The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Northwest Ordinance, passed by the Congress of the Confederation on July 13, 1787, provided for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission as a state. The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was the governing body of the United States of America from March 1, Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On August 7, 1789, the new U.S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. The territory included all the land of the United States west of Pennsylvania and northwest of the Ohio River. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers The area covered more than 260,000 square miles (673,000 km²).
European exploration of the region began with French Canadian voyageurs in the seventeenth century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page French Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded entry into the region in 1634, landing at the site of Green Bay, Wisconsin, today (although Étienne Brûlé is stated by some sources as having explored Lake Superior and possibly inland Wisconsin in 1622). Jean Nicolet (Nicollet de Belleborne (1598 - November 1, 1642) was a French Coureur de bois noted for exploring Green Bay in early Étienne Brûlé ( c 1592 ( Champigny-sur-Marne, France) &ndash c The French exercised control from widely separated posts throughout the region they claimed as New France. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the French and Indian Wars. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied
However, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains until treaties had been negotiated with the Native Americans. Pontiac's Rebellion was a war launched in 1763 by North American Indians who were dissatisfied with British policies in the Great Lakes region after Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain 's acquisition of French territory The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. But this action angered American colonists interested in expansion and was a contributing factor to the American Revolution. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots"
Britain ceded the area north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachians to the United States at the end of the American Revolutionary War with the Treaty of Paris (1783), but the British continued to maintain a presence in the region as late as 1815, the end of the War of 1812. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally
Several states (Virginia, Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut) then had competing claims on the territory. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Other states, such as Maryland, refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation so long as these states were allowed to keep their western territory, fearing that those states could continue to grow and tip the balance of power in their favor under the proposed system of federal government. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, also the Articles of Confederation was the governing Constitution of the alliance of thirteen independent and As a concession in order to obtain ratification, these states ceded their claims on the territory to the U. S. government: New York in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts and Connecticut in 1785. So the majority of the territory became public land owned by the U. S. government. Virginia and Connecticut reserved the land of two areas to use as compensation to military veterans: The Virginia Military District and the Connecticut Western Reserve. The Virginia Military District was an approximately 42 million acre (17000 km² area of land in what is now the state of Ohio that was reserved by Virginia In this way, the United States included territory and people outside any of the states.
The Land Ordinance of 1785 established a standardized system for surveying the land into saleable lots, although Ohio had already been partially surveyed several times using different methods, resulting in a patchwork of land surveys in Ohio. The Land Ordinance of 1785 was adopted by the United States Congress on May 20, 1785. Some older French communities' property claims based on earlier systems of long, narrow lots also were retained. The rest of the Northwest Territory was divided into roughly uniform square townships and sections, which facilitated land sales and development.
Difficulties with Native American tribes and with British trading outposts presented continuing obstacles for American expansion until military campaigns of General "Mad" Anthony Wayne against the Native Americans culminated with victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and the Treaty of Greenville of 1795. Anthony Wayne (January 1 1745–December 15 1796 was a United States Army general and statesman The Battle of Fallen Timbers ( August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between American Indians and The Treaty of Greenville was signed at Fort Greenville (now Greenville Ohio) on August 3, 1795, between a coalition of Native Americans Jay's Treaty, in 1794, temporarily helped to smooth relations with British traders in the region, where British citizens outnumbered American citizens throughout the 1780s. The Jay Treaty, also known as the Treaty of London of 1794, between the United States and Great Britain averted war solved many issues left over from Ongoing disputes with the British over the region was a contributing factor to the War of 1812. Britain irrevocably ceded claim to the Northwest Territory with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. The Treaty of Ghent ( signed on December 24 1814, in Ghent, currently in Belgium, was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812
When the territory was created, it was inhabited by about 45,000 Native Americans and 4,000 traders, mostly French and British – although both groups included the Metis, a sizeable group descended from Native women married to European or Canadian traders who established a unique culture that ruled the Upper Midwest for more than a century before American settlement officially began at Marietta, Ohio, on April 7, 1788, with the arrival of forty-eight pioneers. Marietta is a city in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Washington County. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap American Pioneers to the Northwest Territory included soldiers of the Revolution and members of the Ohio Company of Associates. The first governor of the Northwest Territory, Arthur St. Clair, formally established the government on July 15, 1788, at Marietta. Arthur St Clair (March 23 1736 August 31 1818 was the ninth President of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation, a general in the Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap His original plan called for the organization of five initial counties: Washington (Ohio east of the Scioto River), Hamilton (Ohio between the Scioto and the Miami Rivers), Knox (Indiana and eastern Illinois), St. Clair (Illinois and Wisconsin), and Wayne (Michigan). Washington County is a County located in the state of Ohio. As of the 2000 census, the population was 63251 The Scioto River (saɪˈoʊtoʊ sigh-OH-toe or /saɪˈoʊtə/ sigh-OH-tuh) is a river in central and southern Ohio more than 231 miles (372 km in Hamilton County is a County located in the southwest corner of the state of Ohio, United States. The Great Miami River (also called the Miami River) is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately Knox County is a County located in Indiana in the United States. St Clair County is a County located in the US state of Illinois, and determined by the U Wayne County is a county in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the population was 2061162 with an estimated population of
On July 4, 1800, in preparation for Ohio's statehood, the Indiana Territory was carved out, encompassing all land west of the present Indiana-Ohio border and its northward extension to Lake Superior, reducing the Northwest Territory to present day Ohio and the eastern half of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. Indiana Territory was an Organized territory of the United States from 1800 to 1816 created by Act of Congress and signed into law by President Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. The Lower Peninsula of Michigan is surrounded by water on all sides except its southern border which it shares with Ohio and Indiana. Ohio was admitted as a state on March 1, 1803, at the same time the remaining land was annexed to Indiana Territory, and the Northwest Territory went out of existence. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
At first, the territory had a modified form of martial law. The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Types of administrative and/or political territories include Many types of legally administered territories, each of which is a non-sovereign geographic area Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice The governor was also the senior army officer within the territory, and he combined legislative and executive authority. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. But a supreme court was established, and he shared legislative powers with the court. A supreme court, also called a court of last resort or high court, is in some Jurisdictions the highest judicial body within that jurisdiction's A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its County governments were organized as soon as the population was sufficient, and these assumed local administrative and judicial functions. A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State Washington County was the first of these, at Marietta in 1788. This was an important event, as this court was the first establishment of civil and criminal law in the pioneer country.
