Normandy (French: Normandie, Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. The northern Norman can be classified in the septentrional Oil languages with Picard and The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of It is situated along the coast of France south of the English Channel between Brittany (to the west) and Picardy (to the east) and comprises territory in northern France and the Channel Islands. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Picardy (Picardie is an historical Province of France, in the north of France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Channel Islands ( Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are a group of Islands The territory is divided between French and British sovereignty. The continental territory under French sovereignty covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. It is divided for administrative purposes into two régions: Basse-Normandie and Haute-Normandie. France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, Basse-Normandie ('Lower Normandy' is an administrative region of France. Haute-Normandie ( Upper Normandy) is one of the 26 regions of France. The Channel Islands (referred to as Iles Anglo-Normandes in French) covers 194 km² and comprise two bailiwicks: Guernsey and Jersey, both under British rule. Standard French (in French le français standard, le français neutre French or even by the Misnomer le français international French A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a Bailiff. The term was also applied to a territory in which the Sheriff 's functions were exercised by a privately appointed The Bailiwick of Guernsey (Bailliage de Guernesey is a British Crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. The Bailiwick of Jersey ( Jèrriais: Jèrri) is a British Crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France.
Upper Normandy (Haute-Normandie) consists of the French départements of Seine-Maritime and Eure, and Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie) of the départements of Orne, Calvados, and Manche. Haute-Normandie ( Upper Normandy) is one of the 26 regions of France. In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division Seine-Maritime is a French department in Normandy. Before 1955 it was known as Seine-Inférieure. Eure is a department in the north of France named after the Eure River. Basse-Normandie ('Lower Normandy' is an administrative region of France. In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division Orne is a department in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. The French department of Calvados forms part of the region of Basse-Normandie in Normandy. Manche is a French department in Normandy named after La Manche ("the sleeve" which is the French name for the English The former province Normandy comprised present-day Upper and Lower Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements of Eure-et-Loir, Mayenne, and Sarthe. The Kingdom of France was organised into Provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département Eure-et-Loir is a French department, named after the Eure and Loir rivers Mayenne (majɛn is a department in northwest France named after the Mayenne River. Sarthe (saʁt is a French department, named after the Sarthe River.
The name of Normandy is derived from the settlement and conquest of the territory by Vikings ("Northmen") from the 9th century, and confirmed by treaty in the 10th century. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language For a century and a half following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman rulers, but following 1204 the continental territory was ultimately held by France.
The population of Normandy is around 3. 45 million people. The continental population of 3. 26 million accounts for 5. 5% of the population of France (in 2005).
Basse-Normandie is predominantly agricultural in character, with cattle breeding the most important sector (although in decline from the peak levels of the 1970s and 1980s). The bocage is a patchwork of small fields with high hedges, typical of western areas. Bocage is a Norman word which has entered both the French and English languages Haute-Normandie contains a higher concentration of industry. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Normandy is a significant cider-producing region, and also produces calvados, a distilled cider or apple brandy. For the non-alcoholic beverage commonly known in the US as "cider" see Apple cider. Calvados is an apple Brandy from the French région of Basse-Normandie or Lower Normandy Brandy (from brandywine, derived from Dutch brandewijn — “burnt wine” is a spirit produced by distilling Wine Other activities of economic importance are dairy produce, flax (60% of production in France), horse breeding (including two French national stud farms), fishing, seafood, and tourism. A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal Milk &mdashmostly from goats or cows, but also from buffalo, Sheep Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum Horse breeding refers to reproduction in Horses and particularly the human-directed process of Selective breeding of animals particularly Purebred For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Seafood is any Sea Animal or Seaweed that is served as Food, or is suitable for eating particularly saltwater animals such Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The region contains three French nuclear power stations. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions
Archeological finds, such as cave paintings prove that humans were present in the region as far back as prehistoric times. The Roman theatre is a theatre building built by the Romans for watching theatrical performances. Normandy was a Province in the North-West of France under the Ancien Régime. Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic"
Belgian Celts, known as Gauls, invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th century BC to the 3rd century BC. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western
When Caesar invades Gaul there are nine different Gallic tribes in Normandy. 
The Romanization of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanization. In Linguistics, romanization (or latinization, also spelled romanisation or latinisation) is the representation of a Word or The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. For the political history of the brief "Gallic Empire" of the 3rd century see Gallic Empire A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably
In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements risked raids by Saxon pirates. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Christianity began to enter the area during this period. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the West, while the Saxons subjugated the Norman coast. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Roman legions in Britain mutiny against Honorius and select The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Roman Emperor withdrew from most of Normandy.
As early as 486, the area between the Somme and the Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. For the processor see Intel 80486. Events By Place Europe Roman rule in Gaul ends with the defeat at Soissons The Somme is a department of France, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river. Loire ( Arpitan: Lêre, Occitan: Léger) is an administrative department in the east-central part of France occupying the The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for the Viking leader Rollo (also known as Robert of Normandy). The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Rollo, occasionally known as Rollo the Viking, (c 860 - c 932 was the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality in what soon became known as Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks Charles the Simple through the Treaty of Saint Clair-sur-Epte. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Events By Place Europe Autumn — Charles the Simple agrees to the Treaty of St A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, West Francia or the West Frankish Kingdom was a short-lived kingdom encompassing the lands of the western part of the Carolingian Empire that came under the undisputed Charles III ( September 17, 879 – October 7, 929) called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the contemporary The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings for the purpose In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo legally gained the territory he and his Viking allies had previously conquered. For medieval usage see Homage (medieval and Commendation ceremony, or Homage (disambiguation Homage (from the French An Oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas ( Faithfulness) is a pledge of Allegiance of one person to another The name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking (i. e. "Northman") origins.
The descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romantic language and intermarried with the area’s previous inhabitants and became the Normans – a Norman French-speaking mixture of Scandinavians, Hiberno-Norse, Orcadians, Anglo-Danish, and indigenous Franks and Gauls. The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Occitan, Arpitan, and several other languages spoken in modern France The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. The northern Norman can be classified in the septentrional Oil languages with Picard and Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, who were of Scandinavian Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western
Rollo's descendant William, Duke of Normandy became king of England in 1066 in the Norman Conquest culminating at the Battle of Hastings while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing
Besides the Norman conquest of England and the subsequent conquests of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas. Cambro-Norman is a term used for Norman knights who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The later medieval period in Ireland (" Norman Ireland " was dominated by the Cambro-Norman invasion of the country in 1171.
Tancred's sons William Iron Arm, Drogo of Hauteville, Humphrey of Hauteville, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count conquered the Emirate of Sicily and additional territories in Southern Italy and carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader States of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. William Iron Arm (born before 1010 &ndash died 1046 was a Norman adventurer founder of the fortunes of the Hauteville family. Drogo of Hauteville (c1010 &ndash 10 August 1051) succeeded his brother William Iron Arm, with whom he arrived in southern Italy c Humphrey of Hauteville (c 1010 &ndash August 1057 surnamed Abagelard, was the Count of Apulia and Calabria from 1051 to his death Robert Guiscard (from Latin Viscardus and Old French Viscart, often rendered the Resourceful, the Cunning, the Wily Roger I (1031 &ndash June 22, 1101) called Bosso and the Great Count, was the Norman Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101 The Emirate of Sicily was an Islamic state on the island of Sicily from 965 to 1072. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש
14th century Norman explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom on the Canary Islands. Jean de Béthencourt (c 1360 - 1425 was a French Explorer who in 1402 led an expedition to the Canary Islands, landing first on the north side of The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish Béthencourt received the title King of the Canary Islands but recognized Henry III of Castile, who had provided aid during the conquest, as his overlord. Henry III ( October 4, 1379 –1406 sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm (Enrique el Doliente was the son of John
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville played important parts in the Crusades. Tancred of Hauteville was an eleventh-century Norman petty lord about whom little is known The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents
In 1204, during the reign of King John of England, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under Philip II of France while insular Normandy (the Channel Islands) remained under English control. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death The Channel Islands ( Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are a group of Islands In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a Treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England His successors, however, often fought to regain control of mainland French Normandy.
The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 (and later re-confirmed in 1339), like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204, guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. Louis X (October 1289 – 5 June 1316) called the Quarreller, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (le Hutin el Obstinado was the Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms
French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345-1360 and again in 1415-1450. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior Afterwards, prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion when many Norman towns (Alençon, Rouen, Caen, Coutances, Bayeux) joined the Protestant Reformation and battles ensued throughout the province. The French Wars of Religion (1562 to 1598 between French Catholics and Protestants ( Huguenots involved both civil infighting The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
From the 1660s onwards, France engaged in a policy of expansion in North America. Normans continued the exploration of the New World : René Robert Cavelier de La Salle travelled in the area of the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada, then on the Mississippi river. René Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle ( November 22, 1643 &ndash March 19, 1687) was a French The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Territories located between Quebec and the delta of Mississippi were opened up, in other words French Louisiana. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk
Honfleur and Le Havre were two of the principal slave traders ports of France. Honfleur is a commune in the Norman département of Calvados in France, located on the southern bank of the estuary Le Havre is a city in the northwest region of France situated on the right bank of the mouth of the Seine River as it outlets into the Bay of the Seine The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history
Colonists from Normandy (in particular Basse-Normandie) in New France (Quebec) were among the most active. Basse-Normandie ('Lower Normandy' is an administrative region of France. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk
Although agriculture remained important, industries such as weaving, metallurgy, ceramics, sugar refining, shipbuilding were introduced and developed.
In the 1780s, the economic crisis and the crisis of the Ancien Régime struck Normandy and led to the French revolution. Ancien Régime ( pronounced: /ɑ̃sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim/ refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Bad harvests, technical progress and the effects of the Eden Agreement signed in 1786, affected employment and the economy of the province. The Eden Agreement was a treaty signed between Great Britain and France in 1786, named after the British negotiator Year 1786 ( MDCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Especially, Normans laboured under a heavy fiscal burden.
In 1790 the five departments of Normandy were instituted.
July 11, 1793, Charlotte Corday assassinated Marat. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont ( July 27, 1768 – July 17, 1793) known to history as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the
The Normans reacted little to the many political upheavals which characterized the 19th century. Careful, they accepted overall the changes of régime (First French Empire, Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy , French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic). The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814 the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne The July Monarchy (1830-1848 was a period of liberal monarchy rule of France under Louis-Philippe History Revolution of 1848 See also Mid-nineteenth century France The industrial population of the Faubourgs The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe
There was an economic revival (mechanization of textile manufacture, first trains. . . ) after the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815). The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1792 until 1802 fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions
And a new activity dynamized the seaside: tourism. The 19th century marks the birth of the first seaside resorts.
Franco-Prussian War : the Prussians entered Normandy, animating more than ever nationalisms, the feeling of a revenge to be taken developed and reached its ultimate and dramatic consequences by 1914 (World War I ). The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
During World War II, following the armistice of 22 June 1940 continental Normandy was part of the German occupied zone of France. D-Day may also refer to Decimal Day in the United Kingdom. D-Day is a term often used in Military parlance to denote Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Second Armistice at Compiègne was signed at 1850 on 22 June 1940 near Compiègne, in the department of Oise, between Nazi Germany The German occupation of France in World War II occurred during the period between May 1940 to December 1944 The Channel Islands were occupied by German forces between 30 June 1940 and 9 May 1945. The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel Islands by Germany during World War II which lasted Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
The town of Dieppe was the site of the ill-fated Dieppe Raid by Canadian and British armed forces. The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or Operation Jubilee, during the Second World War, was an Allied attack on the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
During the Second World War, the D-Day landings on the Normandy beaches under the code name Operation Overlord were a massive invasion of German-occupied France by Allied troops. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including D-Day may also refer to Decimal Day in the United Kingdom. D-Day is a term often used in Military parlance to denote Operation Overlord was the code name for the invasion of northwest Europe during World War II by Allied forces Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. Caen, Cherbourg, Carentan, Falaise and other Norman towns endured many casualties in the Battle of Normandy, which continued until the closing of the so-called Falaise gap between Chambois and Montormel, then liberation of Le Havre. Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Carentan is a town and commune of the Manche département in Normandy, France. During August 1944 the Falaise pocket was the area between the four towns of Trun, Argentan, Vimoutiers and Chambois near Falaise Chambois is a commune of Orne, in France. The city is remarkable for its Norman Keep (12th century and was part of the Le Havre is a city in the northwest region of France situated on the right bank of the mouth of the Seine River as it outlets into the Bay of the Seine
This led to the restoration of the French Republic, and a significant turning point in the war. The remainder of Normandy was only liberated on 9 May 1945 at the end of the war, when the Occupation of the Channel Islands ended. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel Islands by Germany during World War II which lasted
The historical Duchy of Normandy was a formerly independent duchy occupying the lower Seine area, the Pays de Caux and the region to the west through the Pays d'Auge as far as the Cotentin Peninsula. A duchy is a territory fief, or domain ruled by a Duke or Duchess. The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie The Pays de Caux is an area in Normandy occupying the greater part of the French département of Seine Maritime in Haute-Normandie The Pays d'Auge is an area in Normandy, straddling the départements ' of Calvados and Orne (plus a small part of the territory of The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a Peninsula in Normandy, forming part of the north-western coast of France
The region is bordered along the northern coasts by the English Channel. There are granite cliffs in the west and limestone cliffs in the east. In Geography and Geology, a cliff is a significant vertical or near vertical rock exposure There are also long stretches of beach in the centre of the region. The bocage typical of the western areas caused problems for the invading forces in the Battle of Normandy. There are meanders of the Seine as it approaches its estuary which form a notable feature of the landscape. A meander in general is a bend in a sinuous watercourse also known as an oxbow loop or simply an Oxbow.
The highest point is the Signal d'Écouves (427m) in the Suisse Normande.
Normandy is sparsely forested: 12. 8% of the territory is wooded, compared to a French average of 23. 6%, although the proportion varies between the departments. Eure has most cover (21%) while Manche has least (4%), a characteristic shared with the Islands.
The Channel Islands, although British crown dependencies, are considered culturally and historically a part of Normandy. The Vexin is a former region in France, divided since the 10th century between the Norman Vexin ( Vexin normand) and the French Vexin ( Vexin français A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a Bailiff. The term was also applied to a territory in which the Sheriff 's functions were exercised by a privately appointed The Bailiwick of Jersey ( Jèrriais: Jèrri) is a British Crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a Bailiff. The term was also applied to a territory in which the Sheriff 's functions were exercised by a privately appointed The Bailiwick of Guernsey (Bailliage de Guernesey is a British Crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. The Crown Dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies of the United
Although the British surrendered claims to mainland Normandy and other French possessions in 1801, the monarch of the United Kingdom retains the title Duke of Normandy in respect to the Channel Islands. Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday The Channel Islands (except for Chausey) remain Crown dependencies of the British Crown in the present era. Chausey is a group of small Islands islets and rocks that forms part of the Channel Islands from a geographical point of view but because it is under French The Crown Dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies of the United Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government Thus the Loyal Toast in the Channel Islands is La Reine, notre Duc ("The Queen, our Duke"). The Loyal Toast is the first toast to be given at a formal gathering by the presiding person The British monarch is understood to not be the Duke of Normandy in regards of the French region of Normandy described herein, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris of 1259, the surrender of French possessions in 1801, and the belief that the rights of succession to that title are subject to Salic Law which excludes inheritance through female heirs. The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a Treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England Salic law ( Lat Lex Salica) was an important body of traditional Law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the Early Middle Ages
Rivers in Normandy include:
And many coastal rivers :
The principal cities (population at the 1999 census) are Rouen (518,316 inhabitants in the metropolitan area), the capital of Upper Normandy and formerly of the whole province; Caen (370,851 inhabitants in the metropolitan area), the capital of Lower Normandy; Le Havre (296,773 inhabitants in the metropolitan area); and Cherbourg (117,855 inhabitants in the metropolitan area). Les Andelys is a commune in the Eure department in Haute-Normandie in northern France. "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie The Epte is a river in Seine-Maritime and Eure, in Normandy, France. The Eure is a River in northern France, left tributary of the Seine. The Risle (less common Rille) is a 144 km long river in Normandy, left tributary of the Seine. The Robec is a small river in Seine-Maritime, Normandy, France, right tributary of the Seine. Bresle is a commune in the Somme département in the Picardie region of France. The Touques is a small 104 km long coastal River in Pays d'Auge in Normandy, France. The Orne is a River in Normandy, within northwestern France. It discharges into the English Channel at the port of Ouistreham. The Vire is a River in Normandy in France whose 128 km course crosses the départements of Calvados and Manche The Sée is an 78 km long River in the Manche department Normandy, France, beginning near Sourdeval. The Couesnon River (/kwenɔ̃/ is a River running from the département of Mayenne in north-western France, forming an Estuary The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the Le Havre is a city in the northwest region of France situated on the right bank of the mouth of the Seine River as it outlets into the Bay of the Seine
In January 2006 the population of Normandy (including the part of Perche which lies inside the Orne département but excluding the Channel Islands) was estimated at 3,260,000 with an average population density of 109 inhabitants per km², just under the French national average, but rising to 147 for Upper Normandy. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Perche is a former province of northern France extending over the départements of Orne, Eure, Eure-et-Loir and Orne is a department in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division The Channel Islands ( Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are a group of Islands Haute-Normandie ( Upper Normandy) is one of the 26 regions of France.
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Parts of Normandy consist of rolling countryside typified by pasture for dairy cattle and apple orchards. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The apple is the pomaceous Fruit of the apple tree Species Malus domestica in the Rose family Rosaceae. A wide range of dairy products are produced and exported. Norman cheeses include Camembert, Livarot, Pont l'Évêque, Brillat-Savarin, Neufchâtel, Petit Suisse and Boursin. Camembert is a soft creamy French Cheese. It was first made in the late 18th century in Normandy in northwestern France. Livarot is a French cheese of the Normandy region originating in the commune of Livarot, and protected by an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée Brillat-Savarin is a soft white-crusted cow's milk Cheese with 75% fat named after the 18th century French gourmet and political figure Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin French Neufchâtel is a soft slightly crumbly mould-ripened Cheese made in the region of Normandy. For the region of Luxembourg called Petite Suisse see Little Switzerland (Luxembourg. Boursin cheese is a soft creamy cheese available in a variety of flavours  Normandy butter and Normandy cream are lavishly used in gastronomic specialties.
Fish and seafood are of superior quality in Normandy. Turbot and oysters from the Cotentin Peninsula are major delicacies throughout France. Normandy is the chief oyster-cultivating, scallop-exporting, and mussel-raising region in France. The common name oyster is used for a number of different groups of Bivalve Mollusks most of which live in marine habitats or Brackish water.
Normandy is a major cider-producing region (very little wine is produced). For the non-alcoholic beverage commonly known in the US as "cider" see Apple cider. Perry is also produced, but in less significant quantities. Perry is an Alcoholic beverage made of fermented Pear Juice. It is similar to Cider, in that it is made using a similar Apple brandy, of which the most famous variety is calvados, is also popular. Calvados is an apple Brandy from the French région of Basse-Normandie or Lower Normandy The mealtime trou normand, or Norman break, is a pause between meal courses in which diners partake of a glassful of calvados, and is still observed in many homes and restaurants. Pommeau is an apéritif produced by blending unfermented cider and apple brandy. Pommeau is an alcoholic drink made in northern France by mixing Apple juice with apple Brandy (it is a Mistelle) An apéritif (also spelled aperitif) is an alcoholic drink that is usually served to stimulate the appetite before a meal Another aperitif is the kir normand, a measure of cassis topped up with cider. Bénédictine is produced in Fécamp. Bénédictine is an Herbal Liqueur Beverage produced in France. Fécamp is a commune of the Seine-Maritime département, Upper Normandy in France.
Apples are also used in cooking: for example, moules à la normande are mussels cooked with apples and cream, bourdelots are apples baked in pastry, partridges are flamed with reinette apples, and localities all over the province have their own variation of apple tart. The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of Clams or Bivalve Molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats A classic pastry dish from the region is flan Normand a pastry-based variant of the apple tart. Flan Normand is a flaky pastry -based (pâte-sablée variant of the apple tart made in Normandy which is essentially a creamy egg Custard Tart This article describes Pastry in food For the Distributed Hash Table system see Pastry_(DHT.
Other regional specialities include tripes à la mode de Caen, andouilles and andouillettes, salt meadow (pré salé) lamb, seafood (mussels, scallops, lobsters, mackerel…), and teurgoule (spiced rice pudding). Tripe is a type of edible Offal from the Stomachs of various Domestic animals. Andouille ( French:, American English: (pronounced ahn-DWEE) is definedas "a coarse-grained smoked meat made using Pork, Chitterlings A scallop (ˈskɒləp or /ˈskæləp/ is a marine Bivalve Mollusk of the family Pectinidae. Teurgoule is a Rice pudding that is a speciality of Normandy.
Normandy dishes include duckling à la rouennaise, sautéed chicken yvetois, and goose en daube. Rabbit is cooked with morels, or à la havraise (stuffed with truffled pigs' trotters). Other dishes are sheep's trotters à la rouennaise, casseroled veal, larded calf's liver braised with carrots, and veal (or turkey) in cream and mushrooms.
Normandy is also noted for its pastries. It is the birthplace of brioches (especially those from Évreux and Gisors) and also turns out douillons (pears baked in pastry), craquelins, roulettes in Rouen, fouaces in Caen, fallues in Lisieux, sablés in Lisieux. Brioche ( Pronunciation, in French; English Received Pronunciation chiefly; American English) is a highly enriched Évreux is a commune in Haute-Normandie in northern France in the Eure department, of which it is the capital Gisors is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. Lisieux is a commune in the Calvados département in the Basse-Normandie region of France. Confectionery of the region includes Rouen apple sugar, Isigny caramels, Bayeux mint chews, Falaise berlingots, Le Havre marzipans, Argentan croquettes, and Rouen macaroons. Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital Bayeux (bajø is a commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy in northwestern France. Le Havre is a city in the northwest region of France situated on the right bank of the mouth of the Seine River as it outlets into the Bay of the Seine Argentan is a commune, and the capital of two cantons and of an arrondissement of the Orne department in northwestern France Macaroons are Cookies or Confections, or crosses between the two depending on where they are made
Normandy is the native land of Taillevent, cook of the kings of France Charles V and Charles VI. Guillaume Tirel, alias Taillevent ( Old French: "slicewind" (born ca Charles V ( 21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380) called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death and a member Charles VI (3 December 1368 &ndash 21 October 1422 called the Well-loved (le Bien-Aimé and the Mad (French le Fol or le Fou) was the He wrote the earliest French cookery book named Le Viandier. Confiture de lait was also made in Normandy around the 14th century. Confiture de lait (pronounced /kõfityʁ də lɛ/ is a thick sweet Caramel Sauce prepared from Milk and Sugar.
The traditional provincial flag of Normandy, gules, two leopards passant or, is used in both modern regions. The flag of Normandy is a symbol of Normandy. The traditional provincial flag gules two leopards passant or, is used in both modern regions of France ( Haute-Normandie
The historic three-leopard version (known in the Norman language as les treis cats, "the three cats") is used by some associations and individuals, especially those who support reunification of the regions and cultural links with the Channel Islands and England. Jersey and Guernsey use three leopards in their national symbols. The three leopards represents the strength and courage Normandy has towards the neighbouring provinces.
The unofficial anthem of the region is the song "Ma Normandie". " Ma Normandie " is the semi-official anthem of the Bailiwick of Jersey, a British Crown dependency in the Channel Islands, and was written
Two-leopard and three-leopard flags at a Norman language festival in Jersey. Nordic Cross Flag Nordic Cross Scandinavian Cross is a pattern of flags usually associated with the Flags of the Scandinavian countries of which it originated Mouvement normand (Norman Movement is a political organisation in France that campaigns for autonomy of Normandy. Sark (Sercq Sercquiais: Sèr) is a small Island in the southwestern English Channel. The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of The Coat of arms of Guernsey is the official symbol of the Channel Island of Guernsey. The Coat of arms of Jersey is a red shield with three gold lions (traditionally known as leopards passant guardant ( les trois léopards in French
The Dukes of Normandy commissioned and inspired epic literature to record and legitimise their rule. Guy de Maupassant (gi də mopasɑ̃ (5 August 1850 &ndash 6 July 1893 was a popular 19th-century French Writer and considered one of the fathers of the modern Anglo-Norman literature is Literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066–1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and Gesta Normannorum Ducum ( Deeds of the Norman Dukes) is a Chronicle originally created by the monk William of Jumièges just before 1060 Wace, Orderic Vitalis and Étienne of Rouen were among those who wrote in the service of the Dukes. WACE (730 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Christian radio format Orderic Vitalis (1075&ndashc 1142 was an English chronicler who wrote one of the great contemporary Chronicles of 11th and 12th century Normandy and
After the division of 1204, French literature provided the model for the development of literature in Normandy. Olivier Basselin wrote of the Vaux de Vire, the origin of literary vaudeville. Olivier Basselin (c 1400-c 1450 French Poet, was born in the Val-de-Vire in Normandy about the end of the 14th century
Among notable Norman writers in French are Jean Marot, Rémy Belleau, Guy de Maupassant, Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly, Gustave Flaubert, Octave Mirbeau and Remy de Gourmont. Jean Marot ( Mathieu, near Caen, c 1450 &ndash Paris, c 1526 was a French Poet and the father of French Renaissance Remy (or Rémi Belleau (1528 Nogent-le-Rotrou - 1577 Paris) was a Poet of the French Renaissance. Guy de Maupassant (gi də mopasɑ̃ (5 August 1850 &ndash 6 July 1893 was a popular 19th-century French Writer and considered one of the fathers of the modern Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly ( November 2, 1808 &ndash April 23, 1889) was a French Novelist and Short Gustave Flaubert (gystaːv flobɛːʁ in French ( December 12, 1821 &ndash May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among Octave Mirbeau ( February 16, 1848 in Trévières - February 16, 1917) was a French Journalist, Art critic Remy de Gourmont ( April 4, 1858 - September 27, 1915) was a French Symbolist poet Novelist and influential The Corneille brothers, Pierre and Thomas, born in Rouen, were great figures of French classical literature. Pierre Corneille ( June 6, 1606 – October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian who was one of the three great seventeenth Century French Thomas Corneille ( August 20, 1625 - December 8, 1709) was a French Dramatist.
David Ferrand (1591-1660) in his Muse Normande established a landmark of Norman language literature. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the workers and merchants of Rouen established a tradition of polemical and satirical literature in a form of language called the parler purin. Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital At the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century a new movement arose in the Channel Islands, led by writers such as George Métivier, which sparked a literary renaissance on the Norman mainland. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar George Métivier (1790–1881 was a Guernsey poet dubbed the "Guernsey Burns " and sometimes considered the island's national poet. In exile in Jersey and then Guernsey, Victor Hugo took an interest in the vernacular literature. Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist Les Travailleurs de la mer is a well-known novel by Hugo set in the Channel Islands. Toilers of the Sea (Les Travailleurs de la mer is a novel by Victor Hugo. The boom in insular literature in the early 19th century encouraged production especially in La Hague and around Cherbourg, where Alfred Rossel, Louis Beuve and Côtis-Capel became active. Côtis-Capel (1915-1986 was the Pen name of Albert Lohier, a Norman language Poet. The typical medium for literary expression in Norman has traditionally been newspaper columns and almanacs. The novel Zabeth by André Louis which appeared in 1969 was the first novel published in Norman. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Romanticism drew painters to the Channel coasts of Normandy. The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie Giverny (ʒivɛʀˈni is a commune of the Eure department in northern France. Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Richard Parkes Bonington and J. M. W. Turner crossed the Channel from Great Britain, attracted by the light and landscapes. Richard Parkes Bonington ( 25 October 1802 - 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter. Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775 &ndash 19 December 1851 was an English Romantic landscape painter, Watercolourist and Théodore Géricault, a native of Rouen, was a notable figure in the Romantic movement. Théodore Géricault ( September 26, 1791 &ndash January 26, 1824) was an important French painter and lithographer known for The competing Realist tendency was represented by Jean-François Millet, a native of La Hague. Jean-François Millet ( October 4, 1814 &ndash January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon
From the 1860s, plein-air painters, who worked outside the studio, were attracted to Normandy by the ease of railway access from Paris and the development of a market among the growing number of affluent tourists visiting the coasts of Calvados. Eugène Boudin's paintings of fashionable seaside scenes are typical of this period. Eugène Boudin ( July 12, 1824 &ndash August 8, 1898) was one of the first French Landscape painters to paint outdoors
Claude Monet's waterlily garden at Giverny is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the region, and his series of views of Rouen Cathedral are major works of Impressionism. Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder Giverny (ʒivɛʀˈni is a commune of the Eure department in northern France. It was Impression, Sunrise, a painting by Monet of Le Havre, that led to the movement being dubbed "Impressionism". Impression Sunrise (Impression soleil levant is a painting by Claude Monet, for which the Impressionist movement was named
The Société normande de peinture moderne was founded in 1909. Among members were Raoul Dufy, a native of Le Havre, Albert Marquet, Francis Picabia and Maurice Utrillo. Raoul Dufy ( 3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter Albert Marquet ( 27 March 1875 – 14 June 1947) was a French painter associated with the Fauvist movement Francis-Marie Martinez Picabia ( January 22, 1879 - November 30, 1953) was a well-known painter and poet born of a French mother and Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon, ( 26 December 1883 - 5 November 1955) was a French painter who specialized Also in this movement were the Duchamp brothers, Jacques Villon and Marcel Duchamp. Jacques Villon ( July 31, 1875 - June 9, 1963) was a French Cubist painter and printmaker Marcel Duchamp (maʀsɛl dyˈʃɑ̃ (28 July 1887 &ndash 2 October 1968 was a French artist whose work is most often associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist
French is the only official language in continental Normandy. Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. The northern Norman can be classified in the septentrional Oil languages with Picard and An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory English is also an official language in the Channel Islands.
The Norman language, a regional language, is spoken by a minority of the population in the continent and the Islands, with a concentration in the Cotentin Peninsula in the far West (the Cotentinais dialect), and in the Pays de Caux in the East (the Cauchois dialect). There are a number of languages of France. The French language is by far the most widely spoken and the only Official language of France, but several The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a Peninsula in Normandy, forming part of the north-western coast of France Cotentinais is the Dialect of the Norman language spoken in the Cotentin Peninsula. The Pays de Caux is an area in Normandy occupying the greater part of the French département of Seine Maritime in Haute-Normandie Cauchois (Norman Cauchais) is one of the eastern dialects of the Norman language, spoken in and taking its name from the Pays de Caux region of Many place names demonstrate the Norse influence in this Oïl language; for example -bec (stream), -fleur (river), -hou (island), -tot (homestead). Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Langues d'oïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages originating from the northern territories of Roman Gaul,
Architecturally, Norman cathedrals, abbeys (such as the Abbey of Bec) and castles characterise the former Duchy in a way that mirrors the similar pattern of Norman architecture in England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. See also the Romanesque architecture erected by the Normans at Norman architecture. Bec Abbey (Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec in Le Bec-Hellouin, Normandy, France, is a Benedictine monastic foundation in the Eure For other buildings in Normandy see Architecture of Normandy.
Domestic architecture in upper Normandy is typified by half-timbered buildings that also recall vernacular English architecture, although the farm enclosures of the more harshly landscaped Pays de Caux are a more idiosyncratic response to socio-economic and climatic imperatives. Timber framing (Fachwerk or Half-timbering, is the method of creating framed structures of heavy timber jointed together with pegged Mortise and tenon joints Much urban architectural heritage was destroyed during the Battle of Normandy in 1944 - post-war urban reconstruction, such as in Le Havre and Saint-Lô, could be said to demonstrate both the virtues and vices of modernist and brutalist trends of the 1950s and 1960s. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century The term Brutalist Architecture originates from the French Béton brut, or "raw concrete" a term used by Le Corbusier to describe Le Havre, the city rebuilt by Auguste Perret, was added to Unesco’s World Heritage List in 2005. Auguste Perret ( February 12, 1874 - February 25, 1954) was a French Architect and a world leader and specialist in Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Vernacular architecture in lower Normandy takes its form from granite, the predominant local building material. Vernacular Architecture is a term used to categorize methods of Construction which use locally available resources to address local needs Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. The Channel Islands also share this influence - Chausey was for many years a source of quarried granite, including that used for the construction of Mont Saint-Michel. Chausey is a group of small Islands islets and rocks that forms part of the Channel Islands from a geographical point of view but because it is under French Mont Saint-Michel ( English: St Michael's Mount) is a rocky Tidal island in Normandy, France.
The south part of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne is filled with bourgeois villas in Belle Époque style with polychrome façades, bow windows and unique roofing. Bagnoles-de-l'Orne is a commune of the Orne département, in France. The Belle Époque (bɛːl e'pɔk French for "Beautiful Era" was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until This area, built between 1886 and 1914, has an authentic “Bagnolese” style and is typical of high-society country vacation of the time.
The Chapel of Saint Germanus (Chapelle Saint-Germain) at Querqueville with its trefoil floorplan incorporates elements of one of the earliest surviving places of Christian worship in the Cotentin - perhaps second only to the Gallo-Roman baptistry at Port-Bail. Jumièges Abbey was a Benedictine monastery situated in the commune of Jumièges in the Seine-Maritime département, in Querqueville is a commune in the French département of Manche. Trefoil (from Latin trifolium, "three-leaved plant" French trèfle, German Dreiblatt and Dreiblattbogen) is a graphic form composed A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Christian missionaries implanted monastic communities in the territory in the 5th and 6th centuries. Some of these missionaries came from across the Channel. The influence of Celtic Christianity can still be found in the Cotentin. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval
By the terms of the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Rollo, a Viking pagan, accepted Christianity and was baptised. The Duchy of Normandy was therefore formally a Christian state from its foundation.
The cathedrals of Normandy have exerted influence down the centuries in matters of both faith and politics. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral Henry II, King of England, did penance at the cathedral of Avranches on 21 May 1172 and was absolved from the censures incurred by the assassination of Thomas Becket. Penance is repentance of Sins as well as the proper name of the Catholic and Orthodox Christian Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession Events 878 - Syracuse Italy is captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily. Mont Saint-Michel is a historic pilgrimage site. Mont Saint-Michel ( English: St Michael's Mount) is a rocky Tidal island in Normandy, France. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance
Prominent Protestant ministers include Pierre Allix, Jacques Basnages, and Samuel Bochart. Pierre Allix (1641 &ndash March 3, 1717) French Protestant pastor and author Jacques Basnages De Beauval ( 1653 - September 23, 1723) was a celebrated Protestant divine preacher linguist writer and man of affairs Samuel Bochart ( Rouen, 30 May 1599 - Caen, 16 May 1667) was a French Protestant biblical scholar a student of Thomas
Since the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State there is no established church in mainland Normandy. The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State ( French: Loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Églises et de l'État) was passed by In the Channel Islands, the Church of England is the established church. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican An established church is a church officially sanctioned and supported by the government of a country e
Normandy does not have one generally-agreed patron saint, although this title has been ascribed to Saint Michael, and to Saint Ouen. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an Audoin or Audoen, Dado to his contemporaries (609 in Sancy close to Soissons - 686 in Clichy) was a Frankish bishop,
Many saints have been revered in Normandy down the centuries, including:
Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy (Manche), France, at night. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft long embroidered cloth which explains the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of Mont Saint-Michel ( English: St Michael's Mount) is a rocky Tidal island in Normandy, France. Manche is a French department in Normandy named after La Manche ("the sleeve" which is the French name for the English
150mm World War II German gun emplacement in Normandy. Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder
The Pegasus Bridge
"Rolling bascule bridge" redirects here For other types of bridge referred to as "rolling" see Rolling bridge. The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of Duke of Normandy is a Title held or claimed by various Norman, French, English and British rulers from the 10th century until the The COGEMA La Hague site is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of AREVA in La Hague on the French Cotentin Peninsula that currently