A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by private persons or organizations with no participation or representation of any government. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status insofar as it excludes government representatives from membership in the organization.
The number of internationally operating NGOs is estimated at 40,000. An international nongovernmental organization (INGO is a voluntary association of organizations or individuals for worldwide or regional action  National numbers are even higher: Russia has 277,000 NGOs. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending  India is estimated to have between 1 million and 2 million NGOs. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 
International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least the mid-nineteenth century. An international nongovernmental organization (INGO is a voluntary association of organizations or individuals for worldwide or regional action  They were important in the anti-slavery movement and the movement for women's suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the World Disarmament Conference. The Disarmament Conference of 1932-34 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of  However, the phrase "non-governmental organization" only came into popular use with the establishment of the United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states – see Consultative Status. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Chapter X of the United Nations Charter deals with the Economic and Social Council. Consultative Status is a phrase whose use can be traced to the founding of the United Nations and is used within the UN community to refer to "Non-governmental organisations The definition of "international NGO" (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on February 27, 1950: it is defined as "any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty". Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" in sustainable development was recognised in Chapter 27 of Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations. Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present Agenda 21 is a programme run by the United Nations (UN related to Sustainable development. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 
Globalisation during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International treaties and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were perceived as being too centred on the interests of capitalist enterprises. A Treaty is an agreement under International law entered into by actors in international law namely States and International organizations. Some argued that in an attempt to counterbalance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasise humanitarian issues, developmental aid and sustainable development. Humanitarianism is an active belief in Humanism (the idea of the value of human life whereby Humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present A prominent example of this is the World Social Forum which is a rival convention to the World Economic Forum held annually in January in Davos, Switzerland. The World Social Forum (WSF is an annual meeting held by members of the Anti-globalization (using the term Globalization in a Doctrinal sense not The World Economic Forum (WEF is a Geneva -based Non-profit foundation best known for its Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland Davos ( Romansh: Tavau, Italian: Tavate is a municipality in the district of Prättigau/Davos in the canton of Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The fifth World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in January 2005 was attended by representatives from more than 1,000 NGOs. Porto Alegre ( is the 10th largest city in Brazil, and the capital city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Some have argued that in forums like these, NGOs take the place of what should belong to popular movements of the poor. Others argue that NGOs are often imperialist in nature and that they fulfill a similar function to that of the clergy during the high colonial era. Whatever the case, NGO transnational networking is now extensive. 
Apart from 'NGO' often alternative terms are used as for example independent sector, volunteer sector, civil society, grassroots organisations, transnational social movement organisations, private voluntary organisations, self-help organisations and non-state actors (NSA's).
Nongovernmental organisations are a heterogeneous group. A long list of acronyms has developed around the term 'NGO'.
The primary purpose of an operational NGO is the design and implementation of development-related projects. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e For all other uses see Project (disambiguation. A project, as defined in the field of Project management, consists of a temporary One frequently used categorisation is the division into 'relief-oriented' or 'development-oriented' organisations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious or secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. A service is the non-material equivalent of a good. A service provision is an economic activity that does not result in Ownership, and this is what differentiates Operational NGOs can be community-based, national or international. In biological terms a community is a group of interacting Organisms sharing an environment.
The primary purpose of an Advocacy NGO is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organisations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by lobbying, press work and activist events.
USAID refers to NGOs as private voluntary organisations. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the United States federal government organization responsible for most non- military However many scholars have argued that this definition is highly problematic as many NGOs are in fact state and corporate funded and managed projects with professional staff.
NGOs exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or funders. Examples include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled However, there are a huge number of such organisations and their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This can also easily be applied to private schools and athletic organisations.
NGOs vary in their methods. Some act primarily as lobbyists, while others conduct programs and activities primarily. For instance, an NGO such as Oxfam, concerned with poverty alleviation, might provide needy people with the equipment and skills to find food and clean drinking water. Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not
Non-governmental organizations need healthy relationships with the public to meet their goals. Foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds and employ standard lobbying techniques with governments. Interest groups may be of political importance because of their ability to influence social and political outcomes. At times NGOs seek to mobilize public support such as the  by the NGO Global Warming Alliance.
Many international NGOs have a consultative status with United Nations agencies relevant to their area of work. As an example, the Third World Network has a consultative status with the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The Third World Network is an international network of organizations and individuals The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation While in 1946, only 41 NGOs had consultative status with the ECOSOC, by 2003 this number had risen to 3550. The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation
There is an increasing awareness that management techniques are crucial to project success in non-governmental organizations.  Generally, non-governmental organizations that are private have either a community or environmental focus. They address varieties of issues such as religion, emergency aid, or humanitarian affairs. They mobilize public support and voluntary contributions for aid; they often have strong links with community groups in developing countries, and they often work in areas where government-to-government aid is not possible. NGOs are accepted as a part of the international relations landscape, and while they influence national and multilateral policy-making, increasingly they are more directly involved in local action.
Two management trends are particularly relevant to NGOs: diversity management and participatory management. The "business case for diversity " theorizes that in a global marketplace, a company that employs a diverse workforce (both men and women people of many generations Participatory management is the practice of empowering employees to participate in organizational Decision making. Diversity management deals with different cultures in an organization. Intercultural problems are prevalent in Northern NGOs which are engaged in developmental activities in the South. Personnel coming from a rich country are faced with a completely different approach of doing things in the target country. A participatory management style is said to be typical of NGOs. It is intricately tied to the concept of a learning organization: all people within the organization are perceived as sources for knowledge and skills. Peter Senge and the Learning Organization In his book The Fifth Discipline The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Peter Senge defines To develop the organization, individuals have to be able to contribute in the decision making process and they need to learn. Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes ( cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives The management is run by.
Not all people working for non-governmental organisations are volunteers. A volunteer is someone who works for a community or for the benefit of environment primarily because they choose to do so The reasons people volunteer are not necessarily purely altruistic, and can provide immediate benefits for themselves as well as those they serve, including skills, experience, and contacts. Altruism is selfless concern for the welfare of others It is a traditional Virtue in many cultures and central to many religious traditions
There is some dispute as to whether expatriates should be sent to developing countries. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing Frequently this type of personnel is employed to satisfy a donor who wants to see the supported project managed by someone from an industrialised country. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors However, the expertise these employees or volunteers may have can be counterbalanced by a number of factors: the cost of foreigners is typically higher, they have no grassroot connections in the country they are sent to, and local expertise is often undervalued. Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organization's lowest geographic 
The NGO sector is an important employer in terms of numbers. For example, by the end of 1995, CONCERN worldwide, an international Northern NGO working against poverty, employed 174 expatriates and just over 5,000 national staff working in ten developing countries in Africa and Asia, and in Haiti. Concern (or Concern Worldwide) is a Charitable organisation focused on providing emergency Humanitarian aid and Development aid to Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole:
Large NGOs may have annual budgets in the hundreds of millions or billions of dollars. For instance, the budget of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) was over US$540 million in 1999. For the AppleTalk protocol developed by Apple Computer, see AppleTalk address resolution protocol (AARP . Funding such large budgets demands significant fundraising efforts on the part of most NGOs. Major sources of NGO funding include membership dues, the sale of goods and services, grants from international institutions or national governments, and private donations. In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need A donation is a gift given typically to a cause or/and for charitable purposes Several EU-grants provide funds accessible to NGOs.
Even though the term "non-governmental organisation" implies independence from governments, some NGOs depend heavily on governments for their funding. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising A quarter of the US$162 million income in 1998 of the famine-relief organisation Oxfam was donated by the British government and the EU. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation A relief is a Sculptured Artwork where a modeled form is raised (or alternatively lowered from a flattened background without being disconnected from it Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice The Christian relief and development organisation World Vision collected US$55 million worth of goods in 1998 from the American government. World Vision, founded in the United States in 1951 is an international Christian relief and development organization whose stated goal Nobel Prize winner Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) (known in the USA as Doctors Without Borders) gets 46% of its income from government sources. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Médecins Sans Frontières (pronounced) or Doctors Without Borders, is a secular humanitarian-aid Non-governmental organization best known 
In a March 2000 report on United Nations Reform priorities, U. N. Secretary General Kofi Annan wrote in favor of international humanitarian intervention, arguing that the international community has a "right to protect" citizens of the world against ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity. On the heels of the report, the Canadian government launched the Responsibility to Protect PDF (434 KiB) project, outlining the issue of humanitarian intervention. A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International While the R2P doctrine has wide applications, among the more controversial has been the Canadian government's use of R2P to justify its intervention and support of the coup in Haiti.
Years after R2P, the World Federalist Movement, an organization which supports "the creation of democratic global structures accountable to the citizens of the world and call for the division of international authority among separate agencies", has launched Responsibility to Protect - Engaging Civil Society (R2PCS). The World Federalist Movement - Institute for Global Policy ( WFM-IGP) is a Global citizens movement with member and associate organizations around the world A collaboration between the WFM and the Canadian government, this project aims to bring NGOs into lockstep with the principles outlined under the original R2P project.
The governments of the countries an NGO works or is registered in may require reporting or other monitoring and oversight. Funders generally require reporting and assessment, such information is not necessarily publicly available. There may also be associations and watchdog organizations that research and publish details on the actions of NGOs working in particular geographic or program areas.
In recent years, many large corporations have increased their corporate social responsibility departments in an attempt to preempt NGO campaigns against certain corporate practices. Corporate social responsibility (CSR also called corporate responsibility corporate citizenship responsible business and corporate social opportunity is a concept whereby Organizations As the logic goes, if corporations work with NGOs, NGOs will not work against corporations.
In December 2007, The United States Department of Defense Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs)  established an International Health Division under Force Health Protection & Readiness . International health, also called geographic medicine or Global health, is a field of Health care usually with a public health emphasis dealing Part of International Health's mission is to communicate with NGOs in areas of mutual interest. Department of Defense Directive 3000. 05 , in 2005, requires DoD to regard stability-enhancing activities as a mission of importance equal to warfighting. In compliance with international law , DoD has necessarily built a capacity to improve essential services in areas of conflict such as Iraq, where the customary lead agencies (State Department and USAID) find it difficult to operate. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the United States federal government organization responsible for most non- military Unlike the "co-option" strategy described for corporations, the OASD(HA) recognizes the neutrality of health as an essential service. International Health cultivates collaborative relationships with NGOs, albeit at arms-length, recognizing their traditional independence, expertise and honest broker status. While the goals of DoD and NGOs may seem incongruent, the DoD's emphasis on stability and security to reduce and prevent conflict suggests, on careful analysis, important mutual interests.
NGOs are not subjects of international law, as states are. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards An exception is the International Committee of the Red Cross, which is subject to certain specific matters, mainly relating to the Geneva Convention. "ICRC" redirects here For other uses see ICRC (disambiguation. The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian
The Council of Europe in Strasbourg drafted the European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organizations in 1986, which sets a common legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in Europe. The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of association, which is also a fundamental norm for NGOs. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (also called the "European Convention on Human Rights" and "ECHR" was adopted under the
There is a growing movement within the “non”-profit and “non”-government sector to define itself in a more constructive, accurate way. Instead of being defined by “non” words, organizations are suggesting new terminology to describe the sector. The term “civil society organization” (CSO) has been used by a growing number of organizations, such as The Center for the Study of Global Governance.  The term “citizen sector organization” (CSO) has also been advocated to describe the sector — as one of citizens, for citizens.  This labels and positions the sector as its own entity, without relying on language used for the government or business sectors. However some have argued that this is not particularly helpful given that most NGOs are in fact funded by governments and business.
More useful are regional histories and analyses of the experience of NGOs. Specific works (although this is by no means an exhaustive list) include:
The de facto reference resource for information and statistics on International NGOs (INGOs) and other transnational organisational forms is the Yearbook of International Organizations, produced by the Union of International Associations. The most up-to-date and comprehensive reference to international organizations published (under current title since 1950 by the Union of International Associations (UIA The Union of International Associations is a non-profit non-governmental organization researching under UN mandate the global Civil society