenwriter best known as the speaking voice of Aladdin Robin McLaurim Williams (born July 21 1951 or 1952 is an American television stage and film actor and Comedian who has won an Academy Award for his performance The film led to several sequels and a television series of the same name. Aladdin is an Animated television series made by Walt Disney Television which aired from 1994 to 1996 based on the original 1992 feature.
"The Voyages of Sinbad" has been adapted for television and film several times, most recently in the 2003 animated feature Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas, featuring the voices of Brad Pitt and Catherine Zeta-Jones. The year 2003 in film involved some significant events Releases of sequels took place with movies like 2 Fast 2 Furious, The Lord of the Rings The Return Sinbad Legend of the Seven Seas is a 2003 Animated film produced by DreamWorks SKG with voices of characters from Brad Pitt, William Bradley "Brad" Pitt Pitt received a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination for his role in the 1995 film Twelve Monkeys Catherine Zeta-Jones ( "zeeta" born September 25, 1969) is a Welsh actress, presently based in the United States Perhaps the most famous Sinbad film was the 1958 movie The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad, produced by the stop-motion animation pioneer Ray Harryhausen. The year 1958 in film involved some significant events Events February 16- " In the Money " by William The 7th Voyage of Sinbad is a 1958 Technicolor Fantasy film released by Columbia Pictures directed by Nathan H Stop motion (or frame-by-frame) animation is an Animation technique to make a physically manipulated object appear to move on its own Ray Harryhausen (born Raymond Frederick Harryhausen on June 29, 1920 in Los Angeles California) is an Academy Award -winning
A recent well-received television adaptation was the Emmy award-winning miniseries Arabian Nights, directed by Steve Barron and starring Mili Avital as Scheherazade and Dougray Scott as Shahryar. A miniseries (also mini-series) in a serial Storytelling medium is a production which tells a story in a pre-planned limited number of episodes This is about the TV series for alternate uses see Arabian Nights (disambiguation Arabian Nights is a three-hour two-part Steve Barron (born May 4, 1956) is a director and producer, best known for directing the films Coneheads (1993 Mili Avital (מילי אביטל (born 30 March, 1972) is an Israeli Actress. Dougray Scott (born 25 November 1965) is a Scottish television and film actor It was originally shown over two nights on April 30, and May 1, 2000 on ABC in the United States and BBC One in the United Kingdom. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. The year 2000 in television involved some significant eventsBelow is a list of Television -related events in 2000. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Other notable versions of The Nights include the famous 1974 Italian movie Il fiore delle mille e una notte by Pier Paolo Pasolini and the 1990 French movie Les 1001 nuits, in which Catherine Zeta-Jones made her debut playing Scheherazade. The year 1974 in film involved some significant events Events February 7 - Blazing Saddles is released Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Arabian Nights is a 1974 Italian film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini. Pier Paolo Pasolini ( March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian Poet, Intellectual, Film director The year 1990 in film involved some significant events Events CGI technique is expanded with motion capture for French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Catherine Zeta-Jones ( "zeeta" born September 25, 1969) is a Welsh actress, presently based in the United States There are also numerous Bollywood movies inspired by the book, including Aladdin and Sinbad. Bollywood (बॉलीवूड بالی وڈ is the informal term popularly used for the Mumbai -based Hindi-language Film industry in India In this version the two heroes meet and share in each other's adventures; the djinn of the lamp is female, and Aladdin marries her rather than the princess.
Nights filmography: 1907-2000
Edgar Allan Poe (January 19 1809 – October 7 1849 was an American poet, short-story Writer, editor and Literary critic, Wikisource is a Wikimedia project to build a free, Wiki Library of Source texts along with translations into any language