Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, maintaining, and recovering optimal health and functioning. The term profession is applied to those persons who have specialized and technical skill or knowledge which they apply for a fee to certain tasks that ordinary and unqualified people cannot Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence In biological terms a community is a group of interacting Organisms sharing an environment. Health is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity Modern definitions of nursing define it as a science and an art that focuses on promoting quality of life as defined by persons and families, throughout their life experiences from birth to care at the end of life. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a Human Pregnancy or Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific
Nursing has existed in various forms in every culture, although the definition of the term and the practice of nursing has changed greatly over time. 17th century 1633 - The founding of the Sisters (or Daughters of Charity Servants of the Sick Poor by Sts The oldest sense of the word in the English language a woman employed to suckle and/or generally care for a younger child. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The former being known as a wet nurse and the latter being known as a dry nurse. A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds a baby that is not her own  In the 15th century, this developed into the idea of looking after or advising another, not necessarily meaning a woman looking after a child.  Nursing has continued to develop in this latter sense, although the idea of nourishing in the broadest sense refers in modern nursing to promoting quality of life.
Prior to the foundation of modern nursing, nuns and the military often provided nursing-like services. A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life  The religious and military roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries. For example: in Britain, senior female nurses are known as ‘‘sisters’’. It was during time of war that a significant development in nursing history arose when Florence Nightingale, working to improve conditions of soldiers in the Crimean War, laid the foundation stone of professional nursing with the principles summarised in the book Notes on Nursing. Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (in her own pronunciation ˈflɒɾəns ˈnaɪtɪŋgeɪl 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910 who came to be known as "The The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought Notes on Nursing What it is and What it is Not is a book first published by Florence Nightingale in 1859. Other important nurses in the development of the profession include: Mary Seacole, who also worked as a nurse in the Crimea; Agnes Elizabeth Jones and Linda Richards, who established quality nursing schools in the USA and Japan, and Linda Richards who was officially America's first trained nurse, graduating in 1873 from the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston. Mary Jane Seacole (1858 &ndash 26 May 1889 sometimes known as Mother Seacole or Mary Grant, was a Jamaican born Multiracial British Nurse Agnes Elizabeth Jones (1832 &ndash 1868 of Fahan, County Donegal, Ireland became the first trained Nursing Superintendent of Liverpool Linda Richards was the first professionally trained American Nurse. Linda Richards was the first professionally trained American Nurse. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
New Zealand was the first country to regulate nurses nationally, with adoption of the Nurses Registration Act on the 12th of September , 1901. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Nurses Registration Act was passed on September 12, 1901, providing for the registration of trained nurses. Ellen Dougherty was the first registered nurse. Ellen Dougherty (September 20 1844 to November 3 1919 a New Zealand nurse was the first Registered Nurse in the world A registered nurse (" RN " is a health care professional responsible for implementing the practice of Nursing through the use of the Nursing North Carolina was the first state in the United States to pass a nursing licensure law in 1903. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States
Nurses have experienced difficulty with the hierarchy in medicine that has resulted in an impression that nurses primary purpose is to follow the direction of medics.  This tendency is certainly not observed in Nightingale's Notes on Nursing, where the doctors are mentioned relatively infrequently and often in critical tones, particularly relating to bedside manner. Bedside manner is a term describing how a healthcare professional handles a Patient. 
The modern era has seen the development of nursing degrees and nursing has numerous journals to broaden the knowledge base of the profession. The Bachelor of Science in Nursing ( BSN) is a four year Academic degree in the science and principles of Nursing, granted by a Tertiary education Note Please include TemplateInfobox nursing journal when creating new articles Nurses are often in key management roles within health services and hold research posts at universities.
The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. In almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the profession is regulated at national or state level. Nursing practice is the actual provision of Nursing care. In providing care Nurses are implementing the Nursing care plan which is based on the client's
The aim of the nursing community worldwide is to develop the profession guided by continuing education based on nursing research, and to regulate standards of competency and ethics. Nursing research is the term used to describe the evidence used to support Nursing practice. Nursing ethics is a branch of Applied ethics that concerns itself with activities in the field of Nursing.  There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse, which vary greatly worldwide, but all involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice and training in clinical skills. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support Nursing practice. Nursing is a Profession focused on assisting individuals families, and communities in attaining maintaining and recovering optimal Health
Nursing practice is primarily the caring relationship between the nurse and the person in their care. Nursing practice is the actual provision of Nursing care. In providing care Nurses are implementing the Nursing care plan which is based on the client's In providing nursing care, nurses are implementing the nursing care plan, which is based on a nursing assessment. Patient care is part of a Nurse 's role Nurses use the nursing process to assess plan implement and evaluate patient care A nursing care plan outlines the Nursing care to be provided to a patient Physical Assessment EducationPURPOSE is the gathering of information about a patient's physiological psychological sociological and spiritual status
Although nursing practice varies both through its various specialities and countries, these nursing organisations offer the following definitions:
Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles.
The use of clinical judgement in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintain, or recover health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until death. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The International Council of Nurses ( ICN) is a Federation "
Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses; and advocacy in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Royal College of Nursing ( RCN) is a membership organisation with
In general terms, the nursing process is the method used to assess and diagnose needs, plan and implement interventions, and evaluate the outcomes of the care provided. The American Nurses Association (ANA is a professional organization to advance and protect the profession of Nursing. Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support Nursing practice. The nursing process is a process by which nurses deliver care to patients supported by nursing models or philosophies. The nursing process is a process by which nurses deliver care to patients supported by nursing models or philosophies. Physical Assessment EducationPURPOSE is the gathering of information about a patient's physiological psychological sociological and spiritual status A nursing diagnosis is a standardized statement about the health of a client (who can be an individual a family or a community for the purpose of providing nursing care A nursing care plan outlines the Nursing care to be provided to a patient Like other disciplines, the profession has developed different theories derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals. Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support Nursing practice. The word paradigm ( Greek:παράδειγμα (paradigmacomposite from para- and the verb δείχνυμι "to show" as a whole -roughly- meaning "example" A comprehensive world view (or worldview) is a term Calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( Welt is the German Currently, two paradigms exist in nursing, the totality paradigm and the simultaneity paradigm.
Nurses practice in a wide range of settings, from hospitals to visiting people in their homes and caring for them in schools to research in pharmaceutical companies. A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for Home care, (commonly referred to as domiciliary care) is Health care or supportive care provided in the patient's Home by Healthcare School nursing is a specialized practice of professional Nursing that advances the well being academic success and life-long achievement of Students To that Nurses work in occupational health settings (also called industrial health settings), free-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-run clinics, long-term care facilities and camps. Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the Safety, Health and welfare of people engaged in They also work on cruise ships and in military service. Nurses act as advisers and consultants to the healthcare and insurance industries. Some are attorneys and others work with attorneys as legal nurse consultants, reviewing patient records to assure that adequate care was provided and testifying in court. One specialized area of nursing is legal nurse consulting A Legal Nurse Consultant (LNC is a registered nurse who uses existing expertise as a healthcare professional plus specialized training to Nurses can work on a temporary basis, which involves doing shifts without a contact in a variety of settings, sometimes known as per diem nursing, agency nursing or travel nursing.
The practice of nursing is governed by laws that define a scope of practice, generally mandated by the legislature of the political division within which the nurse practices. Scope of Practice is a terminology used by state licensing boards for various professions that defines the procedures actions and processes that are permitted for the licensed individual Nurses are held legally responsible and accountable for their practice. The standard of care is that of the "prudent nurse. For the English law, see Standard of care in English law. In Tort law, the standard of care is the degree of prudence and caution "
Nursing is the most diverse of all healthcare professions. In the modern world there are a large number of specialities within nursing Nurses practice in a wide range of settings but generally nursing is divided depending on the needs of the person being nursed.
The major divisions are:-
There are also specialist areas such as cardiac nursing, orthopedic nursing, palliative care, perioperative nursing and oncology nursing. A Live-in nurse is a Registered Nurse who is employed to provide care for one patient whilst living in the patient's home Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that works with patients who suffer from various conditions of the cardiovascular system Palliative care (from Latin palliare to cloak is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of Disease Symptoms An oncology nurse is a specialized Nurse who cares for Cancer patients