Northern Nigeria is a geographical region of Nigeria. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal It is more arid and has less population density than the south. The people are largely Muslim, and many are Hausa. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. Much of the north was once politically united in the Northern Region, a federal division disbanded in 1967. The Northern Region was one of Nigeria 's federal divisions It was created before independence in 1960, with its capital at Kaduna.
The Hausa States or Hausa Kingdoms were a collection of independent city-states situated in what became Northern Nigeria. The Hausa Kingdoms were a collection of independent city-states situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad. Despite relatively constant growth, the city-states were vulnerable to aggression and, although the vast majority of its inhabitants were Muslim by the 16th century, they were attacked by Muslim jihadists from 1804 to 1808. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion A Mujahid (Arabic ar مجاهد, literally "struggler" is a Muslim involved in a Jihad, id est fighting in a war or In 1808 the last Hausa state was finally conquered by Usuman dan Fodio and incorporated into the Sokoto Caliphate. Shaihu Usman dan Fodio (عثمان بن فودي ، عثمان دان فوديو (also referred to as Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye or Shehu Usman dan Fodio The Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto, Sa’adu Abubakar.
Between 500 CE and 700 CE Hausa people, who had been slowly moving west from Nubia and mixing in with the local Northern and Central Nigerian population, established a number of strong states in what is now Northern and Central Nigeria and Eastern Niger. With the decline of the Nok and Sokoto, who had previously controlled Central and Northern Nigeria between 800 BCE and 200 CE, the Hausa were able to emerge as the new power in the region. Closely linked with the Kanuri people of Kanem-Bornu (Lake Chad), the Hausa aristocracy adopted Islam in the 11th century CE. By the 12th century CE the Hausa were becoming one of Africa's major powers. The architecture of the Hausa is perhaps one of the least known but most beautiful of the medieval age. Many of their early mosques and palaces are bright and colourful and often include intricate engraving or elaborate symbols designed into the facade. By 1500 CE the Hausa utilized a modified Arabic script known as ajami to record their own language; the Hausa compiled several written histories, the most popular being the Kano Chronicle.
The Hausa Kingdoms emerged in the 13th century as vibrant trading centers competing with Kanem-Bornu and Mali. The Kanem Empire (700 - 1376 was located in the present countries of Chad and Libya. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. The primary exports were leather, gold, cloth, salt, kola nuts, animal hides, and henna. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Kola nut ( Cola) is a genus of about 125 species of Trees native to the tropical Rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Henna or Hina ( Lawsonia inermis, syn L alba) is a Flowering plant, the sole species in the genus Lawsonia Except for minor alliances, the Hausa city-states functioned independently. Rivalries generally inhibited the formation of one centralized authority.
There were fourteen Hausa Kingdoms: The "Hausa Seven" and the "Bastard Seven"
The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states with a shared mythology with its founders being the sons of a Queen. They are known as the Hausa Bakwai meaning Hausa Seven. The states included:
The growth and conquest of the Hausa Bakwai resulted in the founding of additional states with rulers tracing their lineage to a concubine of the Hausa founding father, Bayajidda. Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Bayajidda ( Hausa: Bàyā̀jiddà also known as Abuyazidu) is a character from the mythology of the Hausa people of northern Nigeria and the Thus they are called the 'Banza Bakwai meaning Bastard Seven. The Banza Bakwai adopted many of the customs and institutions of the Hausa Bakwai but were considered unsanctioned or copy-cat kingdoms by non-Hausa people. These states include:
Usuman dan Fodio led a jihad against the Hausa States and finally united them into the Muslim Fulani Empire. Local Government Areas Zamfara State is comprised of 14 Local Government Areas. Subdivisions Kebbi State is divided into 21 Local Government Areas (LGAs four Emirate councils ( Gwandu, Argungu, Yauri and Yauri is an Emirate in Nigeria 's Kebbi State. Today Yauri is one of the smallest historical emirates in Northern Nigeria The Gwari or Gbagyi are an ethnic group in central Nigeria. They are predominantly found in the Niger and Kaduna States and the Federal The Nupe, tradititionally called the Tapa by the neighbouring Yoruba, are an Ethnic group located primarily in the Middle belt and northern Shaihu Usman dan Fodio (عثمان بن فودي ، عثمان دان فوديو (also referred to as Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye or Shehu Usman dan Fodio The Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto, Sa’adu Abubakar. The Fulani Empire was under the overall authority of the Commander of the Faithful, all of whom after Usman dan Fodio also used the title Sultan of Sokoto. The Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto, Sa’adu Abubakar. Amir al-Mu'minin ( Arabic أمير المؤمنين Latinized as Miramolinus hence Italian Miramolino usually translated Commander of the Faithful "Sokoto Caliph" was the ruler of the Sokoto Caliphate. Under him the Empire was bicephalous and divided into two territories each controlled by an appointed vizier. A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian Each of the territories was further divided into autonomous Emirates under mainly hereditary local Emirs. An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arab Monarch styled Emir. Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) The Bornu Empire was initially absorbed into the Fulani Empire of Usman dan Fodio, but broke away after a few years claiming increasing corruption of the Fulani Empire. The Bornu Empire (1396-1893 was a medieval African state of Niger from 1389 to 1893 The Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto, Sa’adu Abubakar. The Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto, Sa’adu Abubakar.
