The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, from 1945 to 1949, at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The first and best known of these trials was the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT), which tried 24 of the most important captured leaders of Nazi Germany. It was held from November 14, 1945, to October 1, 1946. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. The second set of trials of lesser war criminals was conducted under Control Council Law No. 10 at the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT); among them included the Doctors' Trial and the Judges' Trial. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Subsequent Nuremberg Trials (more formally the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals) were a series of twelve U The Doctors' Trial (officially United States of America v Karl Brandt et al The Judges' Trial (or the Justice Trial, or officially The United States of America vs This article primarily deals with the IMT; see the separate article on the NMT for details on those trials.
The press releases on January 2, 2006, from the British War Cabinet in London have shown that as early as December 1944, the Cabinet had discussed their policy for the punishment of the leading Nazis if captured. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A War Cabinet is a committee formed by a government in time of war British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had then advocated a policy of summary execution with the use of an Act of Attainder to circumvent legal obstacles, and was only dissuaded from this by pressure from the U. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 A summary execution is a type of Extrajudicial punishment in which a person is killed on the spot without Trial. A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of Attainder) is an act of Legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of S. later in the war. In late 1943, during the Tripartite Dinner Meeting at the Tehran Conference, the Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin, proposed executing 50,000–100,000 German staff officers. The Tehran Conference ( Codenamed EUREKA) was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Not realizing that Stalin was serious, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt joked that perhaps 49,000 would do. Churchill denounced the idea of "the cold blooded execution of soldiers who fought for their country. " However, he also stated that war criminals must pay for their crimes and that in accordance with the Moscow Document which he himself had written, they should be tried at the places where the crimes were committed. The Moscow Declaration was signed during the Moscow Conference on October 30 1943. Churchill was vigorously opposed to executions "for political purposes. "
U.S. Treasury Secretary, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., suggested a plan for the total denazification of Germany; this was known as the Morgenthau Plan. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until Henry Morgenthau Jr (ˈmɔrgənθɔː May 11, 1891 &ndash February 6, 1967) was Secretary of the Treasury of the United States Denazification (Entnazifizierung was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society culture press economy judiciary and politics of any The Morgenthau Plan was a plan for the occupation of Germany after World War II that advocated measures intended to remove Germany's ability to wage war The plan advocated the forced de-industrialization of Germany, along with forced labour and other draconian measures similar to those that the Nazis themselves had planned for Eastern Europe. Generalplan Ost ( GPO) was a secret Nazi plan of Genocide and Ethnic cleansing to be realised in the territories occupied Both Churchill and Roosevelt supported this plan, and went as far as attempting its authorization at the Second Quebec Conference in September 1944. The Second Quebec Conference (codenamed "OCTAGON" was a high level military conference held during World War II between the British and United States However, the Soviet Union announced its preference for a judicial process. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Later, details were leaked to the public, generating widespread protest. Roosevelt, seeing strong public disapproval, abandoned the plan, but did not proceed to adopt support for another position on the matter. The demise of the Morgenthau Plan created the need for an alternative method of dealing with the Nazi leadership. The plan for the "Trial of European War Criminals" was drafted by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and the War Department. The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington 's administration Henry Lewis Stimson ( September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American Statesman, who served as Secretary of The United States Department of War, sometimes also called the War Office, was the department of the United States government 's executive branch Roosevelt died in April 1945. The new president, Harry S. Truman, gave strong approval for a judicial process.
