|History of Scandinavia|
The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BCE - 500 BCE, with sites that reached as far east as Estonia. The history of Scandinavia is the history of the Nordic countries — Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland. The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia. Late Upper Paleolithic See also Upper Paleolithic As the ice receded Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. The Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people starting in the 8th century with The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal The Great Northern War (1700-21 was fought between Russia and Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic Sea. The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Skandinaviska myntunionen Skandinaviske møntunion Skandinaviske myntunion was a Monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark A Scandinavian defence union that would include Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark was planned between the four countries after World The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers is an intergovernmental forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries. Oscar Montelius ( 9 September, 1843 &ndash 4 November, 1921) was a Swedish Archaeologist who refined the concept of The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for In addition to its usual meaning in Social science, in Archaeology, the term culture is also used in reference to several related concepts unique to Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The 18th century BC was the Century which lasted from 1800 BC to 1701 BC  Succeeding the Corded Ware culture, it is generally considered to be the direct predecessor and origin of the Proto-Germanic culture of the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Corded Ware culture, alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture is an enormous European Archaeological horizon that Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe ( 5th / 4th century BC - 1st century BC) designates the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia
Even though Scandinavians joined the European Bronze Age cultures fairly late through trade, Scandinavian sites present rich and well-preserved objects made of wool, wood and imported Central European bronze and gold. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 The Scandinavians adopted many important European and Mediterranean symbols while adapting these to create a unique Nordic style. Mycenaean Greece, the Villanovan culture, Phoenicia and Ancient Egypt have all been identified as possible sources of influence for Scandinavian artwork from this period. Mycenaean Greece is a cultural period of ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The foreign influence is believed to have been due to the amber trade. Amber is Fossil tree Resin, which is appreciated for its color and beauty Amber found in Mycenaean graves from this period originates from the Baltic Sea, so it is reasonable to assume that the culture that arose in the Nordic Bronze Age constituted one supply end of the so-called Amber Road. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The Amber Road was an ancient Trade route for the transfer of Amber. Many petroglyphs depict ships, and the large stone formations known as stone ships suggest that shipping played an important role. The Stone ship was a Germanic burial custom typical of Scandinavia, built from tightly or loosely fit slabs or stones Several petroglyphs depict ships that have been identified as plausibly Mediterranean.
There are many mounds and fields of petroglyphs from the period, but their significance has long since been lost. Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading Numerous artifacts of bronze and gold have also been found. The rather crude appearance of the petroglyphs compared to the bronze workings have given rise to the theory that they were produced by different cultures or different social groups. No written language existed in the Nordic countries during the Bronze Age. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, The petroglyphs have been dated as belonging to the Nordic Bronze Age by comparing depicted artifacts with archaeological finds, for example bronze axes are often portrayed in petroglyphs. The first archaeologist to make this connection was Oscar Montelius. Oscar Montelius ( 9 September, 1843 &ndash 4 November, 1921) was a Swedish Archaeologist who refined the concept of (There are also numerous Nordic Stone Age petroglyphs, mostly portraying elk. The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia. Late Upper Paleolithic See also Upper Paleolithic As the ice receded )
Oscar Montelius, who coined the term used for the period, divided it into six distinct sub-periods in his piece Om tidsbestämning inom bronsåldern med särskilt avseende på Skandinavien ("On Bronze Age dating with particular focus on Scandinavia") published in 1885 which is still in wide use (For Central Europe a different system developed by Paul Reinecke is commonly used):
These six periods are then followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Oscar Montelius ( 9 September, 1843 &ndash 4 November, 1921) was a Swedish Archaeologist who refined the concept of Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and The 18th century BC was the Century which lasted from 1800 BC to 1701 BC The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe ( 5th / 4th century BC - 1st century BC) designates the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia Another, broader subdivision is the "Early Bronze Age" between 1800 BC and 1100 BC and the "Late Bronze Age" 1100 BC to 550 BC.
The Nordic Bronze Age was characterized by a warm climate that began with a climate change circa 2700 BC (comparable to that of present-day Mediterranean). Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences The 27th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2700 BC to 2601 BC The warm climate permitted a relatively dense population and good farming, for example grapes were grown in Scandinavia at this time. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is However a small change in climate between 850 BC and 760 BC and a more radical one circa 650 BC brought in a deteriorating, wetter and colder climate (sometimes believed to have given rise to the legend of the Fimbulwinter). Events and trends 859 BC — Assurnasirpal II died 859 BC — Shalmaneser attacked Syria and Palestine. Events and trends 763 BC — June 15 — A Solar eclipse at this date (in month Sivan) is used to fix the Chronology of the Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala. In Norse mythology, Fimbulwinter ( Old Norse Fimbulvetr) is the immediate prelude to the events of Ragnarök.
It seems likely that the climate pushed the Germanic tribes southwards into continental Europe. During this time there was Scandinavian influence in Eastern Europe (and a thousand years later, the numerous East Germanic tribes that claimed Scandinavian origins (e. The Germanic tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of Migrants who may have moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder g. Langobards, Burgundians, Goths and Heruls) rendered Scandinavia (Scandza) the name womb of nations in Jordanes' Getica). The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths Huns and Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes) was a 6th century Roman Bureaucrat, who turned his hand to History later in life De origine actibusque Getarum (lit The Origin and Deeds of the Getae but referring to the Goths whom Jordanes considered Getae or the Getica
In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and northern Poland from period III onwards was so considerable that this region is sometimes included in the Nordic Bronze Age culture (Dabrowski 1989:73).
Due to the climate change and the loss of population, the Nordic countries are generally described as going through a cultural recession at the end of the Bronze Age, lasting for a thousand years until the rise of another advanced civilization in the so-called Viking Age. Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history.
Not much is known about the Nordic Bronze Age religion, since written sources are lacking. However numerous archaeological finds draw a vague picture of what the religion might have been, but possibly some sects of it and possibly only certain tribes. Some of the best clues to the religion of this period come from the rock carvings scattered through Northern Europe.
In general most scholars agree that the Bronze Age religion was centered around the sun or a sun god. "Sun god" redirects here For the Ramsey Lewis album see Sun Goddess (album. The sun was carried across the sky on a wagon pulled by a horse. Rock carvings from this time period sometimes show a sun wheel (usually depicted as an equilateral cross in a circle) near or being held by a figure that seems to be male. The sun cross, a Cross inside a Circle, is one of the oldest and most widespread of symbols The gender of this figure is not known with certainty, but is believed to be male because of a penis-like projection coming from the groin. It is interesting to note that while the sun seems to have been worshipped as a male figure during the Bronze Age, later Scandinavian pagan beliefs pictured the sun as a goddess (Sunna in Norse religion), and the word for "Sun" is generally attested with feminine grammatical gender in the later Germanic languages. In Linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called Noun classes are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words every noun must belong It is unknown how this transition occurred; perhaps a merging of different cultures is the answer.
A pair of twin gods are believed to have been worshipped, and is reflected in a duality in all things sacred: where sacrificial artifacts have been buried they are often found in pairs. The Divine twins are a Mytheme of Proto-Indo-European mythology. A female or mother goddess is believed to have been widely worshipped (see Nerthus). A mother goddess is a Goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general Fertility deity the bountiful embodiment of the Earth. Nerthus is a Goddess in Germanic paganism associated with fertility. Sacrifices (animals, weapons, jewelry and men) have been connected to water and small lakes or ponds have often been used as holy places for sacrifice and many artifacts have been found in such locations. Hieros gamos rites may have been common. Hieros Gamos ( Greek ιερός γάμος, "holy wedding" or Hierogamy (Greek ιερογαμία, again "holy wedding" Ritual instruments such as bronze lurs have been found sacrificed and are believed to have been used in ceremonies. Lur is a name given to two distinct types of wind Musical instrument.
Bronze Age rock carvings may contain some of the earliest depictions of well known gods from later Norse mythology. A common figure in these rock carvings is that of a male figure carrying what appears to be an axe or hammer. Most likely, this may have been an early representation of Thor. Other male figures are shown holding a spear. Whether this is a representation of Odin or Tyr is not known, as both gods are associated with this weapon. It is possible the figure may have been a representation of Tyr, as one example of a Bronze Age rock carving appears to show a figure missing a hand. A figure holding a bow may be an early representation of Ullr.
Remnants of the Bronze Age religion and mythology are believed to exist in Germanic mythology and Norse mythology, see for example Skinfaxi and Hrímfaxi, Nerthus. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland In Norse mythology, Skinfaxi and Hrímfaxi are the horses of Dagr (day and Nótt (night In Norse mythology, Skinfaxi and Hrímfaxi are the horses of Dagr (day and Nótt (night Nerthus is a Goddess in Germanic paganism associated with fertility.