|Lord Protector of the|
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (more...)
|An unfinished miniature portrait of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State with two meanings (and full styles at different periods of history The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years A portrait miniature is a miniature Portrait painting usually executed in Gouache or watercolor. Samuel Cooper (1609 &ndash May 5, 1672) was an English miniature painter, and younger brother of Alexander Cooper|
|Reign||16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658|
|Coronation||16 December 1653|
(King of England)
|Born||25 April 1599|
|Died||3 September 1658 (aged 58)|
|Burial||Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge|
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Richard Cromwell ( 4 October 1626 &ndash 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector Richard Cromwell ( 4 October 1626 &ndash 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector Henry Cromwell ( 20 January, 1628 &ndash 23 March, 1674) was the fourth son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Huntingdon is a town in the county of Cambridgeshire in East Anglia, England. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Whitehall is a road in Westminster in London, England. It is the main artery running north from Parliament Square, towards traditional London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Sidney Sussex College (often informally shortened to just Sidney) was founded in 1596 and named after its foundress Frances Sidney Countess of Sussex. The city of Cambridge (ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The military history of the United Kingdom covers the period from the birth of the united Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 with the political union of England and Political history Pre-Union politics See also Parliament of England The English Parliament traces its origins to the Anglo-Saxon England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State with two meanings (and full styles at different periods of history Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State with two meanings (and full styles at different periods of history Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army, which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. The New Model Army was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland
Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life, slipping down to the level of yeoman farmer for a number of years in the 1630s before returning to the ranks of the gentry thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. Gentry generally refers to people of high Social class, especially in the past Yeoman is noun used to indicate a variety of positions or Social classes In the 16th century a yeoman was also a Farmer of middling social status who owned After undergoing a religious conversion during the same decade, he made an Independent style of Puritanism a core tenet of his life. Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity or a change from one religious identity to another In English Church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters without any wider geographical hierarchy A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The city of Cambridge (ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England The Short Parliament ( 13 April - 5 May 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, on 3 November 1640, following the Bishops' Wars. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. " Roundheads " was the Nickname given to the Puritan supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War.
An effective soldier (nicknamed "Old Ironsides") he rose from leading a single cavalry troop to command of the entire army. Ironside was the name given to a trooper in the Parliamentarian cavalry formed by English political leader Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century during The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. Cromwell was the third person to sign Charles I's death warrant in 1649 and was an MP in the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament after Colonel Pride on December 6 1648 had purged Long Parliament of those Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650-51. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 16 December 1653 until his death. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Barebone's Parliament, also known as the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on 4 July 1653 and was the last attempt of the English England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion When the Royalists returned to power in 1660, his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Posthumous execution is the Ritual or Ceremonial execution of an already dead body
Cromwell has been a very controversial figure in the history of Britain and Ireland – a regicidal dictator to some historians (such as David Hume and Christopher Hill) and a hero of liberty to others (such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner). The history of the British Isles has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a Monarch, or the person responsible for it A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy John Edward Christopher Hill, usually known simply as Christopher Hill, February 6, 1912 &ndash February 23, 2003 was an English Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881 was a Scottish essayist satirist and historian whose work was highly influential during the Victorian era. Samuel Rawson Gardiner ( 4 March 1829 - 24 February 1902) was an English Historian. In Britain he was elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.  His measures against Irish Catholics have been characterized by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal, and in Ireland itself he is widely hated. Irish Catholics is a term used to describe people of Roman Catholic background who are Irish or of Irish descent. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world 
Relatively few sources survive about the first 40 years of Cromwell's life. He was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599, to Elizabeth and Robert Cromwell (c. Huntingdon is a town in the county of Cambridgeshire in East Anglia, England. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. 1560-1617). He was descended from Catherine Cromwell (born circa 1482), an older sister of Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell. Social and economic revolution Following the Black Death Plagues and the agricultural depression of the late 14th century population growth Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl of Essex (c 1485 &ndash 28 July 1540) was an English statesman who served as King Henry VIII 's chief minister Catherine was married to Morgan ap Williams, son of William ap Yevan of Wales and Joan Tudor (reportedly a granddaughter of Owen Tudor, which would make Cromwell a distant cousin of his Stuart foes). Jasper Tudor ( Welsh: Siasbar Tudur) c 1431 &ndash December 21/26 1495 Earl of Pembroke and 1st Duke of Bedford, was the uncle of King Owain ap Mredydd (or Owen ap Meredith ap Tewdwr or Owen Tudur or Owen Tudor) (c The family line continued through Richard Cromwell (c. 1500–1544), Henry Cromwell (c. 1524–January 6, 1603), then to Oliver's father Robert Cromwell (c. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King 1560–1617), who married Elizabeth Steward or Stewart (1564–1654) on the day of Cromwell's birth. Thus, Thomas was Oliver's second great-granduncle. 
The social status of Cromwell's family at his birth was relatively low within the gentry class. His father was a younger son, and one of 10 siblings who survived into adulthood. As a result, Robert's inheritance was limited to a house in Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes. See also Pound (currency.The pound sign (" £ " or " ₤ " is the symbol for the Pound sterling —the currency of the  Cromwell himself, much later in 1654, said "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity". 
Records survive of Cromwell's baptism and of his attendance at Huntingdon grammar school. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Hinchingbrooke School is a large school situated on the outskirts of Huntingdon in Cambridgeshire. He went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, which was then a recently founded college with a strong puritan ethos. Sidney Sussex College (often informally shortened to just Sidney) was founded in 1596 and named after its foundress Frances Sidney Countess of Sussex. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, He left in June 1617 without taking a degree, immediately after the death of his father. Early biographers claim he then attended Lincoln's Inn, but there is no record of him in the Inn's archives. The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of four Inns of Court in London to which Barristers of England and Wales belong and where He is likely to have returned home to Huntingdon, given that his mother was widowed, his seven sisters were unmarried, and there was hence a need to take charge of the family. 
On 22 August 1620, Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier (1598–1665). Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. They had nine children:
Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London merchant who owned extensive land in Essex and had strong connections with puritan gentry families there. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common The marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and also with leading members of the London merchant community, and behind them the influence of the earls of Warwick and Holland. Oliver St John (c 1598 - 31 December 1673) was an English Statesman and Judge. Robert Rich may refer to Robert Rich (musician, American ambient musician Dalton Trumbo, American screenwriter and novelist used pen name Henry Rich 1st Earl of Holland (baptized August 19, 1590 &ndash March 9, 1649) was the son of Robert Rich 1st Earl of Warwick and Membership of this godly network would prove crucial to Cromwell’s military and political career. At this stage, though, there is little evidence of Cromwell’s own religion. His letter in 1626 to Henry Downhall, an Arminian minister, suggests that Cromwell had yet to be influenced by radical puritanism. Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity based on the theological ideas of the Dutch  However, there is evidence that Cromwell went through a period of personal crisis during the late 1620s and early 1630s. He sought treatment for valde melancolicus (depression) from London doctor Theodore de Mayerne in 1628. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression Sir Théodore Turquet de Mayerne ( Sep 28 1573 - March 22 1654 or 1655 was a Swiss -born physician who treated kings of France and He was also caught up in a fight among the gentry of Huntingdon over a new charter for the town, as a result of which he was called before the Privy Council in 1630. A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a 
In 1631 Cromwell sold most of his properties in Huntingdon — probably as a result of the dispute — and moved to a farmstead in St Ives. St Ives is a Market town in Cambridgeshire, England, around 24 km north-west of the city of Cambridge and 110 km This was a major step down in society compared to his previous position, and seems to have had a major emotional and spiritual impact. A 1638 letter survives from Cromwell to the wife of Oliver St John, and gives an account of his spiritual awakening. The letter outlines how, having been the "the chief of sinners", Cromwell had been called to be among "the congregation of the firstborn". Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation  The language of this letter, which is saturated with biblical quotations and which represents Cromwell as having been saved from sin by God's mercy, places his faith firmly within the Independent beliefs that the Reformation had not gone far enough, that much of England was still living in sin, and that Catholic beliefs and ceremonies needed to be fully removed from the church. In English Church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters without any wider geographical hierarchy The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete".
