An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosine, and liquefied petroleum gas. Tesoro Corporation is a FORTUNE 150 company headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, with 2004 annual revenues of $12 Anacortes (ˌænəˈkɔrtəs is a city in Skagit County, Washington, USA Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil ( Petroleum) as it is processed in Oil refineries. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Asphalt ( is a sticky black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude Petroleums and in some natural deposits sometimes termed asphaltum Heating oil, or oil heat, also known in the United States as No Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel  Oil refineries are typically large sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" For other uses see Pipe. Within Industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey Fluids ( Liquids and FLUID ( F ast L ight '''U'''ser '''I'''nterface D esigner is a graphical editor that is used to produce FLTK Source code In a " scientific " sense a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more Chemicals or Chemical compounds Such a chemical
Raw or unprocessed ("crude") oil is not useful in the form it comes in out of the ground. Although "light, sweet" (low viscosity, low sulfur) oil has been used directly as a burner fuel for steam vessel propulsion, the lighter elements form explosive vapors in the fuel tanks and so it is quite dangerous, especially so in warships. A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. For this and many other uses, the oil needs to be separated into parts and refined before use in fuels and lubricants, and before some of the byproducts could be used in petrochemical processes to form materials such as plastics, detergents, solvents, elastomers, and fibers such as nylon and polyesters. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy A lubricant (sometimes referred to as a "Lube" is a substance (often a liquid introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the Friction between them improving Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products A detergent (as a noun is a material intended to assist Cleaning. A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution. An elastomer is a Polymer with the property of Elasticity. The term which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the term Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. Overview Nylon is a Thermoplastic silky material first used commercially in a nylon- Bristled Toothbrush (1938 followed more famously by Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain Petroleum fossil fuels are used in ship, automobile and aircraft engines. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size An engine is a mechanical device that produces some form of output from a given input These different hydrocarbons have different boiling points, which means they can be separated by distillation. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Since the lighter liquid elements are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products using complex and energy intensive processes. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon.
Oil can be used in so many various ways because it contains hydrocarbons of varying molecular masses, forms and lengths such as paraffins, aromatics, naphthenes (or cycloalkanes), alkenes, dienes, and alkynes. The molecular mass (abbreviated m of a substance, more commonly referred to as molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the Mass of one In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2 Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, especially if from Petroleum sources are types of Alkanes which have one or more rings of Carbon Atoms Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, especially if from Petroleum sources are types of Alkanes which have one or more rings of Carbon Atoms In Organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated Chemical compound containing at least one Carbon Dienes or diolefins are Hydrocarbons which contain two double bonds. Alkynes are Hydrocarbons that have at least one Triple bond between two Carbon atoms with the formula CnH2n-2. Hydrocarbons are molecules of varying length and complexity made of only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny Their various structures give them their differing properties and thereby uses. The trick in the oil refinement process is separating and purifying these.
Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities, the fuel or lubricant can be sold without any further processing. Smaller molecules such as isobutane and propylene or butylenes can be recombined to meet specific octane requirements of fuels by processes such as alkylation or less commonly, dimerization. Isobutane, also known as methylpropane or 2-methylpropane, is an Alkane, Isomeric with Butane. Propene, also known as propylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the Chemical formula C 3 H 6 Isomers Among the molecules which have the Chemical formula 48 four Isomers are Alkenes. Octane is a straight-chain Alkane with the Chemical formula CH3(CH26CH3 Alkylation is the transfer of an Alkyl group from one Molecule to another A dimer is a Chemical or Biological entity consisting of two subunits called Monomers which are held together by either Intramolecular forces Octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic reforming, which strips hydrogen out of hydrocarbons to produce aromatics, which have much higher octane ratings. Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert Petroleum refinery Naphthas typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products Intermediate products such as gasoils can even be reprocessed to break a heavy, long-chained oil into a lighter short-chained one, by various forms of cracking such as fluid catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, and hydrocracking. Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from Petroleum Distillation, either as a distillate or a residue In Petroleum geology and Chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic Molecules such as Kerogens or heavy Hydrocarbons Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC is the most important conversion process used in petroleum refineries. In Petroleum geology and Chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic Molecules such as Kerogens or heavy Hydrocarbons In Petroleum geology and Chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic Molecules such as Kerogens or heavy Hydrocarbons The final step in gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane ratings, vapor pressures, and other properties to meet product specifications. Vapor pressure (also known as equilibrium vapor pressure or saturation vapor pressure) is the Pressure of a Vapor in equilibrium
Oil refineries are large scale plants, processing from about a hundred thousand to several hundred thousand barrels of crude oil per day. Because of the high capacity, many of the units are operated continuously (as opposed to processing in batches) at steady state or approximately steady state for long periods of time (months to years). Steady state is a more general situation than Dynamic equilibrium. This high capacity also makes process optimization and advanced process control very desirable. Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint In Control theory Advanced process control (APC is a broad term composed of different kinds of Process control tools often used for solving multivariable control
Most products of oil processing are usually grouped into three categories: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, tar). This classification is based on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum) as can be seen in the above drawing. 
The number and nature of the process units in a refinery determine its complexity index. Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel Naphtha normally refers to a number of different flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons i Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid Jet fuel is a type of Aviation fuel designed for use in Aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from Petroleum Distillation, either as a distillate or a residue A lubricant (sometimes referred to as a "Lube" is a substance (often a liquid introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the Friction between them improving In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2 Asphalt ( is a sticky black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude Petroleums and in some natural deposits sometimes termed asphaltum Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter Petroleum coke (often abbreviated petcoke) is a Carbonaceous solid derived from Oil refinery Coker units or other cracking processes The Nelson complexity index, developed by Wilbur Nelson in 1960 is a measure of the secondary conversion capacity of a Petroleum refinery relative to the primary distillation
The image below is a schematic flow diagram of a typical oil refinery that depicts the various unit processes and the flow of intermediate product streams that occurs between the inlet crude oil feedstock and the final end products. A process flow diagram (PFD is a diagram commonly used in chemical and Process engineering to indicate the general flow of plant processes and equipment A chemical plant is industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes Chemicals usually on a large scale The diagram depicts only one of the literally hundreds of different oil refinery configurations. The diagram also does not include any of the usual refinery facilities providing utilities such as steam, cooling water, and electric power as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products and end products. 
There are many process configurations other than that depicted above. For example, the vacuum distillation unit may also produce fractions that can be refined into endproducts such as: spindle oil used in the textile industry, light machinery oil, motor oil, and steam cylinder oil. Vacuum distillation is a method of Distillation whereby the pressure above the liquid mixture to be distilled is reduced to less than its Vapor pressure (usually As another example, the vacuum residue may be processed in a coker unit to produce petroleum coke. A coker or coker unit is an Oil refinery processing unit that converts the Residual oil from the vacuum distillation column or the atmospheric
These will blend various feedstocks, mix appropriate additives, provide short term storage, and prepare for bulk loading to trucks, barges, product ships, and railcars.
The principles of finding a construction site for refineries are similar to those for other chemical plants:
For refineries which use large amounts of process steam and cooling water, an abundant source of water is important. Because of this, oil refineries are often located (associated to a port) near navigable rivers or even better on a sea shore. Either are of dual purpose, making also available cheap transport by river or by sea. Although the advantages of crude oil transport by pipeline are evident, and the method is also often used by oil companies to deliver large output products such as fuels to their bulk distribution terminals, pipeline delivery is not practical for small output products. For these, rail cars, road tankers or barges may be used.
It is useful to site refineries in areas where there is abundant space to be used by the same company or others, for the construction of petrochemical plants, solvent manufacturing (fine fractionating) plants and/or similar plants to allow these easy access to large output refinery products for further processing, or plants that produce chemical additives that the refinery may need to blend into a product at source rather than at blending terminals.
The refining process releases numerous different chemicals into the atmosphere; consequently, there are substantial air pollution emissions and a notable odor normally accompanies the presence of a refinery. Karlsruhe (ˈkaɐ̯lsʁuːə population 285812 in 2006 is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Aside from air pollution impacts there are also wastewater concerns, risks of industrial accidents such as fire and explosion, and noise health effects due to industrial noise. Industrial disasters are mass Disasters caused by industrial companies either by accident Negligence or incompetence Noise health effects are the Health consequences of elevated Sound levels Elevated workplace or other Noise can cause Hearing impairment Industrial noise is usually considered mainly from the point of view of environmental health and safety rather than nuisance as sustained exposure can cause permanent hearing damage
The public has demanded that many governments place restrictions on contaminants that refineries release, and most refineries have installed the equipment needed to comply with the requirements of the pertinent environmental protection regulatory agencies. In the United States, there is strong pressure to prevent the development of new refineries, and no major refinery has been built in the country since Marathon's Garyville, Louisiana facility in 1976. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Marathon Petroleum Company ( MPC) is a fully owned American Subsidiary of the Marathon Oil Corporation. Garyville is a Census-designated place (CDP in St John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana, United States. However, many existing refineries have been expanded during that time. Environmental restrictions and pressure to prevent construction of new refineries may have also contributed to rising fuel prices in the United States.  Additionally, many refineries (over 100 since the 1980s) have closed due to obsolescence and/or merger activity within the industry itself. This activity has been reported to Congress and in specialized studies not widely publicised.
Environmental and safety concerns mean that oil refineries are sometimes located some distance away from major urban areas. Nevertheless, there are many instances where refinery operations are close to populated areas and pose health risks such as in the Campo de Gibraltar, a CEPSA refinery near the towns of Gibraltar, Algeciras, La Linea, San Roque and Los Barrios with a combined population of over 300,000 residents within a 5-mile (8. The comarca of the Campo de Gibraltar (literally the Gibraltar Countryside as it was the hinterland of the now British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar Algeciras - Arabic: الجزيرة الخضراء is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest urban area on the Bay of Gibraltar Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. San Roque is a small town and Municipality in the south of Spain. Los Barrios is a small town and municipality in the south of Spain. 0 km) radius and the CEPSA refinery in Santa Cruz on the island of Tenerife, Spain which is sited in a densely-populated city center and next to the only two major evacuation routes in and out of the city. Tenerife (previously known and spelled as "Teneriffe" in English before mass tourism adopted the Spanish spelling a Spanish Island, is the largest In California's Contra Costa County and Solano County, a shoreline necklace of refineries and associated chemical plants are adjacent to urban areas in Richmond, Martinez, Pacheco, Concord, Pittsburg, Vallejo and Benicia, with occasional accidental events that require "shelter in place" orders to the adjacent populations. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Contra Costa County ( Spanish for "opposite coast" is a suburban county in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U Solano County is a County located in Bay-Delta region of the U Richmond (ˈɹɪtʃmənd is a city in western Contra Costa County, California, United States. Martinez ( "mar-TEE-niss" or "mar-TEE-nezz") is the County seat of Contra Costa County California, United States Pacheco is a Census-designated place (CDP in Contra Costa County, California, United States. Concord is the largest city in Contra Costa County, California, USA. Pittsburg California is a city located in eastern Contra Costa County California, the outer portion of the East Bay region Vallejo (vəˈleɪoʊ or /vəˈleɪhoʊ/ in English /baˈjeho/ in the original Spanish) is the largest city in Solano County Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, United States.
Petroleum refineries run as efficiently as possible to reduce costs. One major factor that decreases efficiency is corrosion of the metal components found throughout the process line of the hydrocarbon refining process. Corrosion causes the failure of parts in addition to dictating the cleaning schedule of the refinery, during which the entire production facility must be shut down and cleaned. Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings The cost of corrosion in the petroleum industry has been estimated at US$3. 7 billion. 
Corrosion occurs in various forms in the refining process, such as pitting corrosion from water droplets, embrittlement from hydrogen, and stress corrosion cracking from sulfide attack.  From a materials standpoint, carbon steel is used for upwards of 80% of refinery components, which is beneficial due to its low cost. Carbon steel is resistant to the most common forms of corrosion, particularly from hydrocarbon impurities at temperatures below 205oC, but other corrosive chemicals and environments prevent its use everywhere. Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is Steel where the main alloying constituent is Carbon. Common replacement materials are low alloy steels containing chromium and molybdenum, with stainless steels containing more Chromium dealing with more corrosive environments. Chromium (ˈkroʊmiəm is a Chemical element which has the symbol Cr and Atomic number 24 Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 More expensive materials commonly used are nickel, titanium, and copper alloys. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 These are primarily saved for the most problematic areas where extremely high temperatures or very corrosive chemicals are present. 
Corrosion is fought by a complex system of monitoring and careful use of materials. Monitoring methods include both off-line checks taken during maintenance and on-line monitoring collected in real time during normal plant operation. Off-line checks measure corrosion after it has occurring, telling the engineer when equipment must be replaced. On-line systems are a more modern development, and are revolutionizing the way corrosion is approached. It allows process engineers to treat corrosion as another process variable. Immediate responses to process changes allow the control of corrosion mechanisms, so they can be minimized while also maximizing production output.  Materials methods include selecting the proper material for the application. In areas of minimal corrosion, cheap materials are preferable, but when bad corrosion can occur, more expensive but longer lasting materials should be used. Other materials methods come in the form of protective barriers between corrosive substances and the equipment metals. These can be either a lining of refractory material such as standard Portland cement or other special acid-resistant cements that are shot onto the inner surface of the vessel. Also available are thin overlays of more expensive metals that protect cheaper metal against corrosion without requiring lots of material. 
The world's first oil refineries were set up by Ignacy Łukasiewicz near Jaslo, Austrian Empire (now in Poland) in the years 1854-56 but they were initially small as there was no real demand for refined fuel. Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822 - 1882 was a Polish Pharmacist of Armenian descent who devised the first method of distilling Kerosene Jasło (Jassel Jessel 1325) is a County town in south-eastern Poland with 38104 inhabitants For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland As Łukasiewicz's kerosene lamp gained popularity the refining industry grew in the area. The kerosene lamp (widely known in Britain as a paraffin lamp) is any type of lighting device which uses Kerosene (paraffin as a fuel
The first large oil refinery opened at Ploieşti, Romania in 1856. Ploieşti (ploˈjeʃtʲ older spelling Ploeşti) is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia, Romania Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania  Several other refineries were built at that location with investment from United States companies before being taken over by Nazi Germany during World War II. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Most of these refineries were heavily bombarded by US Army Air Forces in Operation Tidal Wave, August 1, 1943. The United States Army Air Forces ( USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II. Operation Tidal Wave was a World War II aerial bombardment operation by a composite strike force of five bomb groups from the United States Eighth Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Since then they have been rebuilt, and currently pose somewhat of an environmental concern.
Another early example is Oljeön, Sweden, now preserved as a museum at the UNESCO world heritage site Engelsberg. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Engelsberg is a municipality in the district of Traunstein in Bavaria in Germany. It started operation in 1875 and is part of the Ecomuseum Bergslagen.
At one time, the world's largest oil refinery was claimed to be Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia, owned by Saudi Aramco. Ras Tanura (more accurately Ra's Tannūrah Arabic رأس تنورة meaning "cape oven cape brazier" presumably due to the unusual heat prevalent at the cape that projects The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Saudi Aramco, the state-owned national oil company of Saudi Arabia, is the largest oil corporation in the world and the world's largest in terms of proven crude For most of the 20th century, the largest refinery of the world was the Abadan refinery in Iran. Abadan (film is also the name of a 2003 Iranian movie from director Mani Haghighi, as well as the name of a town in Turkmenistan For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. This refinery suffered extensive damage during the Iran-Iraq war. The world's largest refinery complex is the "Centro de Refinación de Paraguaná" (CRP) operated by PDVSA in Venezuela with a production capacity of 956,000 barrels per day (152,000 m³/d) (Amuay 635,000 bbl/d (101,000 m³/d), Cardón 305,000 bbl/d (48,500 m³/d) and Bajo Grande 16,000 bpd). Petróleos de Venezuela SA ( PDVSA) is the Venezuelan state-owned Petroleum company SK Energy's Ulsan refinery in South Korea with a capacity of 840,000 bbl/d (134,000 m³/d) and Reliance Petroleum's refinery in Jamnagar, India with 660,000 bbl/d (105,000 m³/d) are the second and third largest, respectively. The Jamnagar Refinery is a private sector crude oil Refinery owned by Reliance Industries Limited in Jamnagar, India.
Early US refineries processed crude oil to recover the kerosene. Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid Other products (like gasoline) were considered wastes and were often dumped directly into the nearest river. The invention of the automobile shifted the demand to gasoline and diesel, which remain the primary refined products today. Refineries pre-dating the EPA were very toxic to the environment. Strict legislation has mandated that refineries meet modern air and water cleanliness standards. In fact, obtaining a permit to build even a modern refinery with minimal impact on the environment (other than CO2 emissions) is so difficult and costly that no new refineries have been built (though many have been expanded) in the United States since 1976. As a result, some believe that this may be the reason that the US is becoming more and more dependent on the imports of finished gasoline, as opposed to incremental crude oil. On the other hand, studies have revealed that accelerating merger activity in the refining and production sector has reduced capacity further, resulting in tighter markets in the United States in particular.