After a series of negotiations between the U. S. , Britain, the Soviet Union, and France, details of the trial were worked out. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The trials were set to commence on November 20, 1945, in the city of Nuremberg. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs,
At the meetings in Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945) and Potsdam (1945), the three major wartime powers, the United States, Soviet Union and the United Kingdom, agreed on the format of punishment for those responsible for war-crimes during World War II. The Tehran Conference ( Codenamed EUREKA) was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and Codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from 4 February The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, Germany, from July 16, The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including France was also awarded a place on the tribunal. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The legal basis for the trial was established by the London Charter, issued on August 8, 1945, which restricted the trial to "punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis countries". The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter or Nuremberg Charter) was the decree issued on August Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Some 200 German war crimes defendants were tried at Nuremberg, and 1,600 others were tried under the traditional channels of military justice. The legal basis for the jurisdiction of the court was that defined by the Instrument of Surrender of Germany, political authority for Germany had been transferred to the Allied Control Council, which having sovereign power over Germany could choose to punish violations of international law and the laws of war. The German Instrument of Surrender was the Legal instrument by which the High Command of the German Armed Forces surrendered simultaneously to the Supreme The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers (German Because the court was limited to violations of the laws of war, it did not have jurisdiction over crimes that took place before the outbreak of war on September 3, 1939. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The war crimes tribunal tried and punished personnel only from Axis countries. Accusations arose claiming victor's justice, since Allied war crimes could not be tried. The label " victor's justice " (in German,) to a situation in which they believe that a victorious nation is applying different rules to judge what is right It is, however, usual that the armed forces of a civilised country issue their forces with detailed guidance on what is and is not permitted under their military code. These are drafted to include any international treaty obligations and the customary laws of war. For example, at the trial of Otto Skorzeny, his defence was in part based on the Field Manual published by the War Department of the United States Army, on 1 October 1940, and the American Soldiers' Handbook. Otto Skorzeny ( June 12 1908 – July 6 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. If a member of the armed forces breaks their own military code then they can expect to face a court martial. When members of the Allied armed forces broke their military codes, they could be and were tried, as, for example, at the Biscari Massacre trials. The Biscari massacre describes two World War II incidents in which US troops were involved in killing unarmed German and Italian prisoners of war at The unconditional surrender of the Axis powers was unusual and led directly to the formation of the international tribunals. Unconditional surrender is a surrender without conditions except for those provided by International law. Usually, international wars end conditionally and the treatment of suspected war criminals makes up part of the peace treaty. In most cases those who are not prisoners of war are tried under their own judicial system if they are suspected of committing war crimes – as happened to some Finns at the end of the concurrent Finnish-Soviet Continuation War. The Continuation War (Jatkosota Fortsättningskriget Советско-финская война ( 25 June 1941 &ndash 19 September 1944) In restricting the international tribunal to trying suspected Axis war crimes, the Allies were acting within normal international law.
It was also agreed that France would become the permanent seat of the IMT and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg.
Each of the four countries provided one judge and an alternate, as well as the prosecutors. John Johnston Parker ( November 20, 1885 – March 17, 1958) was a U Francis Beverley Biddle ( May 9, 1886 – October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and Judge who was Attorney General Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Fedorovich Volchkov (Russian Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Волчко́в was a Judge during the Nuremberg trials Major-General Iona Timofeevich Nikitchenko (Russian Иона Тимофеевич Никитченко ( 1895 - April 22, 1967) was a Judge Geoffrey Lawrence 3rd Baron Trevethin and 1st Baron Oaksey, DSO, TD, KC ( December 2, 1880 - August 28, 1971 The judges were:
The chief prosecutors were Robert H. Jackson for the United States, Sir Hartley Shawcross for the UK, Lieutenant-General R. A. Rudenko for the Soviet Union, and François de Menthon and Auguste Champetier de Ribes for France. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as The Rt Hon) is an Honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country Sir is an Honorific used as a title (see Knight) and in several other modern contexts Geoffrey Lawrence 3rd Baron Trevethin and 1st Baron Oaksey, DSO, TD, KC ( December 2, 1880 - August 28, 1971 Sir is an Honorific used as a title (see Knight) and in several other modern contexts Francis Beverley Biddle ( May 9, 1886 – October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and Judge who was Attorney General John Johnston Parker ( November 20, 1885 – March 17, 1958) was a U The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Henri Donnedieu de Vabres ( July 8, 1880 - 1952 was a French Jurist who took part to during the Nuremberg trials after World War II Robert Falco was a French Judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries Major-General Iona Timofeevich Nikitchenko (Russian Иона Тимофеевич Никитченко ( 1895 - April 22, 1967) was a Judge Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Fedorovich Volchkov (Russian Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Волчко́в was a Judge during the Nuremberg trials Robert Houghwout Jackson ( February 13, 1892 &ndash October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940&ndash1941 and an The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Sir is an Honorific used as a title (see Knight) and in several other modern contexts Hartley William Shawcross Baron Shawcross, GBE, PC, KC ( 4 February 1902 &ndash 10 July 2003) was a British The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Lieutenant General is a Military rank used in many countries The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the General Roman Andreyevich Rudenko (Рома́н Андре́евич Руде́нко July 30 1907 - January 23 1981 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Assisting Jackson was the lawyer Telford Taylor and a young US Army translator named Richard Sonnenfeldt. Telford Taylor ( February 24, 1908 - May 23, 1998) was a US Lawyer best known for his role in the Counsel for the Prosecution Richard Sonnenfeldt (b 1923 Berlin, Germany) is a Jewish-American Engineer and Corporate executive most notable as one of the primary Assisting Shawcross were Major Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe and Sir John Wheeler-Bennett. Major is a Military rank the use of which varies according to country David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe 1st Earl of Kilmuir GCVO, PC, KC, (29 May 1900 &ndash 27 January 1967 was a British Conservative Party Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett, GCVO, CMG, OBE, FBA, FRSL was a conservative English Historian Mervyn Griffith-Jones, later to become famous as the chief prosecutor in the Lady Chatterley's Lover obscenity trial, was also on the Shawcross's team. John Mervyn Guthrie Griffith-Jones, CBE MC QC ( 1 July 1909 - 13 July 1979) was a British Judge Lady Chatterley's Lover is a Novel by D H Lawrence written in 1928 Shawcross also recruited a young barrister, Anthony Marreco, who was the son of a friend of his, to help the British team with the heavy workload. Anthony (Tony Freire Marreco ( 9 August 1915 &ndash 4 June 2006) was a British Barrister. Robert Falco was an experienced judge who had tried many in court in France.
The International Military Tribunal was opened on October 18, 1945, in the Supreme Court Building in Berlin. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The first session was presided over by the Soviet judge, Nikitchenko. The prosecution entered indictments against 24 major war criminals and six criminal organizations - the leadership of the Nazi party, the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Sicherheitsdienst (SD), the Gestapo, the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the High Command of the German armed forces (OKW). "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the The Sicherheitsdienst (SD Security Service was primarily the Intelligence service of the SS and the NSDAP. The ( contraction of ge heime Sta ats' po' lizei: "Secret State Police" was the official Secret police of Nazi Germany The, abbreviated SA, ( German for "Assault detachment" or "Assault section" usually translated as " stormtroop(ers For other uses of OKW see OKW (disambiguation. The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht ( OKW) ( English: "High Command
The indictments were for:
The 24 accused were:
"I" indicted "G" indicted and found guilty "O" Not Charged
|I||O||G||G||Death||Successor to Hess as Nazi Party Secretary. In the Criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between Natural persons to break the law at some time in the future and in some cases with at least one overt act A crime against peace, in International law, refers to "planning preparation initiation or waging of wars of aggression, or a war in violation of international A war of aggression is a Military conflict waged in the absence of "a necessity of self-defense instant overwhelming leaving no choice of means and no moment of deliberation War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of In the Common law legal system an indictment (ɪnˈdaɪtmənt (in-DITE-mint is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense Martin Ludwig Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945 Sentenced to death in absentia, remains found in 1972. |
|I||G||G||O||10 years||Leader of the Kriegsmarine from 1943, succeeded Raeder. Karl Dönitz (ˈdøːnɪts) (16 September 1891 &ndash 24 December 1980 was a German naval Commander who served Initiator of the U-boat campaign. U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word, itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot ( undersea boat) and refers Became President of Germany following Hitler's death. The President of Germany (deutscher Bundespräsident is Germany 's Head of state.  In evidence presented at the trial of Karl Dönitz on his orders to the U-boat fleet to breach the London Rules, Admiral Chester Nimitz stated that unrestricted submarine warfare was carried on in the Pacific Ocean by the United States from the first day that nation entered the war. Karl Dönitz (ˈdøːnɪts) (16 September 1891 &ndash 24 December 1980 was a German naval Commander who served U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word, itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot ( undersea boat) and refers The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, the Empire of Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed Fleet Admiral Chester William Nimitz, USN, GCB ( February 24, 1885 &ndash February 20, 1966) held the dual command Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of Naval warfare in which Submarines sink merchant ships without warning as opposed to attacks per prize regulations The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Dönitz was found guilty of breaching the 1936 Second London Naval Treaty, but his sentence was not assessed on the ground of his breaches of the international law of submarine warfare. The Second London Naval Disarmament Conference opened in London, the United Kingdom, on December 9, 1935. |
|I||O||G||G||Death||Reich Law Leader 1933-1945 and Governor-General of the General Government in occupied Poland 1939-1945. Hans Michael Frank ( May 23 1900 &ndash October 16 1946) was a German Lawyer who worked for the Nazi party The General Government (Generalgouvernement refers to a part of the territories of Poland (and Ostrava Czechoslovakia under German Military occupation Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Expressed repentance. |
|I||G||G||G||Death||Hitler's Minister of the Interior 1933-1943 and Reich Protector of Bohemia-Moravia 1943-1945. Dr Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 16 October 1946 was a prominent Nazi official serving as Minister of the Interior of the Third Reich. Authored the Nuremberg Race Laws. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. |
|I||I||I||O||Acquitted||Popular radio commentator, and head of the news division of the Nazi Propaganda Ministry. Hans George Fritzsche ( April 21, 1900 - September 27, 1953) was a senior Nazi official ending the war as Ministerialdirektor Tried in place of Joseph Goebbels. Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public |
|I||G||G||G||Life Imprisonment||Hitler's Minister of Economics. Walther Emanuel Funk (18 August 1890 - 31 May 1960 was a prominent Nazi official Succeeded Schacht as head of the Reichsbank. For a detailed discussion of the English translation of Reich, see Reich. Released due to ill health on May 16, 1957. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) |
|G||G||G||G||Death||Reichsmarschall, Commander of the Luftwaffe 1935-1945, Chief of the 4-Year Plan 1936-1945, and several departments of the SS. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member Reichsmarschall (Marshal of the Empire or Imperial Marshal in English) was the highest rank in the Armed forces of Nazi Germany during ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Committed suicide the night before his execution. |
|G||G||I||I||Life Imprisonment||Hitler's deputy, flew to Scotland in 1941 in attempt to broker peace with Great Britain. Rudolf Walter Richard Hess ( Heß in German) (26 April 1894 &ndash 17 August 1987 was a prominent figure in Nazi Germany, acting as Adolf Hitler After trial, committed to Spandau Prison; died in 1987. |
|G||G||G||G||Death||Wehrmacht Generaloberst, Keitel's subordinate and Chief of the O. Alfred Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946 was a German military commander attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 Colonel General is a senior Military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries K. W. 's Operations Division 1938-1945. Subsequently exonerated by German court in 1953, though the exoneration was later overturned, largely as a result of pressure by American officials. |
|I||O||G||G||Death||Highest surviving SS-leader. Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 1903 &ndash 16 October 1946 was a senior Nazi official during World War II. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Chief of RSHA 1943-45, the central Nazi intelligence organ. The RSHA, or Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Head Office was a subordinate organization of the SS. Also commanded many of the Einsatzgruppen and several concentration camps. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial |
|G||G||G||G||Death||Head of Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1938-1945. Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (22 September 1882–16 October 1946 was a German Field marshal ( Generalfeldmarschall) |
|I||I||I||----||Major Nazi industrialist. Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, "Taffi" ( August 7, 1870 - January 16, 1950) ran the German Friedrich Krupp AG C. E. O of Krupp A. G 1912-45. Medically unfit for trial. The prosecutors attempted to substitute his son Alfried (who ran Krupp for his father during most of the war) in the indictment, but the judges rejected this as being too close to trial. Alfried was tried in a separate Nuremberg trial for his use of slave labor, thus escaping the worst notoriety and possibly death.|
|I||I||I||I||----||Head of DAF, The German Labour Front. Dr Robert Ley (laɪ ( 15 February 1890 – 25 October 1945) was a Nazi German politician and head of the German Labour The German Labour Front ( German: Deutsche Arbeitsfront, DAF was the amalgamated National Socialist ( Nazi) Trade union organisation Suicide on October 25, 1945, before the trial began|
Baron Konstantin von Neurath
|G||G||G||G||15 years||Minister of Foreign Affairs 1932-1938, succeeded by Ribbentrop. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (2 February 1873 – 14 August 1956 was a German diplomat, Foreign Minister of Germany (1932-1938 and Reichsprotektor Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946 was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945 Later, Protector of Bohemia and Moravia 1939-43. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. Resigned in 1943 due to dispute with Hitler. Released (ill health) November 6, 1954. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) |
|I||I||O||O||Acquitted||Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and Vice-Chancellor under Hitler in 1933-1934. (29 October 1879 2 May 1969 was a German nobleman Catholic monarchist Politician, General Staff officer and Diplomat Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen Ambassador to Austria 1934-38 and ambassador to Turkey 1939-1944. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Although acquitted at Nuremberg, von Papen was reclassified as a war criminal in 1947 by a German de-Nazification court, and sentenced to eight years' hard labour. He was acquitted following appeal after serving two years. |
|G||G||G||O||Life Imprisonment||Commander In Chief of the Kriegsmarine from 1928 until his retirement in 1943, succeeded by Dönitz. Erich Johann Albert Raeder ( April 24, 1876 – November 6, 1960) was a naval leader in Germany before and during Released (ill health) September 26, 1955. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) |
|G||G||G||G||Death||Ambassador-Plenipotentiary 1935-1936. Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946 was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945 Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1936-1938. Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs 1938-1945,|
|G||G||G||G||Death||Racial theory ideologist. (12 January 1893 16 October 1946 was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. The master race ( German: die Herrenrasse) is a concept in Nazi Ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic Later, Minister of the Eastern Occupied Territories 1941-1945. |
|I||I||G||G||Death||Gauleiter of Thuringia 1927-1945. Ernst Friedrich Christoph "Fritz" Sauckel ( October 27, 1894 – October 16, 1946) was a Nazi War criminal, who organized Plenipotentiary of the Nazi slave labor program 1942-1945. |
Dr. Hjalmar Schacht
|I||I||O||O||Acquitted||Prominent banker and economist. Dr Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970 was the Currency Commissioner and President of the Reichsbank under the Weimar Republic, and President Pre-war president of the Reichsbank 1923-1930 & 1933-1938 and Economics Minister 1934-1937. Admitted to violating the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. |
|I||O||O||G||20 years||Head of the Hitlerjugend from 1933 to 1940, Gauleiter of Vienna 1940-1943. Baldur Benedikt von Schirach ( May 9, 1907 &ndash August 8, 1974) was a Nazi youth leader later convicted of being a War criminal For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth ( German:, Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Expressed repentance. |
|I||G||G||G||Death||Instrumental in the Anschluss and briefly Austrian Chancellor 1938. Arthur Seyss-Inquart (in German Seyß-Inquart, born Arthur Zajtich (22 July 1892 - 16 October 1946 was a prominent lawyer and later Nazi official in pre- The ( German: "link-up" also known as the, was the 1938 Annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi Deputy to Frank in Poland 1939-1940. Later, Reich Commissioner of the occupied Netherlands 1940-1945. Expressed repentance. |
|I||I||G||G||20 Years||Hitler's favorite architect and close friend, and Minister of Armaments from 1942. Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( 19 March 1905 - 1 September 1981 was an Architect, author and for part of World In this capacity, he was ultimately responsible for the use of slave labourers from the occupied territories in armaments production. Expressed repentance. |
|I||O||O||G||Death||Gauleiter of Franconia 1922-1945. Julius Streicher ( February 12, 1885 &ndash October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to World War II. Incited hatred and murder against the Jews through his weekly newspaper, Der Stürmer. Der Stürmer (literally "The Stormer" more accurately "The Attacker" was a weekly Nazi Newspaper published by Julius Streicher |
"I" indicted "G" indicted and found guilty "O" Not Charged
Throughout the trials, specifically between January and July 1946, the defendants and a number of witnesses were interviewed by American psychiatrist Leon Goldensohn. In the Common law legal system an indictment (ɪnˈdaɪtmənt (in-DITE-mint is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense Leon N Goldensohn ( October 19, 1911 &ndash October 24, 1961) was an American Psychiatrist charged with caring for the mental health His notes detailing the demeanour and personality of the defendants survive.
The death sentences were carried out Oct 16th 1946 by hanging using the standard drop method instead of long drop. Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death  The executioner was John C. Woods. John Chris Woods (born 1903 San Antonio Texas - died September 17, 1950 at Eniwetok, Marshall Islands) was an American Master The French judges suggested the use of a firing squad for the military condemned, as is standard for military courts-martial, but this was opposed by Biddle and the Soviet judges. These argued that the military officers had violated their military ethos and were not worthy of the firing squad, which was considered to be more dignified. The prisoners sentenced to incarceration were transferred to Spandau Prison in 1947. Spandau Prison was a Prison situated in the borough of Spandau in western Berlin, constructed in 1876 and demolished in
Of the twelve defendants sentenced to death by hanging, two were not hanged: Hermann Göring committed suicide the night before the execution and Martin Bormann was not present when convicted. The remaining ten defendants sentenced to death were hanged.
The definition of what constitutes a war crime is described by the Nuremberg Principles, a document which was created as a result of the trial. The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitutes a War crime. The medical experiments conducted by German doctors and prosecuted in the so-called Doctors' Trial led to the creation of the Nuremberg Code to control future trials involving human subjects. The Doctors' Trial (officially United States of America v Karl Brandt et al The Nuremberg Code is a set of Research ethics principles for Human experimentation set as a result of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials at the end of the
Of the organizations the following were found not to be criminal:
The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law. The Dachau Trials were proceedings against minor war criminals found in the United States sectors of occupation in Germany and Austria and those accused of committing war crimes against The Romanian People's Tribunals ( Romanian: Tribunalele Poporului) the Bucharest People's Tribunal and the Northern Transylvania People's Tribunal The war-responsibility trials in Finland (Sotasyyllisyysoikeudenkäynti was a trial of the Finnish wartime leaders held responsible for "definitely influencing Finland The Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess (the "second Auschwitz trial" was a International criminal law is an autonomous branch of Law which deals with International crimes and the courts and tribunals set up to adjudicate cases in which persons The International Law Commission, acting on the request of the United Nations General Assembly, produced in 1950 the report Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nürnberg Tribunal and in the Judgement of the Tribunal (Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1950, vol. The International Law Commission was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 for the "promotion of the progressive development of international law and Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members II). The influence of the tribunal can also be seen in the proposals for a permanent international criminal court, and the drafting of international criminal codes, later prepared by the International Law Commission.
Part of the defence was that some treaties were not binding on the Axis powers because they were not signatories. This was addressed in the judgment relating to war crimes and crimes against humanity contains an expansion of customary law "the Convention Hague 1907 expressly stated that it was an attempt 'to revise the general laws and customs of war,' which it thus recognised to be then existing, but by 1939 these rules laid down in the Convention were recognised by all civilised nations, and were regarded as being declaratory of the laws and customs of war which are referred to in Article 6 (b) of the [London] Charter. The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and " The implication under international law is that if enough countries have signed up to a treaty, and that treaty has been in effect for a reasonable period of time, then it can be interpreted as binding on all nations not just those who signed the original treaty. This is a highly controversial aspect of international law, one that is still actively debated in international legal journals.
The Nuremberg trials initiated a movement for the prompt establishment of a permanent international criminal court, eventually leading over fifty years later to the adoption of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against
US Supreme Court Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone called the Nuremberg trials a fraud. Harlan Fiske Stone ( October 11 1872 – April 22 1946) was an American Lawyer and jurist. "Chief US prosecutor Jackson is away conducting his high-grade lynching party in Nuremberg," he wrote. "I don't mind what he does to the Nazis, but I hate to see the pretense that he is running a court and proceeding according to common law. This is a little too sanctimonious a fraud to meet my old-fashioned ideas. "
Associate Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas charged that the Allies were guilty of "substituting power for principle" at Nuremberg. William Orville Douglas ( October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. "I thought at the time and still think that the Nuremberg trials were unprincipled," he wrote. "Law was created ex post facto to suit the passion and clamor of the time. "
The validity of the court has been questioned for a variety of reasons:
However, as described above, the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers was unusual and led directly to the formation of the international tribunals. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after Unconditional surrender is a surrender without conditions except for those provided by International law. In most cases those who are not prisoners of war are tried under their own judicial system if they are suspected of committing war crimes; in restricting the international tribunal to trying suspected Axis war crimes, the Allies were acting within normal international law.
Many commentators, however, felt the Nuremberg Trials represented a step forward in extending fairness to the vanquished by requiring that actual criminal misdeeds be proved before punishment could ensue; including some of the defendants and their legal team: