|Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti|
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
|Anthem: İstiklâl Marşı (Turkish)|
|Capital||Nicosia (Lefkoşa in Turkish)|
|Government||Representative democratic republic1|
|-||President||Mehmet Ali Talat|
|-||Prime Minister||Ferdi Sabit Soyer|
|Independence (de facto)||from Cyprus|
|-||Proclaimed||November 15, 1983|
|-||Recognition||By Turkey only|
|-||Total||3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus)|
1,295 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||2. The flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is based on the Flag of Turkey with the colors reversed and two horizontal red stripes added at the top and The Coat of Arms of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are styled closely on the arms of the Republic of Cyprus, except that the '1960' was removed from A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The İstiklâl Marşı (Independence March is the Turkish National Anthem, officially adopted on March 12, 1921 - two years before Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Λευκωσία Lefkoşa is the Capital and largest city of Cyprus. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is the Head of state of the TRNC Mehmet Ali Talat (born July 6, 1952) is the current President of the De facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (or KKTC The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President Ferdi Sabit Soyer ( March 5 1952) is the de facto Prime Minister of the Turkish Republic of Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here areas between 1000 km2 and 10000 km2 This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 7|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$4. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 54 billion (90th)|
|-||Per capita||$7,135 (93rd)|
|Currency||New Turkish Lira (|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Calling code||+90 spec. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The new lira (yeni türk lirası is the Currency of Turkey. The de facto independent state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus also ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Eastern European Time ( EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Eastern European Summer Time ( EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 Time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E +90-392|
|1||Freedomhouse.org Country Report|
|2||PDF (88. 8 KiB) Nüfus ve Konut Sayimi. A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International|
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) (Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti, KKTC), commonly called Northern Cyprus (Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs), is a de facto independent republic located in the north of Cyprus. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía The TRNC declared its independence in 1983, nine years after a Greek Cypriot coup attempting to annex the island to Greece triggered an invasion by Turkey. The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, launched on July 20 1974, was a Turkish Military operation against a coup which had been staged by the Cypriot Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches It has received diplomatic recognition only from Turkey, on which it has become dependent for economic, political and military support. The Embassy of Turkey in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (Kıbrıs'da Türk Büyükelçiliği is located in the Turkish Sector of Nicosia, just outside the walls of The rest of the international community, including the United Nations and European Union, recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the territory of the TRNC. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía
The Turkish Army maintains a large force in the TRNC that meets with the approval of much of the Turkish Cypriot population. However, the Republic of Cyprus regards it as an illegal occupation force; its presence has also been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions.  Attempts to reach a solution to the dispute have so far been unsuccessful. In 2004 the UN Annan Plan to reunite the island was accepted by a majority of Turkish Cypriots in a referendum, but rejected by a resounding majority of Greek Cypriots. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to settle the Cyprus dispute of the divided island nation of Cyprus as the United Cyprus Republic Turkish Cypriots ( Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι are the ethnically Turkish inhabitants of the The two major communities of the ''de facto'' divided Island nation of Cyprus held a referendum on settling the Cyprus dispute on 24 Greek Cypriots ( Greek: Ελληνοκύπριοι Turkish: Kıbrıslı Rumlar are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus.
The TRNC extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula (Cape Apostolos Andreas) in the northeast, westward to Morphou Bay and Cape Kormakitis (the Kokkina/Erenköy exclave marks the westernmost extent of the TRNC), and southward to the village of Louroujina/Akıncılar. The Karpass Peninsula (Καρπασία Karpaz also known as Karpasia or Kırpaşa is a long finger-like Peninsula that is one of the most prominent Cape Apostolos Andreas (Cape Saint Andrew) is the north-easternmost point (promontory of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus ( Morphou Bay (Κολπος Μορφου Kolpos Morfou; Güzelyurt Körfezi is a part of the Mediterranean Sea, located on the North Western side of the island of Cape Kormatis is a Promontory ( on the north-western coast of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus named after the nearby village with the same name The Louroujina Salient ( Turkish: Lurucina, official name after 1974: Akıncılar) marks the southernmost extent of the TRNC The no man's land or buffer zone stretching between the two areas is under the control of the United Nations. No man's land is a term for land that is not occupied or more specifically land that is under dispute between countries or areas that will not occupy it because of fear or uncertainty The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus runs for more than 300 km along the Green Line, which partitions the Republic of Cyprus into a southern area effectively The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
The Constitution of Cyprus, while establishing an independent and sovereign republic, was, in the words of Stanley Alexander de Smith, an authority on constitutional law, "unique in its tortuous complexity and in the multiplicity of the safeguards that it provides for the principal minority; the Constitution of Cyprus stands alone among the constitutions of the world. Cypriot intercommunal violence refers to periods of inter-ethnic conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus from The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, launched on July 20 1974, was a Turkish Military operation against a coup which had been staged by the Cypriot Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Stanley Alexander de Smith ( March 27, 1922 - February 12, 1974) was an English academic Lawyer and Author. " Within three years, tensions between the two communities in administrative affairs began to show. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes to the constitution via thirteen amendments, which some observers viewed as an unconstitutional attempt to tilt the balance of power in the Republic. Makarios III (Μακάριος Γ born Mihail Christodoulou Mouskos (Greek Μιχαήλ Χριστοδούλου Μούσκος) on August 13, The Zürich and London Agreement was the agreement which took place on the 19 February 1959 between Turkey, Greece, the United Kingdom  Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the proposed amendments as an attempt to settle constitutional disputes in favor of the Greek Cypriots and as a means of demoting the Turks' status as co-founders of the state to one of minority status, removing their constitutional safeguards in the process. Turkish Cypriots ( Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι are the ethnically Turkish inhabitants of the The President defended his amendments as being necessary "to resolve constitutional deadlocks. "
On 21 December 1963, a Turkish Cypriot crowd clashed with the plainclothes special constables of Yorgadjis. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Almost immediately, intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots in Nicosia and Larnaca. Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Λευκωσία Lefkoşa is the Capital and largest city of Cyprus. Larnaca, ( Greek: Λάρνακα, Turkish: Larnaka) is a City of the Republic of Cyprus situated on the southern coast Though the TMT — a Turkish resistance group created in 1959 to promote a policy of taksim (division or partition of Cyprus), in opposition to the Greek Cypriot nationalist group EOKA and its advocacy of enosis (union of Cyprus with Greece) — committed a number of acts of retaliation, historian of the Cyprus conflict Keith Kyle noted that "there is no doubt that the main victims of the numerous incidents that took place during the next few months were Turks. Turkish Resistance Organization ( Turkish: Türk Mukavemet Teşkilatı &ndash TMT was a Turkish Cypriot pro- Taksim paramilitary organisation The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Taksim ( Turkish for "division" was the objective of Turkish Cypriots who supported a partition of the island of Cyprus into Turkish and Greek EOKA ( Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston ( Greek for National Organisation For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Enosis (butterfly. Keith Kyle was a writer broadcaster and historian He was born in Sturminster Newton, Dorset on 4 August 1925 and educated at Bromsgrove " Seven hundred Turkish hostages, including women and children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson, a nationalist and future coup leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita and attacked the Turkish Cypriot population. Nikos Sampson (Νίκος Σαμψών December 16, 1935 &ndash May 9 2001) was the de facto president of Cyprus  By 1964, 193 Turkish Cypriots and 133 Greek Cypriots had been killed, with a further 209 Turks and 41 Greeks missing and presumed dead.
Turkish Cypriot members of the government had by now withdrawn, creating an essentially Greek Cypriot administration in control of all institutions of the state. Widespread looting of Turkish Cypriot villages prompted 20,000 refugees to retreat into armed enclaves, where they remained for the next 11 years, relying on food and medical supplies from Turkey to survive. The Turkish Cypriot enclaves were Enclaves inhabited by Turkish Cypriots before the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Turkish Cypriots formed paramilitary groups to defend the enclaves, leading to a gradual division of the island's communities into two hostile camps. The violence had also seen thousands of Turkish Cypriots attempt to escape the violence by emigrating to Britain, Australia and Turkey. 
The Republic of Cyprus has argued that the Turkish Cypriots' withdrawal from the government and their retreat into enclaves was a voluntary action, prompted by their desire to form a state of their own. In support of this view, a 1965 statement has been cited in which the then–United Nations Secretary General, U Thant, stated that Turkish Cypriots had furthered a policy of "self-segregation" and taken a "rigid stand" against policies which might have involved recognizing the government's authority. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. U Thant (ဦးသန့် 22 January 1909 &ndash 25 November 1974) was a Burmese Diplomat and the third Secretary-General  Turkish Cypriots, for their part, point to a ruling of Cyprus's Supreme Court which found that Makarios had violated the constitution by failing to fully implement its measures and that Turkish Cypriots had not been allowed to return to their positions in government without first accepting the proposed constitutional amendments. 
On July 15, 1974, the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 backed a Greek Cypriot military coup d'état in Cyprus. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Regime of the Colonels redirects here For the Polish regime of colonels see Colonels' group. President Makarios was removed from office and Nikos Sampson took his place. Turkey claimed that, under the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, the coup was sufficient reason for military action to protect the Turkish Cypriot populace, and thus Turkey invaded Cyprus on July 20, 1974. The Treaty of Guarantee is a treaty between the Republic of Cyprus, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Following Turkey's military intervention, the coup failed and Makarios returned to Cyprus. Turkish forces proceeded to take over the northern third of the island (about 37% of Cyprus's total area), causing large numbers of Greek Cypriots to abandon their homes. Cypriot refugees are those Cypriot nationals or Cyprus residents who had their main residence (as opposed to merely owning property in an area forcibly evacuated Approximately 160,000 Greek Cypriots fled to the south of the island, while 50,000 Turkish Cypriots fled north. Approximately 1,500 Greek Cypriot and 500 Turkish Cypriots remain missing. 
In 1975 the "Turkish Federative State of Cyprus" (Kıbrıs Türk Federe Devleti) was declared as a first step towards a future federated Cypriot state, but was rejected by the Republic of Cyprus, the UN, and the international community. After eight years of failed negotiations with the leadership of the Greek Cypriot community, the north declared its independence on November 15, 1983 under the name of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) This unilateral declaration of independence was rejected by the UN and the Republic of Cyprus. Eight years after the Turkish Federative State of North Cyprus was proclaimed (in 1975 the UDI of North Cyprus was presented
In recent years the politics of reunification has dominated the island's affairs. Rauf Raif Denktaş (in English often spelled Rauf Denktash) (born 27 January 1924) is the founder of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus It was hoped that Cyprus's planned accession into the European Union would act as a catalyst towards a settlement, and in 2004 a United Nations–brokered peace settlement was presented in a referendum to both sides. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The proposed settlement was opposed by both the president of Cyprus, Tassos Papadopoulos, and Turkish Cypriot president Rauf Denktaş; in the referendum, a majority of Turkish Cypriots accepted the proposal, but Greek Cypriots overwhelmingly rejected it. Tassos Nikolaou Papadopoulos (in Greek, Τάσσος Νικολάου Παπαδόπουλος &ndash born January 7, 1934 in Nicosia Rauf Raif Denktaş (in English often spelled Rauf Denktash) (born 27 January 1924) is the founder of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus As a result, Cyprus entered the European Union as a divided island, with the north (TRNC) effectively excluded. Denktaş resigned in the wake of the vote, ushering in the pro-solutionist Mehmet Ali Talat as his successor. Mehmet Ali Talat (born July 6, 1952) is the current President of the De facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (or KKTC
Politics of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister head of government, and of a multi-party system. Prehistory See also Cyprus (Prehistory Cyprus was not settled in the old stone age, which led to the survival of numerous dwarf forms Throughout the period of Venetian rule Ottoman Turks raided and attacked the peoples of Cyprus at will The Cyprus dispute is a territorial conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an Atilla I was the Codename given to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Politics of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition Executive power is exercised by the government. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The Parliament of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, the Assembly of the Republic ( Cumhuriyet Meclisi) has 50 members elected for a five year term The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State
The president is elected for a five-year term. The current president is Mehmet Ali Talat who won the presidential elections on April 17, 2005. Mehmet Ali Talat (born July 6, 1952) is the current President of the De facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (or KKTC The legislature is the Assembly of the Republic, which has 50 members elected by proportional representation from five electoral districts. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes In the elections of February 2005, the Republican Turkish Party, which favors a peace settlement and the reunification of Cyprus , retained its position as the largest parliamentary party, but failed to win an overall majority. The Republican Turkish Party ( Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi) is a Political party in " Northern Cyprus "
The international community, with the exception of Turkey, does not recognise the TRNC as a sovereign state, but recognises the de jure sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the whole island. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, due to its unrecognized status internationally, is dependent upon Turkey to facilitate its contacts with the The United Nations considers the declaration of independence by the TRNC as legally invalid in several of its resolutions. 
In wake of the April 2004 referendum on the United Nations Annan Plan, and the support of the Turkish Cypriot community for the plan, the European Union made pledges towards ending the isolation of northern Cyprus. The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to settle the Cyprus dispute of the divided island nation of Cyprus as the United Cyprus Republic These included measures for trade and 259 million euros in aid.
The Organization of the Islamic Conference gave the TRNC the status of a constituent state, making the "Turkish Cypriot State" an observer member of the organization. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. A constituent state is a government that is part of a larger Political entity.  A number of high profile formal meetings have also taken place between President Mehmet Ali Talat and various foreign leaders and politicians including US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, British foreign minister Jack Straw, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf. Condoleezza Rice (born November 14 1954 is the 66th United States John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. General (ret Pervez Musharraf ( (born 11 August 1943 NI(M, HI(M, TBt, is the former Military dictator and President of
The European Union considers the area not under effective control of the Republic of Cyprus as EU territory under Turkish military occupation and thus indefinitely exempt from EU legislation until a settlement has been found. The term acquis communautaire, or (EU acquis (aˈki is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated thus far The status of TRNC has become a recurrent issue especially during the recent talks for Turkey's membership of the EU where the division of the island is seen as a major stumbling block in Turkey's long road to membership. 
On February 18, 2008, The TRNC became one of the first nations to acknowledge the Unilateral Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Kosovo, in direct opposition to the stance of the Republic of Cyprus, which rejects the Kosovo UDI. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was an act of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Assembly of Kosovo, adopted on 17 February 2008 which declared It is argued by the Turkish and TRNC media that the independence of Kosovo could be a good model for the TRNC's recognition. It is to be stressed however that the TRNC's government has not yet formally recognized the government of Kosovo, despite President Talat's message of congratulations to Kosovo. 
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has an indigenous 5,000-man Turkish Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), which is primarily made up of conscripted Turkish Cypriot males between the ages of 18 and 40. The Turkish Cypriot Security Force (Güvenlik Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı is the military and security force of the Turkish section in Northern Cyprus. There is also an additional reserve force consisting of about 11,000 first-line, 10,000 second-line and 5,000 third-line troops conscripted up to the age of 50. The TCSF is lightly armed and heavily dependent on its mainland Turkish allies, from which it draws much of its officer corps. It is led by a Brigadier General drawn from the Turkish Army. It acts essentially as a gendarmerie with a self-proclaimed mission of protecting the border of the TRNC from Greek Cypriot incursions and maintaining internal security within the TRNC. A gendarmerie or gendarmery (dʒɛnˈdɑrməriː or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French is a Military body charged with Police duties among civilian 
In addition, the mainland Turkish Armed Forces maintain a Cyprus Turkish Peace Force (CTPF) consisting of around 30-40,000 troops drawn from the 9th Turkish Army Corps and comprising two divisions, the 28th and 39th. The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri or TSK consist of the Army, the Navy (including naval aviation and naval infantry and the Air Force It is equipped with a substantial number of United States-made M48 Patton main battle tanks and artillery weapons. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The M48 Patton was one of the US army 's principal Main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s on through the 1990s Tank classification is a Taxonomy of identifying either the intended role or weight class of Tanks The classification by role was used primarily during The Turkish Air Force, Turkish Navy and Turkish Coast Guard also have a presence in Northern Cyprus. The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Turkish Navy (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Turkish Coast Guard ( Ottoman Turkish: Rusumet Emaneti Teşkilatı, Turkish: Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) is a branch of Although formally part of Turkish 4th Army, headquartered in İzmir, the sensitivities of the Cyprus situation means that the commander of the CTPF also reports directly to the Turkish General Staff in Ankara. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. The CTPF is deployed principally along the Green Line and in locations where hostile amphibious landings might take place. 
The presence of the mainland Turkish military in Cyprus is highly controversial, having been denounced as an illegal occupation force by the Republic of Cyprus government. Several United Nations Security Council resolutions have called on the Turkish forces to withdraw, though failed Annan Plan of 2004 allowed for some troops to remain. The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to settle the Cyprus dispute of the divided island nation of Cyprus as the United Cyprus Republic
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is divided into five administrative regions:
The climate of the island is of an extreme Mediterranean type with very hot dry summers and relatively cold winters. Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Λευκωσία Lefkoşa is the Capital and largest city of Cyprus. "Magusa" redirects here For the Moth Genus, see Magusa (moth. For the village in Greece which see Keryneia Greece. Kyrenia (Keryneia (ΚερύνειαGirne is a town noted for its historic Morphou (Morfou (Μόρφου Omorfo or Güzelyurt) is a market town in the north-west of Cyprus, under the control of Northern Cyprus. Trikomo may refer to Trikomo Cyprus Trikomo Greece Most of the rainfall is concentrated between December and January.
The climate of the coastal parts is less extreme than farther inland, due to the fact that the effect of the sea on atmospheric humidities is always present there. The sea temperature itself never falls below 16°C. (January and February); in August it can rise to 28 °C.
Spring and autumn are short, typified by changeable weather, with occasional heavy storms battering the coast in spring and a westerly wind, called "meltem" carrying the influence of Atlantic depressions to this far eastern end of the Mediterranean.
From mid-May to mid-September the sun shines on a daily average of around 11 hours. Temperatures can reach 40°C. On the Mesaoria Plain, although lower on the coasts, a north-westerly breeze called "Poyraz" prevails. The skies are cloudless with a low humidity, 40% - 60%, thus the high temperatures are easier to bear. The hot, dry, dust-laden sirocco wind blowing from Africa also finds its way to the island. Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or rarely siroc is a Mediterranean Wind that comes from
Short-lived stormy conditions resulting from fairly frequent small depressions prevail throughout the winter, with 60% of rain falling between December and February. The Northern Range receives around 550 mm of rain per year, whereas the Mesaoria Plain receives only around 300-400 mm.
Frost and snow are almost unknown in Northern Cyprus, although night temperatures can fall to very low levels in winter and it will occasionally snow on the peaks of the Kyrenia Range.
The chief rain-bearing air currents reach the island from the south-west, so that precipitation and atmospheric humidity is at its greatest on the western and south-western sides of the Southern Range. Eastwards, precipitation and humidity are reduced by the partial rain-shadow effect of the Southern Range, a similar effect is also caused by the Northern Range which cut off the humidity associated with proximity to the sea from much of the northern Mesaoria Plain. Eastwards of the Northern Range, towards the bays of the Karpaz Peninsula, where the land narrows and the effect of sea influence increases accordingly, humidity increases progressively towards the end of the peninsula.
Most of the rivers are simply winter torrents, only flowing after heavy rain, the rivers running out of the Northern and Southern Ranges rarely flowing all the year round.
During the wet winter months Cyprus is a green island. However, by the time June arrives the landscape at the lower levels assumes the brown, parched aspect which characterises its summer face. The forests and the vineyards in the mountains, plus the strips of irrigated vegetation in the valleys remain green.
The economy of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector including the public sector, trade, tourism and education, with smaller agriculture and light manufacturing sectors. The economy operates on a free-market basis, with a great portion funding of the administration costs offered by Turkey. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
Because of its status and the embargo, the TRNC is heavily dependent on Turkish military and economic support.  It uses the New Turkish Lira as its currency; this used to link its economic status to the vagaries of the Turkish economy. The new lira (yeni türk lirası is the Currency of Turkey. The de facto independent state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus also All TRNC exports and imports have to take place via Turkey, unless they are produced locally, from materials sourced in the area (or imported via one of the island's recognised ports) when they may be exported via one of the legal ports.
The continuing Cyprus problem adversely affects the economic development of the TRNC. The Republic of Cyprus, as the internationally recognised authority, has declared airports and ports in the area not under its effective control, closed. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía All U. N. Member countries and E. U. member countries respect the closure of those ports and airports according to the declaration of the Republic of Cyprus. The Turkish community argues that the Republic of Cyprus has used its international standing to handicap economic relations between TRNC and the rest of the world.
Despite the constraints imposed by its lack of international recognition, the TRNC economy turned in an impressive performance in the last few years. The GDP growth rates of the TRNC economy in 2001-2005 have been 5. 4%, 6. 9%, 11. 4%, 15. 4% and 10. 6%.  This growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish Lira and a boom in the education and construction sectors.
Studies by the World Bank show that the per capita GDP in TRNC grew to 76% of the per capita GDP in the Republic of Cyprus in PPP-adjusted terms in 2004. (USD 22,300 for the Republic of Cyprus and USD 16,900 for the TRNC). 
Although the TRNC economy has developed in recent years, it is still dependent on monetary transfers from the Turkish government. Under the 2003-06 economic protocol, Ankara plans to provide around $550 million to the TRNC.
The number of tourists visiting Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus during January-August 2003 was 286,901. 
The Turkish Cypriot economy has also benefited from an abundance of universities including Near East University, Girne American University, Middle East Technical University, European University of Lefke and Cyprus International University as well as Eastern Mediterranean University which is internationally recognised with more than 1000 faculty members coming from 35 countries. Near East University (NEU is a private international institution of higher education in Northern Cyprus. The Girne American University (Girne Amerikan Üniversitesi is located in the northern part of Cyprus in the De facto state of Northern Cyprus Middle East Technical University ( METU; in Turkish, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ODTÜ) is a public Cyprus International University ( Uluslararası Kıbrıs Üniversitesi) is a private university located in the city of Nicosia, in the Turkish occupied area of The Eastern Mediterranean University (Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi is located in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. There are 15000 students in the university comprised of 68 different nationalities. EMU has been approved by Higher Education Council of Turkey. It is full individual member of the institutions like the European University Associations, Community of Mediterranean Universities, Federation Universities of Islamic World And International Association of Universities.
International telephone calls are routed via a Cyprus or Turkish dialling code: +90 392, as the TRNC has neither its own country code, nor official ITU prefix. This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The International Telecommunication Union (ITU allocates call sign prefixes for radio and television stations of all types Similarly, the TRNC has no top level domain of its own, and is under the Turkish second-level domain .nc.tr, while mail must be addressed 'via Mersin 10, TURKEY' as the Universal Postal Union does not recognise the TRNC as a separate entity. A country The Universal Postal Union ( UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an International organization that coordinates postal policies among member Amateur radio operators sometimes use callsigns beginning with "1B", but these have no standing for awards or other operating credit. Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a Hobby and a service in which participants called "hams" use various types of Radio communications In Broadcasting and Radio communications a call sign (also known as a callsign or call letters, or abbreviated as a call, or otherwise
Direct flights to Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the trade traffic through the Turkish Cypriot ports are restricted as part of the embargo on Turkish Cypriot ports.  The airports of Geçitkale and Ercan are only recognised as legal ports of entry by Turkey and Azerbaijan. Lefkoniko ( Greek: Λευκόνοικο, Turkish: Geçitkale or Lefkonuk) is a village in the Famagusta District of Ercan International Airport, or Διεθνές Aεροδρόμιο Τύμβους in Greek is the principal Airport of entry into the Turkish Republic of Northern Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South In addition, the TRNC's seaports in Famagusta and Kyrenia had been declared closed to all shipping by the Republic of Cyprus since 1974. "Magusa" redirects here For the Moth Genus, see Magusa (moth. For the village in Greece which see Keryneia Greece. Kyrenia (Keryneia (ΚερύνειαGirne is a town noted for its historic By agreement between northern Cyprus and Syria, despite the protests of the Republic of Cyprus,there is a ship tour between Famagusta and Latakia (Syria). "Magusa" redirects here For the Moth Genus, see Magusa (moth. Latakia or Latakiyah (اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Λαοδικεία transliterated as Laodicea, Laodikeia or Laodiceia, Since the opening of the Green Line, Turkish Cypriot residents are allowed to trade through Greek Cypriot ports. 
Naturalised TRNC citizens or foreigners carrying a passport stamped by the TRNC authorities may be refused entry by the Republic of Cyprus or Greece, although after the accession of the Republic of Cyprus to the EU such restrictions have been eased following confidence-building measures between Athens and Ankara and the partial opening of the UN controlled line by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus authorities. Naturalized TRNC ( Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) Citizens are persons granted TRNC Citizenship by the Government of the Turkish Republic The Republic of Cyprus also allows passage across the Green Line from the part of Nicosia that it controls (as well as a few other selected crossing points), since the TRNC does not leave entry stamps in the passport for such visits. The term Green Line is often used to refer to the cease fire line that de facto divides the Island nation of Cyprus into two cutting through Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Λευκωσία Lefkoşa is the Capital and largest city of Cyprus. Since May 2004, some tourists have taken to flying to the Republic of Cyprus directly and crossing the green line to holiday in the TRNC. 
According to a census carried out by the Turkish Cypriot administration, the TRNC has a population of about 264,172, of which majority is composed of indigenous Turkish Cypriots, with the rest including a large number of settlers from Turkey. Turkish Cypriots ( Turkish: Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler Greek: Τουρκοκύπριοι are the ethnically Turkish inhabitants of the Of the 178,000 Turkish Cypriot citizens, 74% are native Cypriots (approximately 140,000). Of the remaining people born to non-Cypriot parentage, approximately 16,000 were born in Cyprus. The figure for non-citizens, including students, guest workers and temporary residents stood at 78,000 people.  Estimates by the government of the Republic of Cyprus from 2001 place the population at 200,000, of which 80-89,000 are Turkish Cypriots and 109,000-117,000 Turkish settlers. . An island-wide census in 1960 indicated the number of Turkish Cypriots as 102,000 and Greek Cypriots as 450,000. Estimates state that 36,000 (about 1/3) Turkish Cypriots emigrated in the period 1975-1995, with the consequence that within the occupied area the native Turkish Cypriots have been outnumbered by settlers from Turkey.  The TRNC is almost entirely Turkish speaking. English, however, is widely spoken as a second language. Many of the older Turkish Cypriots speak and understand Greek - some may even be considered native speakers of the Greek Cypriot dialect. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of
There are small populations of Greek Cypriots and Maronites (about 3,000) living in Rizokarpaso and Kormakitis regions. Greek Cypriots ( Greek: Ελληνοκύπριοι Turkish: Kıbrıslı Rumlar are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac Rizokarpaso ( Greek: Ριζοκάρπασο, Turkish: Dipkarpaz) is a town on the Karpass Peninsula in Famagusta District Kormakitis ( Greek spelling Κορμακίτης Turkish: Koruçam) is a small village near the northwestern cape of Cyprus, in the area occupied