Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil — especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. A drying oil is an Oil which hardens to a tough solid film after a period of exposure to air Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil or simply flax oil, is a clear to yellowish Drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the Flax Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Frankincense or olibanum ( Arabic language: لبٌان, lubbān) is an aromatic Resin obtained from trees of the genus Other oils occasionally used include poppyseed oil, walnut oil, and safflower oil. Poppyseed oil (also poppy seed oil or poppy oil) is oil extracted from the seeds of the Opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum Walnut oil is oil extracted from Walnuts Culinary use Walnut oil is not used as extensively as other oils in Food preparation due to cost Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L) is a highly branched Herbaceous, Thistle -like annual usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves These oils confer various properties to the oil paint, such as less yellowing or different drying times. Certain differences are also visible in the sheen of the paints depending on the oil. Painters often use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular feel depending on the medium.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the figure onto the canvas with charcoal or a "wash," which is thinned paint. Anders Leonard Zorn ( February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter sculptor and Printmaker in Etching Oil paint can be mixed with turpentine or artist grade mineral spirits or other solvents to create a thinner, faster drying paint. Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine oil of turpentine wood turpentine gum turpentine is a fluid obtained by the Distillation of Resin obtained from trees Mineral Spirits, also called Stoddard solvent 8052-41-3 is a petroleum distilate commonly used as a paint thinner and mild Solvent. Then the artist builds the figure in layers. A basic rule of oil paint application is 'fat over lean. ' Fat over lean' refers to the principle in oil Painting, of applying Paint with a higher oil to pigment Ratio ('fat' over paint with a lower oil to pigment ' This means that each additional layer of paint should be a bit oilier than the layer below, to allow proper drying. As a painting gets additional layers, the paint must get oilier (leaner to fatter) or the final painting will crack and peel. There are many other painting media that can be used in oil painting, including cold wax, resins, and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or 'body' of the paint, and the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke. These variables are closely related to the expressive capacity of oil paint. When looking at original oil paintings, the various traits of oil paint allow one to sense the choices the artist made as they applied the paint. For the viewer, the paint is still, but for the artist, the oil paint is a liquid or semi-liquid and must be moved 'onto' the painting surface.
Traditionally, moving paint was accomplished with paint brushes, but there are other methods, including the palette knife, the rag, and even directly from the paint tube. "Paintbrush" redirects here For other uses see Paintbrush (disambiguation. A palette knife is a blunt Knife with an extremely flexible Steel blade and no sharpened cutting edge Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might even remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew. This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a certain time while the paint is wet, but after a while, the hardened layer must be scraped. Many oil paintings reveal evidence of such scraping on close inspection, particularly when the surface itself is examined. Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch in a day to two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year. Art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old.
Oil painting dates in the West to at least ancient Roman times. Recent research supports the likelihood that it spread to Asia between the fifth to ninth century.    Surfaces like shields — both those used in tournaments and those hung as decorations — were more durable when painted in oil-based media than when painted in the traditional tempera paints. Tempera (also known as egg tempera) is a type of artist's Paint and associated art techniques that were known from the classical world where it appears
Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, and Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel, however Theophilus (Roger of Helmarshausen?) clearly gives instructions for oil-based painting in his treatise, On Divers Arts, written in 1125. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Giorgio Vasari ( 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and Architect, who is today famous Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (jɑn vɑn ɛik (before c 1395 &ndash before July 9, 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active A panel painting is a Painting on a panel made of wood either a single piece or a number of pieces joined together Theophilus Presbyter (approx 1070 - 1125) was a Benedictine monk and author of a Latin text containing detailed descriptions of various medieval Roger of Helmarshausen (fl 12th century was a well-known Goldsmith and metalwork artist and also a Benedictine monk Early Netherlandish painting in the 15th century was however the first to make oil the usual painting medium, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, and only then Italy. Early Netherlandish painting is the work of those painters who were active in the Low Countries during the 15th and early 16th century Northern renaissance The popularity of oil spread through Italy from the North, starting in Venice in the late 15th century. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the By 1540 the previous method for painting on panel, tempera had become all but extinct, although Italians continued to use fresco for wall paintings, which was more difficult in Northern climates. Tempera (also known as egg tempera) is a type of artist's Paint and associated art techniques that were known from the classical world where it appears Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or
The linseed oil itself comes from the flax seed, and this flax was a common fiber crop. Recent advances in chemistry have produced modern water miscible oil paints that can be used with and cleaned up with water. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Water miscible oil paint (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable" is a modern variety of Oil paint which is engineered to be thinned and cleaned up Small alterations in the molecular structure of the oil creates this water miscible property. In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by Miscibility is a term commonly used in Chemistry that refers to the property of Liquids to mix in all proportions forming a Homogeneous Solution
A still-newer type of paint, heat-set oils, remain liquid until heated to 265–280 °F (130–138 °C) for about 15 minutes. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Since the paint never dries otherwise, cleanup is not needed (except when one wants to use a different color and the same brush). Although not technically true oils (the medium is an unidentified "non-drying synthetic oily liquid, imbedded with a heat sensitive curing agent"), the paintings resemble oil paintings and are usually shown as oil paintings. In Chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of Chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products
Traditional artists' canvas is made from linen, but the less expensive cotton fabric has gained popularity. Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp The artist first prepares a wooden frame called a “stretcher" or "strainer". The difference between the first and second is that stretchers are slightly adjustable, while strainers are rigid and lack adjustable corner notches. The canvas is then pulled across the wooden frame and tacked or stapled tightly to the back edge. The next step is for the artist to apply a "size" to isolate the canvas from the acidic qualities of the paint. Traditionally, the canvas was coated with a layer of animal glue (size), (modern painters will use rabbit skin glue) and primed with lead white paint, sometimes with added chalk. Panels were prepared with a gesso, a mixture of glue and chalk.
Modern acrylic "gesso" is made of titanium dioxide with an acrylic binder. " Gesso " is the Italian word for " Board chalk " (akin to the Greek word " Gypsum " and is a powdered form of the Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring Oxide of Titanium, chemical formula Ti[[oxygen It is frequently used on canvas, whereas real gesso is not suitable for that application. The artist might apply several layers of gesso, sanding each smooth after it has dried. Acrylic gesso is very difficult to sand. One manufacturer makes a sandable acrylic gesso, but it is intended for panels only, not canvas. It is possible to tone the gesso to a particular color, but most store-bought gesso is white. The gesso layer will tend to draw the oil paint into the porous surface, depending on the thickness of the gesso layer. Excessive or uneven gesso layers are sometimes visible in the surface of finished paintings as a change in the layer that's not from the paint.
Standard sizes for oil paintings were set in France in the 19th century. The standards were used by most artists, not only the French, as it was - and evidently still is - supported by the main suppliers of artist materials. The main separation from size 0 (toile de 0) to size 120 (toile de 120) is divided in separate runs for figures (figure), landscapes (paysage) and marines (marine) which more or less keep the diagonal. Thus a 0 figure corresponds in height with a paysage 1 and a marine 2 .
The process of oil painting varies from artist to artist, but often includes certain steps. Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder First, the artist prepares the surface. Although surfaces like linoleum, wooden panel, paper, slate, pressed wood, and cardboard have been used, the most popular surface since the 16th century has been canvas, although many artists used panel through the 17th century and beyond. Linoleum is a Floor covering made from solidified Linseed oil (linoxyn in combination with Wood flour or cork dust over a Burlap or Canvas A panel painting is a Painting on a panel made of wood either a single piece or a number of pieces joined together Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Slate is a fine-grained foliated homogeneous, Metamorphic rock derived from an original Shale -type Sedimentary rock composed of Clay Pressed wood is any Engineered wood building and furniture construction material made from Wood veneers particles or wood fibers bonded together with an Paperboard is a Paper -like material usually over ten mils (0 Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions Before that it was panel, which is more expensive, heavier, less easy to transport, and prone to warp or split in poor conditions. For fine detail, however, the absolute solidity of a wooden panel gives an advantage.
The artist might sketch an outline of their subject prior to applying pigment to the surface. “Pigment” may be any number of natural substances with color, such as sulphur for yellow or cobalt for blue. The pigment is mixed with oil, usually linseed oil but other oils may be used as well. The various oils dry differently creating assorted effects.
