An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). In Politics, a mandate is the Authority granted by an Electorate to act as its representative. An office is generally a room or other area in which people work, but may also denote a position within an Organization with specific duties attached An organisation (or organization &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. In Politics, authority ( Latin Auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to Potestas and Imperium
A government official or functionary is an official who is involved in public administration or government, through either election, appointment, or employment. Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A bureaucrat is a member of the bureaucracy. A bureaucrat is a member of a Bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the Government. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government An elected official is a person who is an official by virtue of an election. Officials may also be appointed ex officio (by virtue of another office, often in a specified capacity, such as presiding, advisory, secretary). C D E Some official positions may be inherited. "Heir" and "Heiress" redirect here For the men and women fragrances endorsed by Paris Hilton see Heiress (fragrance.
A person who currently holds an office is referred to as an incumbent.
The word official as a noun has been recorded since the Middle English period, first seen in 1314. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of It comes from the Old French official (12th century), from the Latin officialis ("attendant to a magistrate, public official"), the noun use of the original adjective officialis ("of or belonging to duty, service, or office") from officium ("office"). Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the The meaning "person in charge of some public work or duty" was first recorded in 1555. The adjective is first attested in English in 1533, via the Old French oficial.
The informal term officialese, the jargon of "officialdom," was first recorded in 1884. For Wikipedia jargon see WikipediaGlossary. For hacker slang see Jargon File.
An officialis (plural officiales) was the official term (somewhat comparable to a modern civil servant) for any member of the officium (staff) of a high dignitary such as a governor. Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings in Ancient Rome, including "service" "(sense of duty" "courtesy"
In Canon law, the word or its Latin original officialis is used absolutely as the legal title of a diocesan bishop's judicial vicar who shares the bishop's ordinary judicial power over the diocese and presides over the diocesan ecclesiastical court. Canon Law, the Ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church, is a fully developed legal system with all the necessary elements courts lawyers judges a fully articulated In the broadest sense a vicar (from the Latin Vicarius) is a representative anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior In those hierarchically organised churches of Western Christianity which have an ecclesiastical law system an ordinary is an officer of the church who by reason of office An ecclesiastical court (also called "Court Christian" or "Court Spiritual" is any of certain Courts having Jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or
The 1983 Code of Canon Law gives precedence to the title Judicial Vicar, rather than that of Officialis (canon 1420). In the broadest sense a vicar (from the Latin Vicarius) is a representative anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches uses only the title Judicial Vicar (canon 191).
In German, the related noun Offizialat was also used for an official bureau in a diocese that did much of its administration, comprising the vicariate-general, an adjoined secretariat, a registry office and a chancery. A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority
The title of official principal, together with that of vicar-general, has in Anglicanism? England been merged in that of Diocesan chancellor of a diocese. A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority A diocesan chancery is the branch of administration which handles all written documents used in the official government of a Roman Catholic or Anglican Diocese
In sports, the term official is used to describe a person enforcing playing rules in the capacity of a linesman, referee and umpire; also specified by the discipline, e. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many Sports Officials in various sports are known by a variety of titles including referee A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many Sports Officials in various sports are known by a variety of titles including referee g. American football official, Ice hockey official. In American football, an official is a person who has responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game In Ice hockey, an official is a person who has some responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game
The term officer is close to being a synonym (but has more military connotations). This word has distinct meanings in other fields see Connotation (semiotics and Connotation and denotation. A functionary is someone who carries out a particular role within an organization; this again is quite a close synonym for official, as a noun, but with connotations closer to bureaucrat. A bureaucrat is a member of a Bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the Government. Any such person acts in their official capacity, in carrying out the duties of their office; they are also said to officiate, for example in a ceremony. A ceremony is an activity infused with Ritual significance performed on a special occasion A public official is an official of central or local government. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.
Max Weber gave as definition of a bureaucratic official :
An official must exercise his judgment and his skills, but his duty is to place these at the service of a higher authority; ultimately he is responsible only for the impartial execution of assigned tasks and must sacrifice his personal judgment if it runs counter to his official duties.
As an adjective, official often but not always means pertaining to the government, either as state employee or having state recognition, or to analogous governance, or to formal (especially legally regulated) proceeding as opposed to informal business. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the Some examples: