The Old Catholic Church is a Christian denomination originating with churches (many of them German-speaking) that split from the Roman Catholic Church in the 1870s because they disagreed with the dogma of papal infallibility promulgated by the First Vatican Council of 1869–1870. Denominationalism|List of Christian denominations|Church (disambiguation A Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name structure and doctrine within The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or Papal infallibility is the Dogma in Catholic theology that by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. The term "Old Catholic" was first used in 1853 to describe the members of the See of Utrecht who were not under papal authority. The Archbishopric of Utrecht is the Archbishopric based in the Dutch city of Utrecht. The churches that split from Rome in the 1870s then joined Utrecht to form the Union of Utrecht. The Union of Utrecht is a federation of Old Catholic Churches not in communion with Rome that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility Today, most Old Catholic churches are still members of the Union, but there are English-speaking Old Catholic Churches in the United Kingdom and North America that are no longer in communion with the Union of Utrecht, and the Old Catholic Church of Slovakia has also removed itself from the Union. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million The Union of Utrecht itself is in full communion with the Anglican Communion. Full communion is a term used in Christian Ecclesiology to describe the relationship of communion, with mutually recognized sharing of the same essential See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches
St. Willibrord was consecrated to the episcopacy by Pope Sergius I in 696 at Rome. Saint Willibrord (c 658 – November 7, 739) was a Northumbrian missionary known as the "Apostle to the Frisians " in the modern Pope Events Births Deaths Prince Takechi of Japan Map-bms696 Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Upon his return to the Netherlands, he established his see at Utrecht. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands In addition, he established the dioceses at Deventer and Haarlem. Deventer is a Municipality and City in the Salland region of the Dutch Province of Overijssel. in the past usually Harlem in English is a city in the Netherlands. The Church of Utrecht also provided a worthy occupant for the See of Rome in 1552 in the person of Pope Hadrian VI, while two of the most able exponents of the spiritual life, Geert Groote, who founded the Brethren of the Common Life, and Thomas à Kempis, who is credited with writing the Imitation of Christ, were both from the Dutch Church. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Pope Adrian VI ( Utrecht, March 2, 1459 &ndash September 14, 1523) born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, son of Geert Groote (October 1340 &ndash 20 August 1384) otherwise Gerrit or Gerhard Groet, in Latin Gerardus Magnus, was a Dutch The Brethren of the Common Life was a Roman Catholic religious community founded in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly Thomas à Kempis (orig Thomas Haemerkken Thomas Hammerlein also Thomas Hemerken Thomas Hämerken Thomas van Kempen Tomás de Kempis (ca The Imitation of Christ (or De imitatione Christi) by Thomas à Kempis, is a widely read Christian spiritual book
In 1145, granting the petition made by the Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II, and Bishop Heribert of Utrecht, Pope Eugene III gave the See of Utrecht the right to elect its own bishops. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Conrad II (c 990&ndash June 4, 1039) was the son of a mid-level nobleman in Franconia, Count Henry of Speyer and Adelaide of Alsace who inherited Pope This privilege was affirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Papal bull of April 19, 1213. In 1520, the autonomy of Utrecht was strengthened when Pope Leo X conceded to the 57th Bishop of Utrecht (Philip of Burgundy), that neither he nor any of his successors, nor any clergy or laity from Utrecht, should ever be tried by a Roman tribunal. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death The Archbishopric of Utrecht is the Archbishopric based in the Dutch city of Utrecht. This papal concession was of the greatest importance in the later defence of the rights of the See of Utrecht. The Archbishopric of Utrecht is the Archbishopric based in the Dutch city of Utrecht. During the Reformation the Roman Catholic Church was persecuted and the Dutch dioceses north of the Rhine and Waal were suspended by the Holy See. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge WAAL ("The Whale" is a Classic rock radio station broadcasting at 99 The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Protestants had occupied most church buildings, and those remaining were confiscated by the government of the Dutch Republic of Seven Provinces which favoured Calvinism. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the
However, about one third of the population in the northern Netherlands remained Catholic, and the popes appointed apostolic vicars (based in Utrecht) to care for these people. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Clergy secretly celebrated the sacraments in a variety of places: homes, farm houses and even sheds. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active German and Flemish missionaries helped the persecuted Catholics. The person named as apostolic vicar was also called Archbishop of Utrecht in partibus infidelium (i. e. , archbishop in the land of unbelievers).
In 1691, the Jesuits accused Petrus Codde, the then apostolic vicar of favouring the Jansenist heresy. Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Pope Innocent XII appointed a commission of cardinals to investigate the accusations, apparently violating the exemption from trial granted in 1520. Pope Innocent XII ( March 13, 1615 &ndash September 27, 1700) born Antonio Pignatelli was Pope from 1691 to 1700 A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. The commission concluded that the accusations were groundless.
In 1700 a new pope, Clement XI, summoned Codde to Rome in order to participate in the Jubilee Year, whereupon a second commission was appointed to try Codde. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Clement XI ( July 23, 1649 &ndash March 19, 1721) born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope from 1700 until his death The result of this second proceeding was again a complete acquittal. However, in 1701 Clement XI decided to suspend Codde and appoint a successor. The Dutch Catholics refused to accept the replacement, and Codde continued in his office until he resigned in 1703.
After Codde's resignation, Cornelius van Steenoven, was elected as his successor. Van Steenoven was consecrated by a missionary bishop Dominique Marie Varlet, who was visiting the Netherlands. Although the See of Utrecht informed the pope of Van Steenhoven's election and ordination, the latter was done without papal permission. The Archbishopric of Utrecht is the Archbishopric based in the Dutch city of Utrecht. Van Steenoven appointed and ordained bishops to the sees of Deventer, Haarlem and Groningen. Deventer is a Municipality and City in the Salland region of the Dutch Province of Overijssel. in the past usually Harlem in English is a city in the Netherlands. Groningen is the name of several places Groningen (province, a province of the Netherlands Groningen (city, a city in the Netherlands Although the pope was duly notified, Rome still regarded these sees as being vacant, and the pope continued to appoint apostolic vicars for the Netherlands. Van Steenoven and the other bishops were excommunicated, and thus began the Old Catholic Church in the Netherlands.
Most Dutch Catholics remained in full communion with Rome and with the apostolic vicars appointed by the pope. Full communion is a term used in Christian Ecclesiology to describe the relationship of communion, with mutually recognized sharing of the same essential Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 However, due to prevailing anti-papal feeling among the powerful Dutch Calvinists, the Church of Utrecht was tolerated and even congratulated by the government of the Dutch Republic. Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes Religious (generally Catholic institutional power and influence real or alleged in all aspects of public and political Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
In 1853 Pope Pius IX received guarantees of religious freedom from the Dutch King Willem II, and established a Roman Catholic hierarchy in the Netherlands; this existed alongside that of the Old Catholic See of Utrecht. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Thereafter in the Netherlands the Utrecht hierarchy was referred to as the 'Old Catholic Church' to distinguish it from that of Roman Catholicism. According to Roman Catholic theology, the Old Catholic Church of Utrecht has maintained apostolic succession, and its clergy thus celebrate valid sacraments.
After the First Vatican Council in 1870, considerable groups of Austrian, German and Swiss Catholics rejected the teaching on papal infallibility, and left to form their own churches. The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification These were supported by the `Old Catholic´ Archbishop of Utrecht, who ordained priests and bishops for them; later the Dutch were united more formally with many of these groups under the name "Utrecht Union of Churches". The Archbishopric of Utrecht is the Archbishopric based in the Dutch city of Utrecht. The Union of Utrecht is a federation of Old Catholic Churches not in communion with Rome that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility
In the spring of 1871 a convention in Munich attracted several hundred participants, including Church of England and Protestant observers. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The most notable leader of the movement, though maintaining a certain distance from the Old Catholic Church as an institution, was the church historian and priest Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger (1799–1890), who had already been excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church over the affair. Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger ( February 28, 1799 - January 14, 1890) was a German theologian, Catholic Despite never formally becoming a member of the Old Catholic Church, Döllinger requested and received last rites from an Old Catholic priest.
The convention decided to form the "Old Catholic Church" in order to distinguish its members from what they saw as a novelty (the doctrine of papal infallibility) in the Roman Catholic Church. At their second convention, they elected their first bishop, who was ordained by the non-Roman Archbishop of Utrecht. In 1874 they abandoned the requirement of clerical celibacy. Clerical celibacy is the practice in various religious traditions, in which Clergy, Monastics and those (of either sex in religious orders adopt a Although it continued to use the Roman Rite, from the middle of the 18th century the Dutch Old Catholic See of Utrecht had increasingly used the vernacular in place of Latin. The liturgical rite of the Church of Rome is called the Roman Rite. Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality The vernacular was slowly introduced into the Liturgy by the 1870 Old Catholic churches, until it completely replaced Latin in 1877. A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions The Old Catholic Church in Germany received some support from the new German Empire of Otto von Bismarck, whose policy was increasingly hostile towards the Roman Catholic Church in the 1870s and 1880s. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) In Austrian territories, Pan-Germanic nationalist groups, like those of Georg Ritter von Schönerer, promoted the conversion of Roman Catholics to Old Catholicism (or Lutheranism). Georg Ritter von Schönerer ( July 17, 1842 - August 14, 1921) was an Austrian politician active in the late 1800s and Liberal politicians and philosophers also sympathised with the Old Catholic movement. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal
The Old Catholic Church shares much doctrine and liturgy with the Roman Catholic Church, but has a more liberal stance on most issues, such as the ordination of women, the morality of homosexual acts, artificial contraception and liturgical reforms/innovations such as open communion. Open communion is the practice of Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist Its liturgy has departed more than that of the Roman Catholic Church from the Tridentine Mass, as shown in the English translation of its German Altarbook (missal) provided on its website. The Tridentine Mass (Missa Tridentina is the form of the Roman Rite Mass contained in the typical editions of the Roman Missal that were published A missal is a Liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year In 1994 the German bishops decided to ordain women as priests, and put their decision into practice on 27 May 1996; similar decisions and practices followed in Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed  It allows those who have been civilly divorced to have a new religious marriage and upholds no teaching on birth control, leaving decisions about it to the married couple. 
The "Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany" (Katholisches Bistum der Alt-Katholiken in Deutschland) is
Based on critical examination of the historical witnesses of early Christianity, the leaders of the Old Catholic movement developed an episcopal, synodal church structure, which incorporates the historic episcopal and priestly offices into democratic structures at all levels.
Soon after Old Catholicism's momentous events at the end of the 19th century, Old Catholic missionaries came to the United States. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Many independent Old Catholic bishops in the United States claim to trace their apostolic succession to Arnold Harris Mathew. Arnold Harris Mathew (1852–1919 was the first Old Catholic Bishop in the United Kingdom. Mathew was consecrated bishop on 28 April 1908, by Utrecht Archbishop Gerhardus Gul, assisted by the Old Catholic bishops of Deventer and Berne, in St. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Gertrude's Old Catholic Cathedral, Utrecht. Only two years later, Mathew declared his autonomy from the Union of Utrecht, with which he had experienced tension from the beginning. Bishop Mathew sent missionaries to the United States including the theosophist Bishop J. I. Wedgwood (1892 - 1950) and Prince (Bishop) Rudolph de Landas Berghes et de Rache (1873–1920). This article is about the philosophy introduced by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky Bishop James Ingall Wedgwood (1883 - 1951 was the first Presiding Bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church.
Bishop de Landas arrived in the United States on 7 November 1914, hoping to unite the various independent Old Catholic jurisdictions under Archbishop Mathew. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year De Landas contributed greatly to the growth and of the independent Old Catholic movement, ordaining and consecrating others including William Francis Brothers and Carmel Henry Cafora.
In the area of Green Bay, Wisconsin, Joseph Rene Vilatte began working with Roman Catholics of Belgian ancestry, who tended to be isolated from Roman Catholic influence due to their geographical position. Green Bay is a city in and the County seat of Brown County in the U Joseph René Vilatte ( January 24, 1854 - July 8, 1929) was at different times a Vilatte was ordained a deacon on 6 June 1885 and priest on 7 June 1885 by the Most Rev. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1099 - The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Eduard Herzog, bishop of the Old Catholic Church of Switzerland. After ordination, Fr. Vilatte worked diligently on behalf of his congregations in Wisconsin, providing the only sacramental presence in his very rural part of the state. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States
In time, he asked the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht to be ordained a bishop so that he might confirm children, but his petition was not granted. The Archbishopric of Utrecht is the Archbishopric based in the Dutch city of Utrecht. Determined to meet the spiritual needs of his people, Vilatte sought opportunities in the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the He was ordained a bishop in India on the 28 May 1892 under the jurisdiction of the Syriac Patriarch of Antioch. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also
Today, the largest of the Old Catholic communities in the United States is the Polish National Catholic Church. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC is a Christian church founded and based in the United States by Polish-Americans who were Roman Catholic The PNCC began in the late 19th century over issues concerning the ownership of church property and the domination of the U. S. hierarchy by Irish prelates. The PNCC traces its apostolic succession directly to the Utrecht Union and thus PNCC orders and sacraments are recognised by Roman Catholicism. The Union of Utrecht is a federation of Old Catholic Churches not in communion with Rome that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility Since late 2003, the PNCC has no longer been part of the Utrecht Union. Among the reasons for disaffiliation are Utrecht's acceptance of the ordination of women together with a more liberal attitude towards homosexuality, both of which the PNCC rejects.
With the PNCC no longer a member of the Union of Utrecht, the Union's International Bishops Conference asked the Episcopal Church, its ecumenical partner in the United States, to initiate discussions among various Old Catholics concerning how they identify as Old Catholics, the ecclesiology of various Old Catholic bodies, and whether these various churches ordain women. The Episcopal Church, after having gathered this information, reported to the IBC the summary of the various experiences of those Old Catholic churches that responded. The report was given at the annual meeting of the IBC in August 2005. The IBC asked the Episcopal Church to host a consultation of these American bishops.
In May 2006, four American Old Catholic bishops gathered at the Bethsaida Spirituality Center in Queens Village, New York. These four bishops were the Most Rev. Peter Hickman, the Most Rev. Peter Paul Brennan, the Most Rev. Charles Leigh, and the Most Rev. Robert T. Fuentes. Along with these four bishops, also in attendance was the liaison of the Episcopal Church to the IBC, the Rt. Rev. Michie Klusmeyer, Bishop of West Virginia, the deputy for ecumenical and interfaith relations, Dr. Tom Ferguson, and Fr. Bjorn Marcussen, an Episcopal priest who had been ordained in the Old Catholic Church of Austria and who is an Old Catholic theologian. The IBC sent as a representative to this consulation, Fr. Gunther Esser, Director of Old Catholic Studies at the University of Bonn, Germany. Key to the discussions was the ecclesiology of the Old Catholic Church, highlighted in the Preamble to the Statutes of the International Bishops Conference. After three days of discussions, the American bishops agreed to the formation of the Conference of North American Old Catholic Bishops, agreeing to pattern itself after the IBC. The CNAOCB has as its central goal the tangible, organic unity among American Old Catholic jurisdictions. The bishops also agreed to meet at least twice a year.