In 1636, Cromwell inherited control of various properties in Ely from his uncle on his mother's side, as well as his uncle's job as tithe collector for Ely Cathedral. Ely (, rhyming with "freely" is a Cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England. A tithe (from Old English teogoþa "tenth" is a one-tenth part of something paid as a (usually voluntary contribution or as a Tax or levy As a result, his income is likely to have risen to around £300-400 per year.  As a result, by the end of the 1630s Cromwell had returned to the ranks of the gentry. He had become a committed puritan and had also established important family links to leading families in London and Essex. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common
Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629, as a client of the Montagus. Huntingdon is a Constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. He made little impression: records for the Parliament show only one speech (against the Arminian Bishop Richard Neile), which was poorly received. Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Richard Neile (1562-1640 was an English churchman Bishop of several English Dioceses and Archbishop of York from 1631 until his death  After dissolving this Parliament, Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next eleven years. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. When Charles faced the Scottish rebellion known as the Bishops' Wars, shortage of funds forced him to call a Parliament again in 1640. Cromwell was returned to this Parliament as member for Cambridge, but it lasted for only three weeks and became known as the Short Parliament. Cambridge is a Constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Short Parliament ( 13 April - 5 May 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks
A second Parliament was called later the same year. This was to become known as the Long Parliament. The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, on 3 November 1640, following the Bishops' Wars. Cromwell was again returned to this Parliament as member for Cambridge. As with the Parliament of 1628-9, it is likely that Cromwell owed his position to the patronage of others, which would explain the fact that in the first week of the Parliament he was in charge of presenting a petition for the release of John Lilburne, who had become a puritan martyr after being arrested for importing religious tracts from Holland. John Lilburne (1614&ndash 29 August 1657) also known as Freeborn John, was an agitator in England before during and after the The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom Otherwise it is unlikely that a relatively unknown member would have been given this task. For the first two years of the Long Parliament, Cromwell was linked to the godly group of aristocrats in the House of Lords and MPs in the Commons with which he had already established familial and religious links in the 1630s, such as the earls of Essex, Warwick and Bedford, Oliver St John, and Viscount Saye and Sele. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" Robert Devereux 3rd Earl of Essex ( January 11 1591 – 14 September 1646) was the son and heir of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Robert Rich may refer to Robert Rich (musician, American ambient musician Dalton Trumbo, American screenwriter and novelist used pen name Francis Russell 4th Earl of Bedford PC (1593 &ndash May 9, 1641) was an English Politician. William Fiennes 1st Viscount Saye and Sele ( June 28, 1582 &ndash April 14, 1662) was born at the family home of Broughton Castle  At this stage, the group had an agenda of godly reformation: the executive checked by regular parliaments, and the moderate extension of liberty of conscience. Cromwell appears to have taken a role in some of this group's political manoeuvres. In May 1641, for example, it was Cromwell who put forward the second reading of the Annual Parliaments Bill, and who later took a role in drafting the Root and Branch Bill for the abolition of episcopacy. 
Failure to resolve the issues before the Long Parliament led to armed conflict between Parliament and Charles I in the autumn of 1642. Before joining Parliament's forces, Cromwell's only military experience was in the trained bands, the local county militia. Now 43 years old, he recruited a cavalry troop in Cambridgeshire after blocking a shipment of silver from Cambridge colleges that was meant for the king. Cromwell and his troop then fought at the indecisive Battle of Edgehill in October 1642. The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first Pitched battle of the First English Civil War. The troop was recruited to be a full regiment in the winter of 1642/3, making up part of the Eastern Association under the Earl of Manchester. The Eastern Association of counties was a Parliamentarian or ' Roundhead ' army during the English Civil War. Edward Montagu 2nd Earl of Manchester KG, KB, FRS (1602 &ndash May 5, 1671) was an important commander of Parliamentary Cromwell gained experience and victories in a number of successful actions in East Anglia in 1643, notably at the battle of Gainsborough on July 28. East Anglia is often used as a shorthand for the Kingdom of the East Angles. The Battle of Gainsborough was a battle in the English Civil War.  After this he was made governor of Ely and made a colonel in the Eastern Association.
By the time of the Battle of Marston Moor in July 1644, Cromwell had risen to the rank of Lieutenant General of horse in Manchester's army. The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on July 2 1644 during the First English Civil War of 1642&ndash1646 The success of his cavalry in breaking the ranks of the Royalist horse and then attacking their infantry from the rear at Marston Moor was a major factor in the Parliamentarian victory in the battle. Cromwell fought at the head of his troops in the battle and was wounded in the head. Cromwell's nephew, Valentine Walton, was killed at Marston Moor, and Cromwell wrote a famous letter to the soldier's father, Cromwell's brother-in-law, telling him of the soldier's death. Valentine Walton (or Wauton (c 1594 - 1661 was one of the Regicides of King Charles I of England. Valentine Walton (or Wauton (c 1594 - 1661 was one of the Regicides of King Charles I of England. Marston Moor secured the north of England for the Parliamentarians, but failed to end Royalist resistance.
The indecisive outcome of the second Battle of Newbury in October meant that by the end of 1644, the war still showed no signs of ending. The Second Battle of Newbury was a Battle of the English Civil War fought on October 27, 1644, in Speen, adjoining Newbury Cromwell's experience at Newbury, where Manchester had let the King's army slip out of an encircling manoeuvre, led to a serious dispute with Manchester, whom he believed to be less than enthusiastic in his conduct of the war. Manchester later accused Cromwell of recruiting men of "low birth" as officers in the army, to which he replied: "If you choose godly honest men to be captains of horse, honest men will follow them. . . I would rather have a plain russet-coated captain who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows than that which you call a gentleman and is nothing else".  At this time, Cromwell also fell into dispute with Major-General Lawrence Crawford, a Scottish Covenanter Presbyterian attached to Manchester's army, who objected to Cromwell's encouragement of unorthodox Independents and Anabaptists. Lawrence Crawford (1611 - 1645 was a Scottish soldier who fought in English or other armies on the continent of Europe The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century Cromwell's differences with the Scots (at that time allies of the Parliament) would later develop into outright enmity in 1648 and in 1650-51.