As soon as the number of free male settlers exceeded 5,000, the Territorial Legislature was to be created, and this happened in 1798. A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there often to colonize the area The full mechanisms of government were put in place, as outlined in the Northwest Ordinance. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom A bicameral legislature consisted of a House of Representatives and a Council. In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the legislative body of any of the country's 50 states. The first House had 22 representatives, two elected by each county. A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws especially someone who is a member of a Legislature. The House then nominated 10 citizens to be Council members. The nominations were sent to the U. S. Congress, which appointed five of them as the Council. This assembly became the legislature of the Territory, although the governor retained veto power. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation.
Article VI of the Articles of Compact within the Northwest Ordinance prohibited the owning of slaves within the Northwest Territory. Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth However, territorial governments evaded this law by use of indenture laws. The Articles of Compact prohibited legal discrimination on the basis of religion within the territory.
The township formula created by Thomas Jefferson was first implemented in the Northwest Territory through the Land Ordinance of 1785. A township in the United States refers to a small geographic area Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence The Land Ordinance of 1785 was adopted by the United States Congress on May 20, 1785. The square surveys of the Northwest Territory would become a hallmark of the Midwest, as sections, townships, counties (and states) were laid out scientifically, and land was sold quickly and efficiently (although not without some speculative aberrations). In US land surveying, a section is an area nominally one Mile square containing 640 Acres (2
Arthur St. Clair was the territory's only governor. The original supreme court was made up of John Cleves Symmes, James Mitchell Varnum, and Samuel Holden Parsons. John Cleves Symmes (July 21st 1742&ndashFebruary 26 1814 was a delegate to the Continental Congress from New Jersey, and later a pioneer in the Northwest James Mitchell Varnum ( December 17, 1748 &ndash January 9, 1789) was an American lawyer and a general in the Continental Samuel Holden Parsons ( May 14 1737 &ndash November 17 1789) was an American lawyer jurist and military leader There were three secretaries: Winthrop Sargent (July 9, 1788–May 31, 1798); William Henry Harrison (June 29, 1798–December 31, 1799); and Charles Willing Byrd (January 1, 1800–January 15, 1803). Winthrop Sargent ( May 1 1753 &ndash June 3 1820) was a United States soldier Politician, and writer Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a This article is about the general and president For his great-great-grandson see William H Events 512 - A Solar eclipse is recorded by a monastic chronicler in Ireland. Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
The General Assembly of the Northwest Territory consisted of a Legislative Council (five members chosen by Congress) and a House of Representatives consisting of 22 members elected by the male freeholders in nine counties. The first session of the Assembly was held in September 1799. Its first important task was to select a non-voting delegate to the U.S. Congress. In 1798 the Northwest Territory became eligible to send a non-voting delegate to the U Locked in a power struggle with Governor St. Clair, the legislature narrowly elected William Henry Harrison as the first delegate over the governor's son, Arthur St. This article is about the general and president For his great-great-grandson see William H Clair, Jr. Subsequent congressional delegates were William McMillan (1800–1801) and Paul Fearing (1801–1803). William McMillan ( March 2, 1764 &ndash May 1804 was a Delegate to the United States Congress from the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio Paul Fearing ( February 28, 1762 &ndash August 21, 1822) was Delegate from the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio
The territory's first common pleas court opened at Marietta on 2 September 1788. In United States Jurisprudence, Court of Common Pleas is a Court of certain jurisdiction Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap Its first judges were General Rufus Putnam, General Benjamin Tupper, and Colonel Archibald Crary. Rufus Putnam ( April 9, 1738 &ndash 1824 was a colonial military officer during the French and Indian War, and a general in the Continental Army Benjamin Tupper (1738–1792 was a soldier in the French and Indian War, and an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War Paul Fearing became the first attorney to practice in the territory, and Colonel William Stacy was foreman of the first grand jury. William Stacy (February 15 1734 – August 1802 was an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and a pioneer to the Ohio 
Winthrop Sargent married Roewena Tupper, daughter of Gen. Winthrop Sargent ( May 1 1753 &ndash June 3 1820) was a United States soldier Politician, and writer Benjamin Tupper, on 6 February 1789 at Marietta in the first marriage ceremony held within the Northwest Territory. Benjamin Tupper (1738–1792 was a soldier in the French and Indian War, and an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War 
13 counties were formed by territorial governor Arthur St. Clair during the territory's existence:
St. Clair and Knox Counties separated from the territory effective July 4, 1800 upon the formation of Indiana Territory. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. Indiana Territory was an Organized territory of the United States from 1800 to 1816 created by Act of Congress and signed into law by President
The Northwest Territory ceased to exist upon Ohio statehood on March 1, 1803; Ohio lands previously part of Wayne County briefly reverted to an unorganized status until the state formed new counties from that land later that year. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a