|Old English / Anglo-Saxon|
|Spoken in:||What is now England (except Cornwall), parts of what is now Scotland south of the Forth, and the eastern fringes of what is now Wales. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.|
|Language extinction:||developed into Middle English by the 12th century|
Old English / Anglo-Saxon
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. According to some definitions an extinct language is a Language which no longer has any speakers, whereas a dead language is a language which is no longer spoken Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of Languages and include languages such as English The Anglo-Frisian languages (sometimes Insular Germanic) are a group of Ingvaeonic West Germanic languages consisting of Old English Anglic (from Latin Anglicus meaning English, cf Germanic) is a term for what are also known as Englishes, in for example World ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon, Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken and written in parts of what are now England and southern Scotland between the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. What survives through writing represents primarily the literary register of Anglo-Saxon. It is a West Germanic language and is closely related to Old Frisian. The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of Languages and include languages such as English Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who had settled in the area between the Rhine It also experienced heavy influence from Old Norse, a member of the related North Germanic group of languages. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age The North Germanic languages or Scandinavian languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them
Old English was not static, and its usage covered a period of approximately 700 years (see Timeline of the Anglo-Saxon invasion and takeover of Britain) – from the Anglo-Saxon migrations that created England in the fifth century to some time after the Norman invasion of 1066, when the language underwent a dramatic transition. English is a West Germanic language which originated from the Anglo-Frisian Dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers Constructing a chronology of the early Anglo-Saxon period is highly complex and the limitations of our source material place restrictions on just how accurate any chronology can be For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south During this early period it assimilated some aspects of the languages with which it came in contact, such as the Celtic languages and the two dialects of Old Norse from the invading Vikings, who were occupying and controlling large tracts of land in northern and eastern England, which came to be known as the Danelaw. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish:
The most important force in shaping Old English was its Germanic heritage in its vocabulary, sentence structure and grammar which it shared with its sister languages in continental Europe. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European Some of these features were specific to the West Germanic language family to which Old English belongs, while some other features were inherited from the Proto-Germanic language from which all Germanic languages are believed to have been derived. The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of Languages and include languages such as English Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family.
Like other West Germanic languages of the period, Old English was fully inflected with five grammatical cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and instrumental, though the instrumental was very rare), which had dual plural forms for referring to groups of two objects (but only in the personal pronouns) in addition to the usual singular and plural forms. The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three traditional branches of the Germanic family of Languages and include languages such as English In Grammar, inflection or inflexion is the way language handles grammatical relations and relational categories such as tense, mood, voice In Grammar, the case of a Noun or Pronoun indicates its Grammatical function in a greater Phrase or Clause; such as the Dual is a Grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and Plural. It also assigned gender to all nouns, including those that describe inanimate objects: for example, sēo sunne (the Sun) was feminine, while se mōna (the Moon) was masculine (cf. In Linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called Noun classes are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words every noun must belong The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. modern German die Sonne vs. der Mond).
A large percentage of the educated and literate population (monks, clerics, etc. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective A cleric ( Ancient Greek κληρικός - klērikos clergyman (pl ) were competent in Latin, which was the scholarly and diplomatic lingua franca of Europe at the time. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely It is sometimes possible to give approximate dates for the entry of individual Latin words into Old English based on which patterns of linguistic change they have undergone. There were at least three notable periods of Latin influence. The first occurred before the ancestral Saxons left continental Europe for Britain. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. The second began when the Anglo-Saxons were converted to Christianity and Latin-speaking priests became widespread. The third and largest single transfer of Latin-based words happened after the Norman invasion of 1066, after which an enormous number of Norman words entered the language. Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. The northern Norman can be classified in the septentrional Oil languages with Picard and Most of these Oïl language words were themselves derived from Old French and ultimately from classical Latin, although a notable stock of Norse words were introduced, or re-introduced in Norman form. Langues d'oïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages originating from the northern territories of Roman Gaul, Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Classical Latin is the form of the Latin language used by the ancient Romans in what is usually regarded as "classical" Latin literature. The Norman Conquest approximately marks the end of Old English and the advent of Middle English. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of
One of the ways the influence of Latin can be seen is that many Latin words for activities came to also be used to refer to the people engaged in those activities, an idiom carried over from Anglo-Saxon but using Latin words. This can be seen in words like militia, assembly, movement, and service.
The language was further altered by the transition away from the runic alphabet (also known as futhorc or fuþorc) to the Latin alphabet, which was also a significant factor in the developmental pressures brought to bear on the language. Futhorc, a Runic alphabet used by the Anglo-Saxons, was descended from the Elder Futhark of 24 runes and contained between 26 and 33 characters Old English words were spelt as they were pronounced; the "silent" letters in many Modern English words, such as the k in knight, were in fact pronounced in Old English. For example, the c in cniht, the Old English ancestor of the modern knight, was pronounced. Another side-effect of spelling words phonetically was that spelling was extremely variable – the spelling of a word would reflect differences in the phonetics of the writer's regional dialect, and also idiosyncratic spelling choices which varied from author to author, and even from work to work by the same author. Thus, for example, the word and could be spelt either and or ond.
Old English spelling can therefore be regarded as even more jumbled than modern English spelling, although it can at least claim to reflect some existing pronunciation, while modern English in many cases cannot. English orthography is the alphabetic spelling system used by the English language. Most present-day students of Old English learn the language using normalised versions and are only introduced to variant spellings after they have mastered the basics of the language.
The second major source of loanwords to Old English were the Scandinavian words introduced during the Viking invasions of the 9th and 10th centuries. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the island of Gotland. Crimean Gothic was a Germanic dialect spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in Crimea (now in Ukraine) until the late 18th The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas In addition to a great many place names, these consist mainly of items of basic vocabulary, and words concerned with particular administrative aspects of the Danelaw (that is, the area of land under Viking control, which included extensive holdings all along the eastern coast of England and Scotland). Toponymy refers to the scientific study of place-names ( toponyms) their origins meanings use and Typology. The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: The Vikings spoke Old Norse, a language related to Old English in that both derived from the same ancestral Proto-Germanic language. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English It is very common for the intermixing of speakers of different dialects, such as those that occur during times of political unrest, to result in a mixed language, and one theory holds that exactly such a mixture of Old Norse and Old English helped accelerate the decline of case endings in Old English. A mixed language is a Language that arises through the fusion of two source languages normally in situations of thorough Bilingualism. Apparent confirmation of this is the fact that simplification of the case endings occurred earliest in the North and latest in the Southwest, the area farthest away from Viking influence. Regardless of the truth of this theory, the influence of Old Norse on the English language has been profound: responsible for such basic vocabulary items as sky, leg, the pronoun they, the verb form are, and hundreds of other words. In Linguistics and Grammar, a pronoun is a Pro-form that substitutes for a (including a noun phrase consisting of a single Noun) with or
Traditionally, many maintain that the influence of Celtic on English has been small, citing the small number of Celtic loanwords taken into the language. The number of Celtic loanwords is of a lower order than either Latin or Scandinavian; distinctive Celtic traits have been argued to be clearly discernible from the post-Old English period in the area of syntax. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation 
To complicate matters further, Old English had many dialects. The four main dialectal forms of Old English were Mercian, Northumbrian (known collectively as Anglian), Kentish, and West Saxon. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Northumbrian, also known as Ynglis and Inglis, is a Dialect of the Old English language spoken in the Angle Kingdom of Northumbria Anglian is a cover term used to refer to two Dialects of Old English, namely the Northumbrian and Mercian dialects  Each of those dialects was associated with an independent kingdom on the island. Of these, all of Northumbria and most of Mercia were overrun by the Vikings during the 9th century. Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. The portion of Mercia and all of Kent that were successfully defended were then integrated into Wessex. The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England and was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation.
After the process of unification of the diverse Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in 878 by Alfred the Great, there is a marked decline in the importance of regional dialects. Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c This is not because they stopped existing; regional dialects continued even after that time to this day, as evidenced both by the existence of middle and modern English dialects later on, and by common sense – people do not spontaneously develop new accents when there is a sudden change of political power.
However, the bulk of the surviving documents from the Anglo-Saxon period are written in the dialect of Wessex, Alfred's kingdom. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between It seems likely that with consolidation of power, it became necessary to standardise the language of government to reduce the difficulty of administering the more remote areas of the kingdom. As a result, paperwork was written in the West Saxon dialect. Not only this, but Alfred was passionate about the spread of the vernacular and brought many scribes to his region from Mercia in order that previously unwritten texts be recorded. Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality
The Church was affected likewise, especially since Alfred initiated an ambitious programme to translate religious materials into English. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described In order to retain his patronage and ensure the widest circulation of the translated materials, the monks and priests engaged in the programme worked in his dialect. Alfred himself seems to have translated books out of Latin and into English, notably Pope Gregory I's treatise on administration, "Pastoral Care". Pastoral care is the ministry of care and Counseling provided by Pastors Chaplains and other religious leaders to members of their Church,
Because of the centralisation of power and the Viking invasions, there is little or no written evidence for the development of non-Wessex dialects after Alfred's unification.
The inventory of classical Old English (i. The Phonology of Old English is necessarily somewhat speculative since it is preserved purely as a Written language. e. Late West Saxon) surface phones, as usually reconstructed, is as follows. Within Phonetics, a phone is a speech sound or gesture considered a physical event without regard to its place in the Phonology of a Language
|Stop||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||f (v)||θ (ð)||s (z)||ʃ||(ç)||(x) (ɣ)||h|
|Close||i y||u||iː yː||uː|
|Mid||e (ø)||o||eː (øː)||oː|
The front mid rounded vowels /ø(ː)/ occur in some dialects of Old English, but not in the best attested Late West Saxon dialect. A monophthong ( Greek μονόφθογγος "monophthongos" = single note) is a "pure" Vowel sound one whose articulation at In Linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a Vowel sound A front vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a front vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far forward A back vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as A close vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in many spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a close vowel is that the tongue is positioned as close as A mid vowel is a Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned mid-way between an An open vowel is a Vowel sound of a type used in most spoken Languages The defining characteristic of an open vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far as A front vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a front vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far forward A mid vowel is a Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned mid-way between an In Phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the Lips during the articulation of a Vowel. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of
|Diphthongs||Short (monomoraic)||Long (bimoraic)|
|First element is close||iy||iːy|
|Both elements are mid||eo||eːo|
|Both elements are open||æɑ||æːɑ|
Unlike modern English, Old English is a language rich with morphological diversity and is spelled essentially as it is pronounced. In Phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (from Greek grc δίφθογγος "diphthongos" literally "with two sounds" or "with Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in Phonology that determines Syllable weight (which in turn determines stress The morphology of the Old English language is quite different from that of Modern English, predominantly by being much more highly inflected. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Morphology is the field of Linguistics that studies the internal structure of words It maintains several distinct cases: the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and (vestigially) instrumental, remnants of which survive only in a few pronouns in modern English. The nominative case is a Grammatical case for a Noun, which generally marks the subject of a Verb, as opposed to its object or other The accusative case ( abbreviated ACC) of a Noun is the Grammatical case used to mark the Direct object of a Transitive In Grammar, the genitive case or possessive case (also called the second case) is the case that marks a Noun as modifying another The dative case is a Grammatical case generally used to indicate the Noun to whom something is given The instrumental case (also called the eighth case) is a Grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the
The word order of Old English is widely believed to be subject-verb-object (SVO) as in modern English and most Germanic languages (not including German and Dutch). In Linguistic typology, subject-verb-object ( SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first the Verb second and the object The word order of Old English, however, was not overly important due to the aforementioned morphology of the language. So long as declension was correct, it didn't matter whether you said "My name is. . . " as "Mīn nama is. . . " or "Nama mīn is. . . "
Due to its similarity with Old Norse, it is believed that the word order of Old English changed when asking a question, from SVO to VSO; i. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Verb Subject Object ( VSO) is a term in Linguistic typology. It represents one type of languages when classifying languages according to the sequence of these e. swapping the verb and the subject.
Old English was at first written in runes (futhorc), but shifted to the Latin alphabet, with some additions, after the Anglo-Saxons' conversion to Christianity. Futhorc, a Runic alphabet used by the Anglo-Saxons, was descended from the Elder Futhark of 24 runes and contained between 26 and 33 characters The letter yogh, for example, was adopted from Irish; the letter eth was an alteration of Latin d, and the runic letters thorn and wynn are borrowings from futhorc. Not to be confused with the unrelated ʒ. For the rune transcribed as ȝ, see Gyfu. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Eth ( Ð, ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Icelandic, Faroese (in Thorn, or þorn (Þ þ is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic Alphabets It was also used in Medieval Scandinavia Wynn ( (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) was a letter of the Old English alphabet. Also used was a symbol for the conjunction and, a character similar to the number seven (⁊, called a Tironian note), and a symbol for the relative pronoun þæt, a thorn with a crossbar through the ascender (''). Tironian notes ( la notae Tironianae) is a system of Shorthand said to have been invented by Cicero 's scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. A relative pronoun is a Pronoun that marks a Relative clause within a larger sentence. Also used occasionally were macrons over vowels, abbreviations for following m’s or n’s. A macron, from Greek el μακρόv ( makrón) meaning "long" is a Diacritic ¯ placed over or under a Vowel which was originally All of the sound descriptions below are given using IPA symbols.
Doubled consonants are geminated; the geminate fricatives ðð/þþ, ff and ss cannot be voiced. In Phonetics, gemination happens when a spoken Consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short Consonant.
Old English literature, though more abundant than literature of the continent before AD 1000, is nonetheless scanty. Anglo-Saxon literature (or Old English literature) encompasses Literature written in Anglo-Saxon (Old English during the 600-year Anglo-Saxon In his supplementary article to the 1935 posthumous edition of Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader, Dr. James Hulbert writes:
In such historical conditions, an incalculable amount of the writings of the Anglo-Saxon period perished. What they contained, how important they were for an understanding of literature before the Conquest, we have no means of knowing: the scant catalogs of monastic libraries do not help us, and there are no references in extant works to other compositions. . . . How incomplete our materials are can be illustrated by the well-known fact that, with few and relatively unimportant exceptions, all extant Anglo-Saxon poetry is preserved in four manuscripts.
Old English was one of the first vernacular languages to be written down. Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality Some of the most important surviving works of Old English literature are Beowulf, an epic poem; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a record of early English history; and Caedmon's Hymn, a Christian religious poem. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of Annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. Cædmon (ˈkædmɒn is the earliest English poet whose name is known There are also a number of extant prose works, such as sermons and saints' lives, biblical translations, and translated Latin works of the early Church Fathers, legal documents, such as laws and wills, and practical works on grammar, medicine, and geography. Still, poetry is considered to be the heart of Old English literature. Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous, with a few exceptions, such as Bede and Caedmon. Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c Cædmon (ˈkædmɒn is the earliest English poet whose name is known
Old English is often erroneously used to refer to any form of English other than Modern English. Modern English is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift, completed in roughly 1550 The term Old English does not refer to varieties of Early Modern English such as are found in Shakespeare or the King James Bible, nor does it refer to Middle English, the language of Chaucer and his contemporaries. Early Modern English is the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 15th century to 1650 William Shakespeare ( baptised Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. The following timeline helps place the history of the English language in context. English is a West Germanic language which originated from the Anglo-Frisian Dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers The dates used are approximate dates. It is inaccurate to state that everyone stopped speaking Old English in 1099, and woke up on New Year's Day of 1100 speaking Middle English. Language change is gradual, and cannot be as easily demarcated as are historical or political events. Language change is the manner in which the phonetic, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features of a language are modified over time
450–1100 Old English (Anglo-Saxon) – The language of Beowulf. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between
1100–1500 Middle English – The language of Chaucer. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat.
1500–1650 Early Modern English (or Renaissance English) – The language of Shakespeare. Early Modern English is the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 15th century to 1650 The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere William Shakespeare ( baptised
1650–present Modern English (or Present-Day English) – The language as spoken today. Modern English is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift, completed in roughly 1550
The first example is taken from the epic poem Beowulf. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between The translation is quite literal and represents the original poetic word order. As such, it is not typical of Old English prose. The modern cognates of original words have been used whenever practical to give a close approximation of the feel of the original poem. The words in brackets are implied in the Old English by noun case and the bold words in parentheses are explanations of words which have slightly different meanings in a modern context. Notice how what was used by the poet where a word like lo or behold would be expected.
|||Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in geār-dagum,||What! We [of] Gar-Danes(lit. spear-danes) in yore-days,|
|||þeod-cyninga, þrym gefrunon,||[of] people-kings, trim(glory) apried(have learned of by asking or "prying"),|
|||hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon.||how those athelings(princes) arm-strong feats framed(made).|
|||Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum,||Oft Scyld Scefing, [from] scathers(enemies) [in] threats(armed bands),|
|||monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah,||[from] many macths(clans, groups of sons, c. f. Irish Mac-), mead-settles took,|
|||egsode eorl. Syððan ærest wearð||awed earls(leaders of men). Since erst(first) [he] worth(came to be)|
|||feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad,||fewshiped(helpless, with "fewship") founden, he thence(from then onward) in loving care abode(lived),|
|||weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah,||wex(waxed) under welkin(the clouds), mind's-worth(honour) got,|
|||oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra||orthat(until that) him each [of] those umbe-sitting("sitting" or dwelling roundabout)|
|||ofer hronrade hyran scolde,||over whale-road(kenning for sea) hear(obey) should(owed to),|
|||gomban gyldan. A kenning ( Old Norse kenning, Modern Icelandic pronunciation) is a Circumlocution used instead of an ordinary Noun in Old Norse Þæt wæs god cyning!||gifts [to] yield. That was [a] good king!|
This text of The Lord's Prayer is presented in the standardised West Saxon literary dialect:
|||Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum,||Father ours, thou that art in heaven,|
|||Si þin nama gehalgod. The Lord's Prayer, also known as the Our Father or Pater noster, is probably the best-known Prayer in Christianity.||Be thy name hallowed.|
|||To becume þin rice,||Come thy rich(kingdom),|
|||gewurþe ðin willa, on eorðan swa swa on heofonum.||Worth(manifest) thy will, on earth also as in heaven.|
|||Urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg,||Our daily loaf sell(give) us today,|
|||and forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum.||and forgive us our guilts as also we forgive our guilty(lit. guiltants).|
|||And ne gelæd þu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfele. Soþlice.||And 'ne lead'(lead not) thou us in temptation, ac(but) loose(release) us of evil. Soothly.|
This is a proclamation from King Canute the Great to his earl Thorkell the Tall and the English people written in AD 1020. } Canute the Great, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut ( Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian Earl was the Anglo-Saxon form and jarl the Scandinavian form of a title meaning " Chieftain " and referring especially to chieftains Thorkell the Tall, also known as Thorkell the High in the Anglo-Saxon chronicles ( Old Norse: Þorke(till inn hávi; Norwegian: Torkjell Høge Unlike the previous two examples, this text is prose rather than poetry. For ease of reading, the passage has been divided into sentences while the pilcrows represent the original division. The pilcrow (¶ Unicode U+00B6 HTML entity &para also called the Paragraph sign or the alinea (
|¶Cnut cyning gret his arcebiscopas and his leod-biscopas and Þurcyl eorl and ealle his eorlas and ealne his þeodscype, twelfhynde and twyhynde, gehadode and læwede, on Englalande freondlice.||¶Cnut, king, greeteth his archbishops and his lay-bishops and Þyrchel, earl, and all his earls and all his peopleship, greater and lesser, hooded(ordained to priesthood) and lewd(lay), in England friendly.|
|And ic cyðe eow, þæt ic wylle beon hold hlaford and unswicende to godes gerihtum and to rihtre woroldlage.||And I kithe(make known/couth to) you, that I will be [a] hold(civilised) lord and unswiking(uncheating) to God's rights(laws) and to [the] rights(laws) worldly.|
|¶Ic nam me to gemynde þa gewritu and þa word, þe se arcebiscop Lyfing me fram þam papan brohte of Rome, þæt ic scolde æghwær godes lof upp aræran and unriht alecgan and full frið wyrcean be ðære mihte, þe me god syllan wolde.||¶I nam(took) me to mind the writs and the word that the Archbishop Lyfing me from the Pope brought of Rome, that I should ayewhere(everywhere) God's love(praise) uprear(promote), and unright(outlaw) lies, and full frith(peace) work(bring about) by the might that me God would(wished) [to] sell'(give).|
|¶Nu ne wandode ic na minum sceattum, þa while þe eow unfrið on handa stod: nu ic mid godes fultume þæt totwæmde mid minum scattum.||¶Now, ne went(withdrew/changed) I not my scot(financial support, c. f. scot-free) the while that you stood(endured) unfrith(turmoil) on-hand: now I, mid(with) God's support, that [unfrith] totwemed(separated/dispelled) mid(with) my scot(financial support).|
|Þa cydde man me, þæt us mara hearm to fundode, þonne us wel licode: and þa for ic me sylf mid þam mannum þe me mid foron into Denmearcon, þe eow mæst hearm of com: and þæt hæbbe mid godes fultume forene forfangen, þæt eow næfre heonon forð þanon nan unfrið to ne cymð, þa hwile þe ge me rihtlice healdað and min lif byð.||Tho(then) [a] man kithed(made known/couth to) me that us more harm had found(come upon) than us well liked(equalled): and tho(then) fore(travelled) I, meself, mid(with) those men that mid(with) me fore(traveled), into Denmark that [to] you most harm came of(from): and that[harm] have [I], mid(with) God's support, afore(previously) forefangen(forestalled) that to you never henceforth thence none unfrith(breach of peace) ne come the while that ye me rightly hold(behold as king) and my life beeth.|