In November 2006, the bishops who remained engaged to the development and formation of the CNAOCB, met in Los Angeles, to develop the Conference's Unity Statement, to fashion its rules of order, and to set forth the criteria for joining the Conference itself. The Unity Statement, which incorporated the ecclesiological understanding of the Union of Utrecht and which all new members must subscribe to, states:
Assembled at St. Paul’s Cathedral Center in Los Angeles, California, on the seventh day of November, 2006, we commit ourselves to these goals:
1. To place Jesus Christ as the head and center of this Conference of Bishops.
2. To conform to the gospel of Jesus and his call to serve God and to serve our neighbor.
3. To call upon the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, to bless, sanctify and guide this Conference.
4. To form this Conference of Bishops as an office, a voice and a center of Old Catholicism in the USA.
5. To model our Conference on the International Conference of Bishops (IBC) of the Union of Utrecht, as outlined in the Preamble of the Statutes of the International Bishops Conference of the Union of Utrecht.
6. To work collegially and cooperatively to form one National Old Catholic Church or a Communion or a Federation of American Old Catholic Churches.
7. To study and discuss Old Catholic documents and history, in order to determine how these documents are to promote the work toward unity.
8. To indicate those elements which identify our churches as Old Catholic.
9. To pray and work for unity among the bishops and the churches we represent.
10. To convene at least two face-to-face meetings each year for consultations on subjects of common interest.
We commit ourselves to these understandings:
1. In order to begin, nurture and perfect a more complete and satisfactory union, we have formed the CNAOCB, basing our cooperation upon the tenets of the Bonn Accord of 1931 between the Old Catholic and Anglican Churches, which states:
A. Each Communion recognizes the Catholicity and independence of the other, and maintains its own.
B. Each Communion agrees to admit members of the other Communion to participate in the Sacraments.
C. Full Communion does not require from either communion the acceptance of all doctrinal opinion, sacramental devotion or liturgical practice characteristic of the other, but implies that each believes the other to hold all the essentials of the Christian faith.
2. We acknowledge and accept the Union of Utrecht’s Four Ecclesiological Points, namely,
A. Ecclesiology of the Local Church: The fullness of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church resides in the local church, understood as the local diocese.
B. The Role of the Bishop and Apostolic Succession: Apostolic succession belongs to the church. Bishops are servants of the church, elected by the church, for ordained office in the church. Apostolic succession refers to the passing on of the faith of the apostles in and through the church under the leadership and oversight of the bishop of the local church, ordained for his or her office of bishop through the laying on of hands and prayer. Apostolic succession is not the personal possession of a bishop that can be passed on to others in separation from the office of bishop in the local church. There cannot be a church without a bishop; conversely there cannot be a bishop without church. Here the expression “local church” refers to a community of faith that can best be described as a diocese, which in turn consists of a communion of parishes and missions. Bishops without churches are outside of the apostolic succession, even though they may have been ordained with the proper ritual and the proper intention.
C. The Theology of Communion: Even though the fullness of the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church resides in the local church, the local church cannot remain alone. The church’s catholicity must express itself, which it does through communion with other local churches. The bishop of a local church stands at the intersection of where the local church meets with the other churches in communion. The bishop represents the local church to the other churches in communion, and represents the churches in communion to the local church. The bishop brings concerns of importance for the local church that may have consequences for the entire communion to the attention of the other bishops of the communion, and brings the concerns of the bishops of the communion to the attention of the local church.
D. Synodality: Synodality permeates all levels of the church. Members of the local congregation meet and make joint decisions about how to implement the mission, pastoral care and finances of the parish. It elects the pastor from qualified candidates. It elects a parish committee of lay people to govern the temporal affairs of the parish and minister side by side with the pastor. It elects representatives to the Diocesan Synod. Old Catholic dioceses are governed synodically by a synod of elected lay people and clergy. The Diocesan Synod elects the bishop. An elected Synodical Council assists the bishop in the governance of the diocese between diocesan synods.
3. We accept the Declaration of Utrecht (1889), The Munich Declaration (1871), and The Fourteen Theses of the Old Catholic Union Conference at Bonn (1874).
4. The clergy candidates are to be educated as professionals at the university level or at the discretion of the local bishop, candidates with sufficient pastoral experience may also be ordained. Whenever possible, candidates will normally attain a Master’s Degree or its equivalent in theology or ministry.
5. The church is open to all the baptized. Any baptized member who is qualified may be elected to and called to holy orders with the laying on of hands for ministry in the church.
Given at Los Angeles, California, 7th of November, 2006
The first signers of the Unity Statement are Bishop Charles Leigh (Apostolic Catholic Church) and Bishop Robert T. Fuentes (Old Catholic Diocese of Napa. The American Catholic Church of New England joined the Conference in July 2007. The Ecumenical Catholic Communion signed the Unity Statement in September 2007.
Although there have been various attempts at unity among Old Catholic jurisdictions since the turn of the 20th century, none have had the participation or the support of either the Episcopal Church or the Union of Utrecht. Both the Episcopal Church and the Union of Utrecht agree to remain engaged with the Conference. However, the success of the CNAOCB, and the degree of unity among the American churches, rests with the American bishops, both present members and those that will join, and the churches they represent.
In 2006, the Old Catholic Church of British Columbia was invited to a meeting of the International Bishops Conference, the beginning of possible communion with the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht; however, the British Columbian church is not a member of the Union of Utrecht. The Archbishopric of Utrecht is the Archbishopric based in the Dutch city of Utrecht.
Independent Old Catholics in the United States interpret and understand Catholicism and the Gospel in different ways. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament Some are more conservative, adhering to the theological and moral positions of the Roman Catholic Church before the First Vatican Council. The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. Some more closely follow the foundational documents of the European Old Catholics, namely the Munich Declaration, the Fourteen Theses, and the Declaration of Utrecht, while others find these foundational statements dated, or not in conformity with their views of catholicity. The Union of Utrecht is a federation of Old Catholic Churches not in communion with Rome that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility Others are more liberal, acknowledging female ordination and morally condoning homosexuality. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Of these independent Old Catholics, many have participated in the Liturgical Movement started in the 1940s. The Liturgical Movement is a movement of scholarship and the reform of Worship within the Roman Catholic Church that has taken place over the last century and a half The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be
The English Catholic Church was originally founded as a missionary province of the (non-Utrecht) Old Catholic Church of the United States. In consultation with other bishops, the English Catholic Church decided to re-name itself the "Old Catholic Church in Europe" to become not just an English language representative for Independent Old Catholicism in Europe, but also to provide an organisation for independent Old Catholics to relate to, and be cared for, on the European Continent. It must be stressed that these provisions for independent Old Catholics have yet to be formally agreed between the groups concerned and they are not recognised by the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht or the churches of the Utrecht Union. The Union of Utrecht is a federation of Old Catholic Churches not in communion with Rome that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility Independent Old Catholicism in Europe is numerically small, though its members strive to remain loyal to traditional Old Catholicism and sometimes engage in partnership with one other.
The Old Catholic Church in the Czech Republic has 1605 members. 
The term 'Old Catholic' is used often by many splinter groups, ranging from 'Continuing' or 'Traditionalist' to 'New Age'. Many of these self-identified Old Catholic Churches are gatherings of clergy without substantial congregations of faithful, and some allegedly exist only on the Internet. Although the bishops of many of these groups can trace lines of apostolic succession through Old Catholic Churches, most of these are regarded as episcopi vagantes even by the established, mainstream churches of the Utrecht Union. Episcopi vagantes (singular episcopus vagans) are persons who have been consecrated as Christian Bishops outside the structures and The Union of Utrecht is a federation of Old Catholic Churches not in communion with Rome that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of Papal infallibility
Official pages of the Old Catholic Churches