Partly in response to the failure to capitalise on their victory at Marston Moor, Parliament passed the Self-Denying Ordinance in early 1645. The first Self-denying Ordinance was a bill moved on December 9, 1644 to deprive members of the Parliament of England from holding command in the army or This forced members of the House of Commons and the Lords, such as Manchester, to choose between civil office and military command. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" All of them — with the exception of Cromwell, whose commission was given continued extensions — chose to renounce their military positions. The Ordinance also decreed that the army be "remodeled" on a national basis, replacing the old county associations. In April 1645 the New Model Army finally took to the field, with Sir Thomas Fairfax in command and Cromwell as Lieutenant-General of cavalry, and second-in-command. The New Model Army was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron (17 January 1612 &ndash 12 November 1671 was a general and parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. By this time, the Parliamentarian's field army outnumbered the King's by roughly two to one. At the Battle of Naseby in June 1645, the New Model smashed the King's major army. The Battle of Naseby was the key battle of the first English Civil War. Cromwell led his wing with great success at Naseby, again routing the Royalist cavalry. At the Battle of Langport on July 10, Cromwell participated in the defeat of the last sizable Royalist field army. The Battle of Langport was a Parliamentarian victory late in the English Civil War, which destroyed the last Royalist field army and ultimately gave Parliament Naseby and Langport effectively ended the King's hopes of victory and the subsequent Parliamentarian campaigns involved taking the remaining fortified Royalist positions in the west of England. In October 1645, Cromwell besieged and took Basing House, where he was accused of killing 100 of the 300 man Royalist garrison there after they had surrendered. Basing House, Hampshire, was a major English Tudor Palace and Castle that once rivalled Hampton Court Palace in its size  Cromwell also took part in sieges at Bridgwater, Sherborne, Bristol, Devizes, and Winchester, then spending the first half of 1646 mopping up resistance in Devon and Cornwall. Bridgwater in Somerset, England, is a Market town, the administrative centre of the Sedgemoor district, and the leading industrial Sherborne is an affluent Market town in north west Dorset, England, situated on the River Yeo Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London Devizes is a small Market town and Civil parish in the heart of the English county of Wiltshire, in the southern United Kingdom Winchester or Winton ( archaic) is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40000 within a radius of its centre Charles I surrendered to the Scots on 5 May 1646, effectively ending the First English Civil War. Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John The First English Civil War (1642–1646 was the first of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars" Cromwell and Fairfax took the formal surrender of the Royalists at Oxford in June. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire,
Cromwell had no formal training in military tactics, and followed the common practice of ranging his cavalry in three ranks and pressing forward. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on This method relied on impact rather than firepower. His strengths were in an instinctive ability to lead and train his men, and in his moral authority. In a war fought mostly by amateurs, these strengths were significant, and are likely to have contributed to the discipline of Cromwell’s cavalry. 
In February 1647 Cromwell suffered from an illness that kept him out of political life for over a month. By the time of his recovery, the Parliamentarians were split over the issue of the king. A majority in both Houses pushed for a settlement that would pay off the Scottish army, disband much of the New Model Army, and restore Charles I in return for a Presbyterian settlement of the Church. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Cromwell rejected the Scottish model of Presbyterianism, which threatened to replace one authoritarian hierarchy with another. The New Model Army, radicalised by the failure of the Parliament to pay the wages it was owed, petitioned against these changes, but the Commons declared the petition unlawful. During May 1647, Cromwell was sent to the army's headquarters in Saffron Walden to negotiate with them, but failed to reach agreement. Saffron Walden is a medium-sized market town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England. In June 1647, a troop of cavalry under Cornet George Joyce seized the king from Parliament's imprisonment. Although Cromwell is known to have met with Joyce on 31 May, it is impossible to be sure what Cromwell's role in this event was. 
Cromwell and Henry Ireton then drafted a manifesto — the "Heads of Proposals" — designed to check the powers of the executive, set up regularly elected parliaments, and restore a non-compulsory Episcopalian settlement. For the Roxy Music album see Manifesto (album. A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions often The Heads Of Proposals was a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the first English Civil War In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State.  Many in the army, such as the Levellers led by John Lilburne, thought this was insufficient demanding full political equality for all men, leading to tense debates in Putney during the autumn of 1647 between Cromwell, Ireton and the army. See Levellers (disambiguation for alternative meanings. The Levellers were members of a mid 17th century English Political movement John Lilburne (1614&ndash 29 August 1657) also known as Freeborn John, was an agitator in England before during and after the The Putney Debates ultimately broke up without reaching a resolution. The Putney Debates were a series of discussions between members of the New Model Army and the Levellers, concerning the makeup of a new Constitution for  The debates, and the escape of Charles I from Hampton Court on 12 November, are likely to have hardened Cromwell's resolve against the king.
The failure to conclude a political agreement with the king eventually led to the outbreak of the Second English Civil War in 1648, when the King tried to regain power by force of arms. The Second English Civil War ( 1648 &ndash 1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the Cromwell first put down a Royalist uprising in south Wales and then marched north to deal with a pro-Royalist Scottish army (the Engagers) who had invaded England. The Engagers were a faction of the Scottish Covenanters who made " The Engagement " with King Charles I in December 1647 while he was At Preston, Cromwell, in sole command for the first time with an army of 9,000, won a brilliant victory against an army twice that size. 
During 1648, Cromwell's letters and speeches started to become heavily based on biblical imagery, many of them meditations on the meaning of particular passages. For example, after the battle of Preston, study of Psalms 17 and 105 led him to tell Parliament that "they that are implacable and will not leave troubling the land may be speedily destroyed out of the land". A letter to Oliver St John in September 1648 urged him to read Isaiah 8, in which the kingdom falls and only the godly survive. The Book of Isaiah ( Hebrew: Sefer Y'sha'yah ספר ישעיה is a book of the Bible traditionally attributed to the Prophet Isaiah, who lived This letter suggests that it was Cromwell's faith, rather than a commitment to radical politics, coupled with Parliament's decision to engage in negotiations with the king at the Treaty of Newport, that convinced him that God had spoken against both the king and Parliament as lawful authorities. For Cromwell, the army was now God's chosen instrument.  The episode shows Cromwell’s firm belief in "Providentialism"—that God was actively directing the affairs of the world, through the actions of "chosen people" (whom God had "provided" for such purposes). Providentialism is a belief that God 's will is evident in all occurrences Cromwell believed, during the Civil Wars, that he was one of these people, and he interpreted victories as indications of God's approval of his actions, and defeats as signs that God was directing him in another direction.
In December 1648, those MPs who wished to continue negotiations with the king were prevented from sitting by a troop of soldiers headed by Colonel Thomas Pride, an episode soon to be known as Pride's Purge. Thomas Pride (died October 23, 1658) was a parliamentarian general in the English Civil War, and best known as the instigator of " Pride's Pride’s Purge took place in December 1648 when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not Those remaining, known as the Rump Parliament, agreed that Charles should be tried on a charge of treason. The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament after Colonel Pride on December 6 1648 had purged Long Parliament of those Cromwell was still in the north of England, dealing with Royalist resistance when these events took place. However, after he returned to London, on the day after Pride's Purge, he became a determined supporter of those pushing for the king's trial and execution. He believed that killing Charles was the only way to bring the civil wars to an end. The death warrant for Charles was eventually signed by 59 of the trying court's members, including Cromwell (who was the third to sign it). Charles was executed on 30 January 1649. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain
After the execution of the King, a republic was declared, known as the Commonwealth of England. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland The Rump Parliament exercised both executive and legislative powers, with a smaller Council of State also having some executive functions. The English Council of State, later also know as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 Cromwell remained a member of the Rump and was appointed a member of the Council. In the early months after the execution of Charles I, Cromwell tried but failed to unite the original group of 'Royal Independents' centred around St John and Saye and Sele, which had fractured during 1648. Cromwell had been connected to this group since before the outbreak of war in 1642 and had been closely associated with them during the 1640s. However only St John was persuaded to retain his seat in Parliament. The Royalists, meanwhile, had regrouped in Ireland, having signed a treaty with the Irish Confederate Catholics. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 In March, Cromwell was chosen by the Rump to command a campaign against them. Preparations for an invasion of Ireland occupied Cromwell in the subsequent months. After quelling Leveller mutinies within the English army at Andover and Burford in May, Cromwell departed for Ireland from Bristol at the end of July. See Levellers (disambiguation for alternative meanings. The Levellers were members of a mid 17th century English Political movement Andover is a town in the English county of Hampshire. The town is situated on the River Anton some 18 Burford (ˈbɜːfəd is a Cotswold Town in Oxfordshire, England. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London
Cromwell led a Parliamentary invasion of Ireland from 1649–50. This article is concerned with the military history of Ireland from 1641-53 The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649-53 refers to the re-conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell Parliament's key opposition was the military threat posed by the alliance of the Irish Confederate Catholics and English royalists (signed in 1649). Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between the Rebellion of 1641 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649 The Confederate-Royalist alliance was judged to be the biggest single threat facing the Commonwealth. However, the political situation in Ireland in 1649 was extremely fractured: there were also separate forces of Irish Catholics who were opposed to the royalist alliance, and Protestant royalist forces that were gradually moving towards Parliament. Cromwell said in a speech to the army Council on 23 March that "I had rather be overthrown by a Cavalierish interest than a Scotch interest; I had rather be overthrown by a Scotch interest than an Irish interest and I think of all this is the most dangerous". 
Cromwell's hostility to the Irish was religious as well as political. He was passionately opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of papal and clerical authority, and which he blamed for tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe.  Cromwell's association of Catholicism with persecution was deepened with the Irish Rebellion of 1641. The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted Coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry but developed into inter communal violence between native This rebellion was marked by massacres of English and Scottish Protestant settlers by native Irish Catholics in Ireland. Irish Catholics is a term used to describe people of Roman Catholic background who are Irish or of Irish descent. These factors contributed to Cromwell's harshness in his military campaign in Ireland. 
Parliament had planned to re-conquer Ireland since 1641 and had already sent an invasion force there in 1647. Cromwell's invasion of 1649 was much larger and, with the civil war in England over, could be regularly reinforced and re-supplied. His nine month military campaign was brief and effective, though it did not end the war in Ireland. Before his invasion, Parliamentarian forces held only outposts in Dublin and Derry. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. When he departed Ireland, they occupied most of the eastern and northern parts of the country. After his landing at Dublin on 15 August 1649 (itself only recently secured for the Parliament at the battle of Rathmines), Cromwell took the fortified port towns of Drogheda and Wexford to secure logistical supply from England. The Battle of Rathmines was fought in and around what is now the Dublin suburb of Rathmines in August 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars Drogheda (ˈdrɒhədə ˈdrɔːdə ( Droichead Átha in Irish, meaning "Bridge of the Ford" is an industrial and port town in County Louth on Wexford (derived from Old Norse Veisafjǫrðr (in some sources spelled "Waes Fiord" – veisa meaning "mudflat stagnant pool" At the siege of Drogheda in September 1649, Cromwell's troops massacred nearly 3,500 people after the town's capture—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including some civilians, prisoners, and Roman Catholic priests. a town in eastern Ireland, was besieged twice in the 1640s during the Irish Confederate Wars and the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.  At the Siege of Wexford in October, another massacre took place under confused circumstances. The Sack of Wexford took place in October 1649 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, when the New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell took Wexford While Cromwell himself was trying to negotiate surrender terms, some of his soldiers broke into the town, killed 2,000 Irish troops and up to 1,500 civilians, and burned much of the town. 
After the fall of Drogheda, Cromwell sent a column north to Ulster to secure the north of the country and went on to besiege Waterford, Kilkenny and Clonmel in Ireland's south-east. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649–50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. Kilkenny, ( is a city and county town of County Kilkenny in Ireland. Clonmel ( Cluain Meala in Irish) in County Tipperary is the county seat of South Tipperary County Council. Kilkenny surrendered on terms, as did many other towns like New Ross and Carlow, but Cromwell failed to take Waterford and at the siege of Clonmel in May 1650, he lost up to 2000 men in abortive assaults before the town surrendered. New Ross ( is a town located in southwest County Wexford, in the southeast of Ireland. Carlow ( is an inland Town in the south-east of Ireland in County Carlow, 84 km from Dublin. Waterford ( or Windy fjord;) is a city in Ireland. It is the primary city of the South East region and the fifth largest in the country The Siege of Clonmel took place in April - May 1650 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland when the town of Clonmel in County Tipperary  One of his major victories in Ireland was diplomatic rather than military. With the help of Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, Cromwell persuaded the Protestant Royalist troops in Cork to change sides and fight with the Parliament At this point, word reached Cromwell that Charles II had landed in Scotland and been proclaimed king by the Covenanter regime. Roger Boyle 1st Earl of Orrery ( April 25, 1621 &ndash October 26, 1679) British soldier Statesman and Dramatist Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century Cromwell therefore returned to England from Youghal on May 26 1650 to counter this threat. Youghal (ˈjɔːl yawl or /ˈjɒhəl/ Irish Eochaill ˈɔxəʎ meaning 'yew wood' is a Seaport in County Cork, Ireland 
The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland dragged on for almost three years after Cromwell's departure. The campaigns under Cromwell's successors Henry Ireton and Edmund Ludlow mostly consisted of long sieges of fortified cities and guerrilla warfare in the countryside. Henry Ireton ( 1611 - November 26, 1651) was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War Edmund Ludlow (c 1617 &ndash 1692 was an English parliamentarian, best known for his involvement in the execution of Charles I, and for his The last Catholic held town, Galway, surrendered in April 1652 and the last Irish troops capitulated in April of the following year. Galway (Gaillimh is the only city in the province of Connacht in Ireland. 
In the wake of the Commonwealth's conquest, the public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were executed when captured. In addition, roughly 12,000 Irish people were sold into slavery under the Commonwealth.  All Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to Scottish and English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers. The Act for the Settlement of Ireland imposed penalties including death and land confiscation against participants and bystanders of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and subsequent The remaining Catholic landowners were allocated poorer land in the province of Connacht. Under the Commonwealth, Catholic landownership dropped from 60% of the total to just 8%. 
The extent of Cromwell's brutality in Ireland has been strongly debated. Cromwell never accepted that he was responsible for the killing of civilians in Ireland, claiming that he had acted harshly, but only against those "in arms". In September 1649, he justified his sack of Drogheda as revenge for the massacres of Protestant settlers in Ulster in 1641, calling the massacre "the righteous judgement of God on these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands with so much innocent blood". Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster  However, Drogheda had never been held by the rebels in 1641—many of its garrison were in fact English royalists. On the other hand, the worst atrocities committed in Ireland, such as mass evictions, killings and deportation for slave labour to Bermuda and Barbados, were carried out under the command of other generals after Cromwell had left for England. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Ba (officially The Bermuda Islands or The Somers Isles) is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation  On entering Ireland, Cromwell demanded that no supplies were to be seized from the civilian inhabitants, and that everything should be fairly purchased; "I do hereby warn. . . . all Officers, Soldiers and others under my command not to do any wrong or violence toward Country People or any persons whatsoever, unless they be actually in arms or office with the enemy. . . . . as they shall answer to the contrary at their utmost peril". Several English soldiers were hanged for disobeying these orders. 
While the massacre at Drogheda (and Wexford) might not have been untypical in the context of the recently ended Thirty Years War, which reduced the male population of Germany by up to half, there are few comparable incidents during Parliament's campaigns in England or Scotland. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. One possible comparison is Cromwell's siege of Basing House in 1645 - the seat of the prominent Catholic the Marquess of Winchester - which resulted in about 300 of the garrison of 1,200 being killed after being refused quarter. Basing House, Hampshire, was a major English Tudor Palace and Castle that once rivalled Hampton Court Palace in its size Contemporaries also reported civilian casualties. However, the scale of the deaths at Basing House was much smaller.  Cromwell himself said of the slaughter at Drogheda in his first letter back to the Council of State: "I believe we put to the sword the whole number of the defendants. I do not think thirty of the whole number escaped with their lives".  Cromwell's orders — "in the heat of the action, I forbade them to spare any that were in arms in the town" — followed a request for surrender at the start of the siege, which was refused. The military protocol of the day was that a town or garrison that rejected the chance to surrender was not entitled to quarter. A victor gives no quarter when the victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life in return for the Surrender at discretion (unconditional surrender of a vanquished  The refusal of the garrison at Drogheda to do this, even after the walls had been breached, was to Cromwell justification for the massacre.  Where Cromwell negotiated the surrender of fortified towns, as at Carlow, New Ross, and Clonmel, he respected the terms of surrender and protected the lives and property of the townspeople. At Wexford, Cromwell again began negotiations for surrender. However, the captain of Wexford castle surrendered during the middle of the negotiations, and in the confusion some of his troops began indiscriminate killing and looting.  Amateur Irish historian (and Drogheda native) Tom Reilly has taken this argument further, claiming that the accepted versions of the campaigns in Drogheda and Wexford in which wholesale killings of civilians on Cromwell's orders took place "were a 19th century fiction". Tom Reilly (born 1960) is an Irish author and newspaper columnist who has written books on Oliver Cromwell and on God and religion as well  However, Reilly's conclusions have been largely rejected by other scholars. 
Although Cromwell's time spent on campaign in Ireland was limited, and although he did not take on executive powers until 1653, he is often the central focus of wider debates about whether the Commonwealth conducted a deliberate programme of genocide or ethnic cleansing in Ireland. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity The sieges of Drogheda and Wexford have been prominently mentioned in histories and literature up to the present day. James Joyce, for example, mentioned Drogheda in his novel Ulysses: "What about sanctimonious Cromwell and his ironsides that put the women and children of Drogheda to the sword with the bible text God is love pasted round the mouth of his cannon?" Similarly, Winston Churchill described the impact of Cromwell on Anglo-Irish relations: "upon all of these Cromwell's record was a lasting bane. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 By an uncompleted process of terror, by an iniquitous land settlement, by the virtual proscription of the Catholic religion, by the bloody deeds already described, he cut new gulfs between the nations and the creeds. 'Hell or Connaught' were the terms he thrust upon the native inhabitants, and they for their part, across three hundred years, have used as their keenest expression of hatred 'The Curse of Cromwell on you. ' . . . Upon all of us there still lies 'the curse of Cromwell'".  Cromwell is still a figure of hatred in Ireland, his name being associated with massacre, religious persecution, and mass dispossession of the Catholic community there. A traditional Irish curse was malacht Cromail ort or "The curse of Cromwell upon you".
The most infamous of account of Cromwell's tactics in Ireland and of his treatment of the Irish natives lies in the phrase used by many to sum up parliament's methods of dealing with the remnants of the rebellion: "To Hell or to Connacht". In 1653, Parliament issued the order to transplant those who were still alive in Ulster, Leinster and Munster to the barren bogs of Connacht. Those who had taken part in the rebellion, in almost any way at all  would have "their estates forfeited and disposed of as followeth. . . that two-third parts of their respective estates be had, taken, and disposed of for the use and benefit of the said Commonwealth. . . (which mostly meant that the land was to be settled). . . and that the other third part of their said respective estates or other lands. . . (to be assigned in such places in Ireland, as the Parliament, in order to the more effectual settlement of the peace of this nation, shall think fit to appoint for that purpose) be respectively had, taken, and enjoyed by the wives and children of the said persons. As the land in Connacht was of a distinctly poorer quality than the rest of the country, it was to there that the displaced were "assigned". About 2000 Catholic landowners and their families were transplanted to the "reservation west of the River Shannon" (Roscommon, Mayo, Galway, and Clare). On penalty of death, no Irish man, woman, or child, was to be found east of the River Shannon, after 1 May 1654. The River Shannon ( Sionainn or Sionna in Irish) is at 386 km (240 miles the longest river in Ireland. In modern Ireland the phrase "To Hell or to Connacht" is still synonymous with a choice in which there is no choice at all. Cromwell had a memorable reflection on the landscape of the burren Co Clare in Ireland where he said that (the region) had neither water to drown a man, a tree to hang a man nor earth to bury a man.
The key surviving statement of Cromwell's own views on the conquest of Ireland is his Declaration of the lord lieutenant of Ireland for the undeceiving of deluded and seduced people of January 1650.  In this he was scathing about Catholicism, saying that "I shall not, where I have the power. . . suffer the exercise of the Mass".  However, he also declared that: "as for the people, what thoughts they have in the matter of religion in their own breasts I cannot reach; but I shall think it my duty, if they walk honestly and peaceably, not to cause them in the least to suffer for the same".  Private soldiers who surrendered their arms "and shall live peaceably and honestly at their several homes, they shall be permitted so to do".  As with many incidents in Cromwell's career, there is debate about the extent of his sincerity in making these statements: the Rump Parliament's later Act of Settlement of 1652 set out a much harsher policy of execution and confiscation of property of anyone who had supported the uprisings. The Act for the Settlement of Ireland imposed penalties including death and land confiscation against participants and bystanders of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and subsequent
Cromwell left Ireland in May 1650 and several months later, invaded Scotland after the Scots had proclaimed Charles I's son as Charles II. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Cromwell was much less hostile to Scottish Presbyterians, some of whom had been his allies in the First English Civil War, than he was to Irish Catholics. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity He described the Scots as "a people fearing His [God's] name, though deceived".  He made a famous appeal to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, urging them to see the error of the royal alliance—"I beseech you, in the bowels of Christ, think it possible you may be mistaken". The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland.  The Scots' reply was robust: "would you have us to be sceptics in our religion?" This decision to negotiate with Charles II led Cromwell to believe that war was necessary. 
His appeal rejected, Cromwell's veteran troops went on to invade Scotland. At first, the campaign went badly, as Cromwell's men were short of supplies and held up at fortifications manned by Scottish troops under David Leslie. David Leslie Lord Newark (c 1600-1682 was a cavalry officer and General in the English Civil War and Scottish Civil Wars The son of the 1st Earl of Lindores Cromwell was on the brink of evacuating his army by sea from Dunbar. Dunbar is a town in East Lothian on the southeast coast of Scotland, approximately 30 miles east of Edinburgh and 28 miles from the English Border However, on September 3, 1650, in an unexpected battle, Cromwell smashed the main Covenanter army at the Battle of Dunbar, killing 4,000 Scottish soldiers, taking another 10,000 prisoner and then capturing the Scottish capital of Edinburgh. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius The Battle of Dunbar ( 3 September, 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War. Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow.  The victory was of such a magnitude that Cromwell called it, "A high act of the Lord's Providence to us [and] one of the most signal mercies God hath done for England and His people".  The following year, Charles II and his Scottish allies made a desperate attempt to invade England and capture London while Cromwell was engaged in Scotland. Cromwell followed them south and caught them at Worcester on 3 September 1651. Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius At the subsequent Battle of Worcester, Cromwell's forces destroyed the last major Scottish Royalist army. The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester England and was the final battle of the English Civil War. Many of the Scottish prisoners of war taken in the campaigns died of disease, and others were sent to penal colonies in Barbados. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation In the final stages of the Scottish campaign, Cromwell's men, under George Monck, sacked the town of Dundee, killing up to 2,000 of its population of 12,000 and destroying the 60 ships in the city's harbour. George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician Dundee (Dùn Dèagh is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and fully named as Dundee City, one of Scotland's 32 local government council  During the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England, and was kept under military occupation, with a line of fortifications sealing off the Highlands, which had provided manpower for Royalist armies in Scotland, from the rest of the country. The Scottish Highlands ( Scottish Gaelic: A' Ghàidhealtachd, Scots: Hielans) include the rugged and Mountainous The north west Highlands was the scene of another pro-royalist uprising in 1653-55, which was only put down with deployment of 6,000 English troops there.  Presbyterianism was allowed to be practised as before, but the Kirk (the Scottish church) did not have the backing of the civil courts to impose its rulings, as it had previously. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Kirk can mean " church " in general or the Church of Scotland in particular 
Cromwell's conquest, unwelcome as it was, left no significant lasting legacy of bitterness in Scotland. The rule of the Commonwealth and Protectorate was, the Highlands aside, largely peaceful. Moreover, there was no wholesale confiscations of land or property. Three out of every four Justices of the Peace in Commonwealth Scotland were Scots and the country was governed jointly by the English military authorities and a Scottish Council of State. A Justice of the Peace ( JP) is a Puisne Judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace  Although not often favourably regarded, Cromwell's name rarely meets the hatred in Scotland that it does in Ireland.
From the middle of 1649 until 1651, Cromwell was away on campaign. In the meantime, with the king gone (and with him their common cause), the various factions in Parliament began to engage in infighting. On his return, Cromwell tried to galvanise the Rump into setting dates for new elections, uniting the three kingdoms under one polity, and to put in place a broad-brush, tolerant national church. However, the Rump vacillated in setting election dates, and although it put in place a basic liberty of conscience, it failed to produce an alternative for tithes or dismantle other aspects of the existing religious settlement. In frustration, in April 1653 Cromwell demanded that the Rump establish a caretaker government of 40 members (drawn both from the Rump and the army) and then abdicate. However, the Rump returned to debating its own bill for a new government.  Cromwell was so angered by this that on April 20, 1653, supported by about forty musketeers, he cleared the chamber and dissolved the Parliament by force. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Several accounts exist of this incident: in one, Cromwell is supposed to have said "you are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament; I will put an end to your sitting".  At least two accounts agree that Cromwell snatched up the mace, symbol of Parliament's power, and demanded that the "bauble" be taken away. The ceremonial mace is a highly ornamented staff of metal and wood carried before a sovereign or other high official in civic ceremonies by a Mace-bearer, intended  Cromwell's troops were commanded by Charles Worsley, later one of his Major Generals and one of his most trusted advisors, to whom he entrusted the mace. Charles Worsley, 1622-56 was a Major-General during the English Civil War.
After the dissolution of the Rump, power passed temporarily to a council that debated what form the constitution should take. They took up the suggestion of Major-General Thomas Harrison for a "sanhedrin" of saints. Thomas Harrison (1606&ndash October 13, 1660) was a Puritan soldier and later a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. The Sanhedrin (סנהדרין συνέδριον ''synedrion'', "sitting together" hence " assembly " or "council" was an assembly A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Although Cromwell did not subscribe to Harrison's apocalyptic, Fifth Monarchist beliefs – which saw a sanhedrin as the starting point for Christ's rule on earth – he was attracted by the idea of an assembly made up of a cross-section of sects. The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1661 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " In his speech at the opening of the assembly on 4 July 1653, Cromwell thanked God’s providence that he believed had brought England to this point and set out their divine mission: “truly God hath called you to this work by, I think, as wonderful providences as ever passed upon the sons of men in so short a time”. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples  Sometimes known as the Parliament of Saints, the assembly was also called the Barebone's Parliament after one of its members, Praise-God Barebone. Barebone's Parliament, also known as the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on 4 July 1653 and was the last attempt of the English Praise-God Barebone (or Barbon; c 1598 &ndash 1679 was an English Leather -seller Preacher and Fifth Monarchist. The assembly was tasked with finding a permanent constitutional and religious settlement (Cromwell was invited to be a member but declined). However, the assembly’s failure to do so led to its members voting to dissolve it on 12 December 1653. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian 
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
|Reference style||His Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Highness|
After the dissolution of the Barebone's Parliament, John Lambert put forward a new constitution known as the Instrument of Government, closely modelled on the Heads of Proposals. A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the Highness, often used with a personal possessive pronoun ( His/Her/Your/Their Highness(es, the first two abbreviated HH is an attribute referring to the rank of the John Lambert (Autumn 1619 - March 1684 served as an English Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. The Heads Of Proposals was a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the first English Civil War It made Cromwell Lord Protector for life to undertake “the chief magistracy and the administration of government”. Cromwell was sworn in as Lord Protector on 16 December 1653, with a ceremony in which he wore plain black clothing, rather than any monarchical regalia. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion  However, from this point on Cromwell signed his name 'Oliver P', standing for Oliver Protector - in a similar style to that used by English monarchs - and it soon became the norm for others to address him as "Your highness".  As Protector, he had the power to call and dissolve parliaments but was obliged under the Instrument to seek the majority vote of a Council of State. Nevertheless, Cromwell's power was buttressed by his continuing popularity among the army.
Cromwell had two key objectives as Lord Protector. The first was "healing and settling" the nation after the chaos of the civil wars and the regicide.  To Cromwell, the form this healing took was unimportant. Forms of government were to him "but. . . dross and dung in comparison of Christ".  More important was preservation of the traditional social order. In the period before the calling of a Parliament, Cromwell and his Council demonstrated this with a relative lack of political reforms. Small-scale reform such as that carried out on the judicial system were outweighed by attempts to restore order to English politics. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State Direct taxation was reduced slightly and peace was made with the Dutch, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. The First Anglo–Dutch War (Eerste Engelse Zeeoorlog (1652–54 (called the First Dutch War in England and the First English Sea-War in the Netherlands was Cromwell famously stressed quest to restore order in his speech to the first Protectorate parliament at its inaugural meeting on 3 September 1654. The First Protectorate Parliament was summoned by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the terms of the Instrument of Government. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius he declared that "healing and settling" were the "great end of your meeting".  However, the Parliament was quickly dominated by those pushing for more radical, properly republican reforms. After some initial gestures approving appointments previously made by Cromwell, the Parliament began to work on a radical programme of constitutional reform. Rather than opposing Parliament’s bill, Cromwell dissolved them on 22 January 1655. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. - - Cromwell's second objective was spiritual and moral reform. He aimed to restore liberty of conscience and promote both outward and inly godliness throughout England.  During the early months of the Protectorate, a set of "triers" was established to assess the suitability of future parish ministers, and a related set of "ejectors" was set up dismiss ministers and schoolmasters who were deemed unsuitable for office. The triers and the ejectors were intended to be at the vanguard of Cromwell's reform of parish worship. This second objective is also the context in which to see the constitutional experiment of the Major Generals that followed the dissolution of the first Protectorate Parliament. The Rule of the Major-Generals from August 1655 &ndash January 1657 was a period of direct military government during Oliver Cromwell 's Protectorate. After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock, Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major Generals who answered only to him. The Penruddock uprising was one of a series of coordinated uprisings planned by the Sealed Knot for a Royalist insurrection to start in March 1655 during The Sir John Penruddocke (1619-1655 was an English Cavalier during the English Civil War and the English Interregnum who led the Penruddock The 15 major generals and deputy major generals — called "godly governors" — were central not only to national security, but Cromwell's crusade to reform the nation's morals. National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty The generals not only supervised militia forces and security commissions, but collected taxes and ensured support for the government in the English and Welsh provinces. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service Commissioners for securing the peace of the commonwealth were appointed to work with them in every county. While a few of these commissioners were career politicians, most were zealous puritans who welcomed the major-generals with open arms and embraced their work with enthusiasm. However, the major-generals lasted less than a year. Many feared they threatened their reform efforts and authority. Their position was further harmed by a tax proposal by Major General John Desborough to provide financial backing for their work, which the second Protectorate parliament—instated in September 1656—voted down for fear of a permanent military state. The Second Protectorate Parliament in England sat for two sessions from 17 September 1656 until 4 February 1658, with Thomas Ultimately, however, Cromwell's failure to support his men, sacrificing them to his opponents, caused their demise. Their activities between November 1655 and September 1656 had, however, reopened the wounds of the 1640s and deepened antipathies to the regime. 
As Lord Protector, Cromwell was aware of the contribution the Jewish community made to the economic success of Holland, now England's leading commercial rival. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands. A maritime and economic power in the 17th century Holland today consists of the Dutch provinces of It was this—allied to Cromwell’s toleration of the right to private worship of those who fell outside evangelical puritanism—that led to his encouraging Jews to return to England in 1657, over 350 years after their banishment by Edward I, in the hope that they would help speed up the recovery of the country after the disruption of the Civil Wars. The Resettlement of the Jews in England was a historic commercial policy dealing with Jews in England in the 17th century and forms a prominent part of the Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307 popularly known as Longshanks, was a King of England who achieved historical fame by conquering large parts of Wales and almost 
In 1657, Cromwell was offered the crown by Parliament as part of a revised constitutional settlement, presenting him with a dilemma, since he had been "instrumental" in abolishing the monarchy. Cromwell agonised for six weeks over the offer. He was attracted by the prospect of stability it held out, but in a speech on 13 April 1657 he made clear that God's providence had spoken against the office of king: “I would not seek to set up that which Providence hath destroyed and laid in the dust, and I would not build Jericho again”. Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople Jericho ( Arabic, ʼArīḥā; Hebrew, Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô  The reference to Jericho harks back to a previous occasion on which Cromwell had wrestled with his conscience when the news reached England of the defeat of an expedition against the Spanish-held island of Hispaniola in the West Indies in 1655 — comparing himself to Achan, who had brought the Israelites defeat after bringing plunder back to camp after the capture of Jericho. Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Achan (ā'kăn - called also Achar - is a figure mentioned by the Book of Joshua in connection with the fall of Jericho and conquest of Ai. See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel. Jericho ( Arabic, ʼArīḥā; Hebrew, Standard Yəriḥo Tiberian Yərîḫô  Instead, Cromwell was ceremonially re-installed as Lord Protector on 26 June 1657 (with greater powers than had previously been granted him under this title) at Westminster Hall, sitting upon King Edward's Chair which was specially moved from Westminster Abbey for the occasion. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. King Edward's Chair, sometimes known as St Edward's Chair or The Coronation Chair, is the throne on which the British monarch sits for the coronation The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church The event in part echoed a coronation, utilising many of its symbols and regalia, such as a purple ermine-lined robe, a sword of justice and a sceptre (but not a crown or an orb). A coronation is a ceremony marking the investiture of a Monarch with regal power specifically involving the placement of a crown upon his or her head and the But, most notably, the office of Lord Protector was still not to become hereditary, though Cromwell was now able to nominate his own successor. Cromwell's new rights and powers were laid out in the Humble Petition and Advice, a legislative instrument which replaced the Instrument of Government. The Humble Petition and Advice was the second and last codified Constitution of England. Despite failing to restore the Crown, this new constitution did set up many of the vestiges of the ancient constitution including a pseudo-House of Lords known as the 'Other House' of Parliament. Furthermore, Oliver Cromwell increasingly took on more of the trappings of monarchy. In particular, he created two baronages after the acceptance of the Humble Petition and Advice- Charles Howard was made Viscount Morpeth and Baron Gisland in July 1657 and Edmund Dunch was created Baron Burnell of East Wittenham in April 1658. Cromwell himself, however, was at pains to minimise his role, describing himself as a constable or watchman.
Cromwell is thought to have suffered from malaria (probably first contracted while on campaign in Ireland) and from "stone", a common term for urinary/kidney infections. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Kidney stones, also called renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations of dissolved minerals in Urine; calculi typically form The urinary system (also called Excretory system or the genitourinary system (GUS is the Organ system that produces stores and eliminates Urine. The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles In 1658 he was struck by a sudden bout of malarial fever, followed directly by an attack of urinary/kidney symptoms. A Venetian physician tracked Cromwell's final illness, saying Cromwell's personal physicians were mismanaging his health, leading to a rapid decline and death, which was also hastened by the death of his favourite daughter Elizabeth in August at age 29. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the He died at Whitehall on 3 September 1658, the anniversary of his great victories at Dunbar and Worcester. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Dunbar is a town in East Lothian on the southeast coast of Scotland, approximately 30 miles east of Edinburgh and 28 miles from the English Border Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. 
He was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard. Although Richard was not entirely without ability, he had no power base in either Parliament or the Army, and was forced to resign in May 1659, bringing the Protectorate to an end. In the period immediately following his abdication the head of the army, George Monck, took power for less than a year, at which point Parliament restored Charles II as king. George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution, as were the remains of John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton. Burial, also called interment and inhumation, is the act of placing a person or object into the ground The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Posthumous execution is the Ritual or Ceremonial execution of an already dead body John Bradshaw ( 1602 - October 31, 1659) was an English judge Henry Ireton ( 1611 - November 26, 1651) was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War Symbolically, this took place on January 30; the same date that Charles I had been executed. His body was hanged in chains at Tyburn. History The village was one of two manors of the Parish of St Marylebone, which was itself named after the stream St Marylebone being Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Abbey until 1685. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Afterwards the head changed hands several times, including the sale in 1814 to a man named Josiah Henry Wilkinson, before eventually being buried in the grounds of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1960. Sidney Sussex College (often informally shortened to just Sidney) was founded in 1596 and named after its foundress Frances Sidney Countess of Sussex. 
During his lifetime, some tracts painted him as a hypocrite motivated by power — for example, The Machiavilian Cromwell and The Juglers Discovered, both part of an attack on Cromwell by the Levellers after 1647, present him as a Machiavellian figure. See Levellers (disambiguation for alternative meanings. The Levellers were members of a mid 17th century English Political movement Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain  More positive contemporary assessments — for instance, John Spittlehouse in A Warning Piece Discharged — typically compared him to Moses, rescuing the English by taking them safely through the Red Sea of the civil wars. Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia.  Several biographies were published soon after his death. An example is The Perfect Politician, which described how Cromwell "loved men more than books" and gave a nuanced assessment of him as an energetic campaigner for liberty of conscience brought down by pride and ambition. Conscience is a hypothesized Ability or faculty that distinguishes whether our actions are right or wrong  An equally nuanced but less positive assessment was published in 1667 by Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, in his History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. Edward Hyde 1st Earl of Clarendon ( 18 February 1609 &ndash 9 December 1674) was an English Historian and statesman and Clarendon famously declared that Cromwell "will be looked upon by posterity as a brave bad man".  He argued that Cromwell's rise to power had been helped not only by his great spirit and energy, but also by his ruthlessness. Clarendon was not one of Cromwell's confidants, and his account was written after the Restoration of the monarchy. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored 
In the early eighteenth century, Cromwell’s image began to be adopted and reshaped by the Whigs, as part of a wider project to give their political objectives historical legitimacy. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to A version of Edmund Ludlow’s Memoirs, re-written by John Toland to excise the radical puritan elements and replace them with a Whiggish brand of republicanism, presented the Cromwellian Protectorate as a military tyranny. Edmund Ludlow (c 1617 &ndash 1692 was an English parliamentarian, best known for his involvement in the execution of Charles I, and for his John Toland ( November 30, 1670 - March 11, 1722) was an Irish Philosopher. Whig history or Whiggish historiography presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment culminating in modern forms of liberal Through Ludlow, Toland portrayed Cromwell as a despot who crushed the beginnings of democratic rule in the 1640s. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system 
During the early nineteenth century, Cromwell began to be adopted by Romantic artists and poets. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Victor Hugo's 1827 play Cromwell is often considered symbolic of the French romantic movement, and represents Cromwell as a ruthless yet dynamic Romantic hero. Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo written in 1827 It was a result of the creation of the literary circle created by Victor Hugo. Similarly, the French painter Hippolyte Delaroche painted a picture in 1831 inspired by the legend of Cromwell visiting Charles I's body after his execution that gives a similar impression of a world-changing individual with a strong will and personality. Hippolyte Delaroche, commonly known as Paul Delaroche ( July 17, 1797 &ndash November 4, 1856) was a French painter Will, or willpower is a philosophical concept that is defined in several different ways Thomas Carlyle continued this reassessment of Cromwell in the 1840s by presenting him as a hero in the battle between good and evil and a model for restoring morality to an age Carlyle believed to be dominated by timidity, meaningless rhetoric, and moral compromise. Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881 was a Scottish essayist satirist and historian whose work was highly influential during the Victorian era. Cromwell's actions, including his campaigns in Ireland and his dissolution of the Long Parliament, according to Carlyle, had to be appreciated and praised as a whole.
By the late nineteenth century, Carlyle’s portrayal of Cromwell, stressing the centrality of puritan morality and earnestness, had become assimilated into Whig and Liberal historiography. Whig history or Whiggish historiography presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment culminating in modern forms of liberal The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party The Oxford civil war historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner concluded that "the man — it is ever so with the noblest — was greater than his work". The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Samuel Rawson Gardiner ( 4 March 1829 - 24 February 1902) was an English Historian.  Gardiner stressed Cromwell’s dynamic and mercurial character, and his role in dismantling absolute monarchy, while underestimating Cromwell’s religious conviction.  Cromwell’s foreign policy also provided an attractive forerunner of Victorian imperial expansion, with Gardiner stressing his “constancy of effort to make England great by land and sea”. Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American Magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude 
In the first half of the twentieth century, Cromwell's reputation was often shaped by the rise of fascism in Germany and Italy. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Wilbur Cortez Abott, for example — a Harvard historian — devoted much of his career to compiling and editing a multi-volume collection of Cromwell's letters and speeches. In the course of this work, which was published between 1937 and 1947, Abbott began to argue that Cromwell was a proto-fascist. However, subsequent historians such as John Morrill have criticised both Abbott's interpretation of Cromwell and his editorial approach. John Morrill is a British historian who specialises in the political religious social and cultural histories of early-modern Britain  Ernest Barker similarly compared the Independents to the Nazis. Sir Ernest Barker ( September 23, 1874 – February 17, 1960) was a British political scientist Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Nevertheless, not all historical comparisons made at this time drew on contemporary military dictators. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy,
Late twentieth century historians have re-examined the nature of Cromwell’s faith and of his authoritarian regime. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Austin Woolrych explored the issue of "dictatorship" in depth, arguing that Cromwell was subject to two conflicting forces: his obligation to the army and his desire to achieve a lasting settlement by winning back the confidence of the political nation as a whole. Woolrych argued that the dictatorial elements of Cromwell's rule stemmed not so much from its military origins or the participation of army officers in civil government, as from his constant commitment to the interest of the people of God and his conviction that suppressing vice and encouraging virtue constituted the chief end of government. 
Historians such as John Morrill, Blair Worden and J. C. Davis have developed this theme, revealing the extent to which Cromwell’s writing and speeches are suffused with biblical references, and arguing that his radical actions were driven by his zeal for godly reformation. 
Commonwealth of England
|Lord Protectorate of England, Scotland and Ireland|
December 16, 1653-September 3, 1658
Earl of Pembroke
|Chancellor of the University of Oxford|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||English military and political leader|
|DATE OF BIRTH||25 April 1599|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Huntingdon, England|
|DATE OF DEATH||3 September 1658|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Whitehall, London, England|