Northern England, The North or North of England refers to the perceived North-South divide in England, according to which the North is considered a region with an identity separate from that of the South of England. In Great Britain the term North-South divide refers to the Economic and Cultural differences between southern England the South East, The special cultural, political and economic characteristics of "the North" are not universally agreed upon, nor are its geographical limits.
Common definitions hold the North to be that region dominated by 'Northern' regional accents (although which accents are Northern and which are simply not Southern could be a source of contention); the former areas of heavy industry and their adjacent countryside in Lancashire, the north-east, Yorkshire and the north Midlands; the region indicated by road signs labelled 'The North'; the region which historically was governed by the medieval Council of the North or which falls into the ecclesiastical Province of York; or that part of England where relatively low wages, house prices and human development indicators prevail. English language in England refers to the English language as spoken in England, part of the United Kingdom. The Council of the North was an administrative body originally set up in 1485 by king Richard III of England, the last Yorkist monarch to hold the Crown of England The Province of York is one of two Ecclesiastical provinces making up the Church of England and consists of 14 Dioceses which cover the northern third of
In geographic definitions, the north of England is the mountainous area surrounding the Pennines, a mountain range often referred to as "the backbone of England". England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Pennines are a low-rising Mountain range in Northern England and southern Scotland. This region stretches from the Cheviot Hills on the border with Scotland, to the Peak District, and extends to the coast on either side. The Cheviot Hills are a range of rolling hills straddling the England / Scotland border between Northumberland and the Scottish Borders. Although the land in the north is generally higher than in the south of England, the Pennines are relatively small for mountains and are hence sometimes referred to as 'hills' rather than 'mountains'.
In some of the larger definitions, the north may be considered to constitute the three Government Office Regions of North East England, North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber. The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one North-East England is one of the nine official Regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear North West England is one of the nine official Regions of England. Yorkshire and the Humber is one of the nine government office Regions of England. This area consists of the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, County Durham, East Riding of Yorkshire, Greater Manchester, Lancashire, Merseyside, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear, West Yorkshire and part of Lincolnshire
In some of the larger definitions, the north may be considered to constitute the six ancient counties of Cumberland, Northumberland, Westmorland, Durham, Lancashire and Yorkshire. Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. Boundaries and divisions Cumbria is neighboured by Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Lieutenancy Greater Manchester is a Metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2 Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea Merseyside is a Metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1365900 Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. The non-metropolitan county of Northumberland borders Cumbria to the west North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in Divisions and environs South Yorkshire is divided into four local government districts they are the City of Sheffield, the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster West Yorkshire is a Metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. Cumberland is one of the 39 Historic counties of England. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1915 and now forms part of Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. The non-metropolitan county of Northumberland borders Cumbria to the west Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north-west England and one of the 39 Historic counties Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain. This region coincides with the Angles Kingdom of Northumbria before it expanded into Gododdin and the Vikings conquered the Kingdom of Strathclyde. The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in The Gododdin (goˈdoðin were a Brythonic people of north-eastern Britain (modern north-east England and south-east Scotland) in the sub-Roman Strathclyde ( Gaelic: Srath Chluaidh) (lit "Valley of the Clyde" originally Brythonic Ystrad Clud, was one of the kingdoms
In elder contexts northern England is sometimes defined by the ecclesiastical Province of York, which is administered by the Archbishop of York. The Province of York is one of two Ecclesiastical provinces making up the Church of England and consists of 14 Dioceses which cover the northern third of The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The See includes the Isle of Man, which was at one time a part of Jorvik in contention with Dublin over said island and Galloway. The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Galloway ( Gaelic: Gall-Ghaidhealaibh, əŋ ɡauɫ̪ɣəɫ̪əv or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern A comparable perception in Roman Catholicism would be the Province of Liverpool. This article is about the bishop in the Catholic Church, for the bishop in the Church of England, see Bishop of Liverpool 
However, all of these definitions lead to different geographical limits for the North of England.
The existence of huge variations between 'Northern' accents, of large pockets of extreme wealth in the 'North' and extreme poverty in the 'South', and of other notable discrepancies, have made the concept of a single 'North' extremely contentious.
The term "Northerners" is used to refer to people identified with the North, though it is often rejected by many because it incorrectly asserts a common identity across northern England. The term "northern" is often loosely used without any deeper consideration of the geographical identities of northern England, leading to confusion over the depth of affiliation between its areas.
The sport of rugby experienced a schism in 1895 with many teams based in Yorkshire and surrounding areas breaking from the Rugby Football Union and forming their own League. The history of rugby league began with a schism of 1895 in Rugby football. Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain. The Rugby Football Union (RFU is the Rugby union governing body in England History See also History of rugby league The grass roots of rugby league can be traced to early football history, through the playing of ball games The disagreement that led to the split was over the issue of professional payments, and "broken time" or injury payments. Until recent times, there has been a perception that 'league' was the code of rugby played in the north, whilst 'union' was the code played in the south.
The Romans called an area similar to some current definitions of northern England "Britannia Inferior" (Lower Britain) and ruled from the city of Eboracum (modern York). The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Britannia Inferior was a subdivision of the Roman province of Britannia established c Eboracum was a fort and City in Roman Britain. Today it is known as York, located in North Yorkshire, England. York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. Brigantes occupied the region between the rivers Tyne and Humber. The Brigantes were a Celtic tribe who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of Northern England and a significant part of the Midlands The Humber is a large tidal Estuary on the east coast of northern England The sub capital held sway over the rest of the land north of there, which included for a brief period the part of the Scottish lowlands between Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall. The Scottish Lowlands ( a' Ghalldachd, meaning roughly 'the non-Gaelic region' in Gaelic, and called Lawlands or Lallans in Scots Hadrian's Wall ( Latin: perhaps Vallum Aelium, "the Aelian wall" is a stone and turf Fortification built by the Roman The Antonine Wall is a stone and turf Fortification, built by the Romans across what is now the Central belt of Scotland
After the arrival of the Angles,Saxons and Jutes, the North was divided into rival kingdoms: Bernicia and Deira. The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who according to Bede were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of the time Bernicia covered lands north of the Tees, whilst Deira corresponded roughly to modern-day Yorkshire. Bernicia and Deira were first united as Northumbria by Aethelfrith, a king of Bernicia who conquered Deira around the year 604. The area west of the Pennines was divided into two Celtic kingdoms, Rheged (Cumbria and Lancashire) and Elmet (West Riding of Yorkshire). The Pennines are a low-rising Mountain range in Northern England and southern Scotland. Rheged IPA r̥ɛgɛd was a Brythonic kingdom of Sub-Roman Britain, whose inhabitants spoke Cumbric, a dialect of Brythonic closely related During the Early Middle Ages, between approximately the 5th century and early 7th century AD Elmet was an independent Celtic kingdom covering a broad area of The north of England forms a large part of Hen Ogledd, Old Welsh for 'the Old North'. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Yr Hen Ogledd is a Welsh term meaning 'The Old North' and referring to the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms of what is now Northern England Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language generally thought to be in the period The north of England still retains a Celtic culture in some forms, and had it's own Celtic language, Cumbric, spoken in the some parts (mostly the west) of northern England until around the 12th century. Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language, often considered to be a Dialect of Welsh, spoken in Northern England and southern
The North and East of England was subject to Danish Law (Danelaw) during the Viking era, evidence of which can be found in the etymology of many place names and surnames in the area. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time Anglo-Norman aspirations in the Pale of Ireland have some roots in the Viking forays on the Irish Sea and the trade route which ran from York and crossing the Edinburgh-Glasgow area in Scotland, to Dublin in Ireland. The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066, although The Pale ( An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale ( An Pháil Sasanach) was the English-controlled part of Ireland that had reduced by the late The Irish Sea ( Irish: Muir Éireann or Muir Meann; Scottish Gaelic: Muir Eireann Welsh: Môr Iwerddon, Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
Historically the North used to have a measure of independence and was ruled over by the Council of the North, based at the King's Manor, York, set up in 1484 by Richard III. The Council of the North was an administrative body originally set up in 1485 by king Richard III of England, the last Yorkist monarch to hold the Crown of England The King's Manor is a Grade I Listed building in York, England, and is part of the University of York. However decisions affecting the North of England have been made from London since this institution was abolished in 1641, although there is some measure of regional control in the form of local councils.
As the centre of the industrial revolution, Northern England has long been characterised by its industrial centres, from the mill towns of Lancashire, textile centres of Yorkshire, shipyards of the North East to the mining towns found throughout the North and the fishing ports along both east and west coasts. However, whilst the South of England has prospered economically, the north has, until now, remained relatively poor, although currently, there are many urban regeneration projects happening across northern towns and cities, hoping to address this imbalance, since five of the ten most populous cities in the United Kingdom lie in the North. Urban Renewal (similar to Urban Regeneration in British English) is a controversial U The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located