Traditionally, an artist mixed his or her own paints for each project. Handling and mixing the raw pigments and mediums was prohibitive to transportation. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. In the Arts media (plural of Medium) are the materials and techniques used by an Artist to produce a work This changed in the late 1800’s, when oil paint in tubes became widely available. Artists could mix colors quickly and easily without having to grind their own pigments. Also, the portability of tube paints allowed for plein air, or outdoor painting (common to French Impressionism). En plein air is a French expression which means "in the open air" and is particularly used to describe the act of Painting outdoors Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s
The artist most often uses a brush to apply the paint. Brushes are made from a variety of fibers to create different effects. For example, brushes made with hog’s bristle might be used for bolder strokes. Brushes made from miniver, which is squirrel fur, might be used for finer details. Sizes of brushes also create different effects. For example, a "round" is a pointed brush used for detail work. "Bright" brushes are used to apply broad swaths of color. The artist might also apply paint with a palette knife, which is a flat, metal blade. A palette knife may also be used to remove paint from the canvas when necessary. A variety of unconventional tools, such as rags, sponges, and cotton swabs, may be used. Some artists even paint with their fingers.
Most artists paint in layers, a method first perfected in the Egg tempera painting technique, and adapted in Northern Europe for use with linseed oil paints. Tempera (also known as egg tempera) is a type of artist's Paint and associated art techniques that were known from the classical world where it appears The first coat or "underpainting" is laid down first, painted normally with turpentine thinned paint. In art an underpainting is an initial layer of paint applied to a ground which serves as a base for subsequent layers of paint This layer helps to "tone" the canvas, and cover the white of the gesso. Many artists use this layer to sketch out the composition. This layer can be adjusted before moving forward, which is an advantage over the 'cartooning' method used in Fresco technique. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or After this layer dries, one way the artist might then proceed is by painting a "mosaic" of color swatches, working from darkest to lightest. The borders of the colors are blended together when the "mosaic" is completed. This layer is then left to dry before applying details. The artist may apply several layers of details, using a technique called 'fat over lean. ' This means that each additional layer of paint is a bit oilier than the layer below, to allow proper drying. As a painting gets additional layers, the paint must get oilier (leaner to fatter) or the final painting will crack and peel. After it is dry, the artist will apply "glaze" to the painting, which is a thin, transparent layer to seal the surface. A classical work might take weeks or even months to layer the paint, but the most skilled early artists, such as Jan van Eyck, also used Wet-on-wet painting for some details. Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (jɑn vɑn ɛik (before c 1395 &ndash before July 9, 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active Wet-on-wet is a Painting technique in which layers of wet paint are applied to previous layers of wet paint Artists in later periods such as the impressionist era often used this more widely, blending the wet paint on the canvas without following the Renaissance layering and glazing method. This method is also called "Alla Prima. " When the image is finished and dried for up to a year, an artist would often seal the work with a layer of varnish typically made from damar gum crystals dissolved in turpentine. Contemporary artists increasingly resist the varnishing of their work, preferring that the surfaces remain varnish-free indefinitely.
Self portrait, Titian, c. The Arnolfini Portrait is a Painting in oils on Oak Panel executed by the Early Netherlandish painter Jan van Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (jɑn vɑn ɛik (before c 1395 &ndash before July 9, 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian 1512
The Rape of Europa, Titian, 1562
Bust of an old man with helmet, Rembrandt, 1630
Self portrait, Rembrandt, 1658
Milkmaid, Johannes Vermeer, 1658-60
Pilgrimage to Cythera, Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1721
The Toilet of Venus, François Boucher, 1751
The Blue Boy, Thomas Gainsborough, 1770
Napoleon Crossing through the St. La velata, or La donna velata ("The woman with the veil" is one of the most famous Portraits by the Italian Renaissance Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian The Elevation of the Cross is a Triptych painting by Rubens. Rubens painted The Elevation of the Cross after returning to Flanders Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. Pope Innocent X ( May 6, 1574 &ndash January 7, 1655) born Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (or Pamphili) was Pope Velázquez, also Velazquez, Velásquez or Velasquez, is a surname of Spanish origin Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. Johannes or Jan Vermeer (baptized in Delft with the name Joannis on October 31 1632, and buried in the same city under the name Jan Jean-Antoine Watteau ( October 10, 1684 – July 18, 1721) was a French painter whose brief career spurred the revival of François Boucher ( September 29 1703 – May 30 1770) was a French painter, a proponent of Rococo taste For all other uses of Blueboy and Blue Boy see Blueboy. The Blue Boy (c Bernard Pass, Jacques-Louis David, 1801
The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, Francisco Goya, 1814
Impression, Sunrise, Claude Monet, 1872
Le Moulin de la Galette, Pierre-Auguste Renoir 1876
Carnation Lily Lily Rose, John Singer Sargent, 1885-1886
Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue, Piet Mondriaan, 1921