Initially the British involvement in Northern Nigeria was predominantly trade-related, and revolved around the expansion of the Royal Niger Company, whose interior territories spread north from about where the Niger River and Benin River joined at Lokoja. The Royal Niger Company was a mercantile company chartered by the British government in the nineteenth century The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles Lokoja is the capital city of Kogi State, in central Nigeria, and is a port on Niger River. The Royal Niger Company's territory did not represent a direct threat to the powerful Fulani empire.
Northern Nigeria was a British colony formed in 1900. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar The basis of the colony was the 1885 Treaty of Berlin which broadly granted Northern Nigeria to Britain, on the basis of their protectorates in Southern Nigeria. See also Congress of Berlin (1878 and Berlin Conference of 1954 (Cold War There was, however considerable uncertainty about the borders which Britain could assert and the trade rights other Europeans might have, and as a result British involvement in Northern Nigeria was initially considered a political priority in Africa due to the threat of German and French rivals. There was particular uncertainty over the border with French colonies in the North West.
Britain's chosen Governor, Frederick Lugard, with limited resources, slowly negotiated with ,and sometimes coerced, the emirates of the north into accepting British rule, finding that the only way this could be achieved was with the consent of local rulers through a policy of indirect rule which he developed from a necessary improvisation into a sophisticated political theory. Frederick John Dealtry Lugard 1st Baron Lugard, GCMG, CB, DSO, PC (22 January 1858 &ndash 11 April 1945 Indirect rule is a type of European colonial Policy in which the traditional local power structure or at least part of it is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure Lugard left the protectorate after some years, serving in Hong Kong, but was eventually returned to work in Nigeria where he decided on the merger of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate with Southern Nigeria in 1914. Southern Nigeria was a British Protectorate in the coastal areas of modern-day Nigeria, formed in 1900 from union of the Niger Coast Protectorate Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The unification was done for economic reasons rather than political — Northern Nigeria had a budget deficit. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Frederick Lugard sought to use the budget surpluses in Southern Nigeria to offset this deficit , and also believed that administration of the whole area would be easier if united, especially since northern Nigeria had no access to the sea. Frederick John Dealtry Lugard 1st Baron Lugard, GCMG, CB, DSO, PC (22 January 1858 &ndash 11 April 1945 Southern Nigeria was a British Protectorate in the coastal areas of modern-day Nigeria, formed in 1900 from union of the Niger Coast Protectorate At the time, neither Lugard nor other British administrators, nor Africans, considered Nigeria to constitute a potential national unit- in fact the north and south were considered culturally radically different- and the merger was an economic and administrative convenience. Under an umbrella administration for all Nigeria, the north and south continued to have their own separate administrations, and each had its own Lieutenant-Governor answering to Lugard and his successors. A Lieutenant Governor is a high officer of state whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction However, nationalism developing in Nigeria soon took the whole of Nigeria as a natural future national unit.
Postage stamps were issued specifically for Northern Nigeria beginning in March 1890. A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services All stamps issued were the of Key Plate design, differing in the sovereign depicted, watermarks, and choice of colored or colorless numerals for the denomination. A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in Paper that shows in various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected
Unusually, a 25-pound stamp was issued in 1904. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on This was really intended as a revenue stamp, it being nearly impossible to invent a piece of mail needing so much postage. A revenue stamp, tax stamp or fiscal stamp is a type of Adhesive label used to collect Taxes or fees on various items It was used to pay for liquor licences. It is the great rarity of the colony, unused copies commanding a price of around US$45,000.
The following states comprise Northern Nigeria: