|Directed by||Oliver Stone|
|Produced by||Dan Halsted|
|Written by||Stephen J. William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. Dan Halsted (born July 12 1962 is an American film producer Halsted's career has encompassed all aspects of the Hollywood business from running a major Hollywood studio to producing William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. Rivele|
|Music by||John Williams|
|Editing by||Brian Berdan|
|Distributed by||Hollywood Pictures|
|Release date(s)||December 22, 1995|
|Running time||192 minutes|
212 minutes (director's cut)
|Gross revenue||$13,560,960 (USA)|
Nixon is a 1995 film directed by Oliver Stone for Cinergi Pictures that tells the story of the political and personal life of former President Richard Nixon, played by Anthony Hopkins. William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins, CBE (born 31 December 1937 is a Welsh Film, stage and Television Actor. Joan Allen (born August 20, 1956) is an American multiple Academy Award -nominated and Tony Award -winning Actress, perhaps Paul Anthony Sorvino (born April 13 1939 is an American actor whose solid career has largely been the portrayal of authority figures both as a legal enforcer and criminal in television Robert William "Bob" Hoskins Jr (born 26 October 1942 is an English Actor, known for playing Cockney rough diamonds and gangsters and Powers Allen Boothe (born June 1, 1948) is an American Television and Film Actor. James Howard Woods (born April 18 1947) is a two-time Academy Award -nominated Emmy Award -winning and Golden Globe -winning American Edward Allen "Ed" Harris (born November 28 1950 is a four-time Academy Award -nominated and Golden Globe -winning American actor writer and director E G Marshall ( June 18 1914 - August 24 1998) was a two-time Emmy Award -winning American Actor who co-starred John Towner Williams (born February 8 1932) is an American Composer, conductor and Pianist. Robert Bridge Richardson (born August 27, 1955 in Hyannis Massachusetts) is an American Cinematographer. Brian Berdan is a Film editor with several high-grossing films to his name Hollywood Pictures is one of The Walt Disney Company 's several alternate movie divisions Cinergi Pictures Entertainment Inc was a small independent production company that was formed in 1992 by Andrew G Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 A director's cut is a specially edited version of a Film, and less often TV series, Music video, commercials or Video games The United States of America —commonly referred to as the English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The year 1995 in film involved some significant events Events March 22 - The Dogme 95 movement is officially announced in Paris William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. Cinergi Pictures Entertainment Inc was a small independent production company that was formed in 1992 by Andrew G The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins, CBE (born 31 December 1937 is a Welsh Film, stage and Television Actor. The film portrays Nixon as a complex and, in many respects, an admirable person, though deeply flawed. Unlike Stone's earlier film JFK, Nixon begins with a disclaimer that the film is "an attempt to understand the truth [. JFK is a 1991 American film directed by Oliver Stone. The film was released on December 20 1991 . . ] based on numerous public sources and on an incomplete historical record. " The studio did not like Stone's choice to play Nixon — Hopkins. They wanted Tom Hanks or Jack Nicholson — two of Stone's original choices. Thomas Jeffrey "Tom" Hanks (born July 9 1956 is an two-time Academy award and Emmy winning American Film actor, director John Joseph "Jack" Nicholson (born April 22 1937) is an American Actor, internationally renowned for his often dark-themed portrayals The director briefly considered Gene Hackman, Robin Williams and Tommy Lee Jones. Eugene Allen "Gene" Hackman (born January 30, 1930) is a two-time Academy Award -winning American actor and author Robin McLaurim Williams (born July 21 1951 or 1952 is an American television stage and film actor and Comedian who has won an Academy Award for his performance Tommy Lee Jones (born September 15, 1946) is an Academy Award - Golden Globe - Screen Actors Guild - and Emmy Award -winning Stone met with Warren Beatty but the actor wanted to make too many changes to the script. Warren Beatty (born Henry Warren Beaty; March 30 1937 is an American Academy Award - and Golden Globe -winning Actor, producer  Stone cast Hopkins based on his performances in The Remains of the Day and Shadowlands. The Remains of the Day ( 1993) is a Merchant Ivory Film adapted by Ruth Prawer Jhabvala from the novel by Kazuo Ishiguro Shadowlands is a 1993 British Biographical film directed by Richard Attenborough.
Two days before the film was released in theaters, the Nixon family issued a statement criticizing Stone's depiction of Nixon's private life, that of his childhood, and his part in planning the assassination of Fidel Castro. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until Some critics took Stone to task for portraying Nixon as an alcoholic but this information came from books by Stephen Ambrose, Fawn Brodie and Tom Wicker. Stephen Edward Ambrose ( January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American Historian and Biographer of U Fawn McKay Brodie (September 15 1915 – January 10 1981 was a biographer and professor of history at UCLA, best known for Thomas Jefferson Thomas Grey (Tom Wicker (born June 18, 1926) is an American Journalist. Roger Ebert, a film critic of the Chicago Sun-Times praised the film and placed it on his list of the top ten films of the year. Roger Joseph Ebert (iːbɝt born June 18, 1942) is an American film critic and Screenwriter. The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily Newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois. The film grossed a total of $13 million in North America, well below its $44 million budget.
The film covers all aspects of Nixon's life as a composite of actual events. It depicts his childhood in Whittier, California, as well as his growth as a young man, football fan and player, and suitor to his eventual wife, Pat Ryan. Whittier is a city in Los Angeles County California about southeast of Los Angeles. Thelma Catherine " Pat " Ryan Nixon (March 16 1912 &ndash June 22 1993 was the wife of Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United It fully explores most of the important events of his presidency, including his downfall due to abuse of executive power in the White House. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence
Nixon's alcohol dependence, as well as that of his wife, is fully implied in the film, as is the medication addiction he faced during his remaining years in office (Nixon's health problems, including his bout of phlebitis and pneumonia during the Watergate crisis, are also shown in the film, and his various medicaments are sometimes attributed to these health issues). Alcohol dependence, as described in the DSM-IV, is a psychiatric diagnosis describing a Physical dependence on alcohol. Phlebitis is an Inflammation of a Vein, usually in the Legs When phlebitis is associated with the formation of Blood clots ( Thrombosis Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal
The film ends with Nixon's resignation and famous departure from the lawn of the White House on the helicopter, Army One. A resignation is the formal act of giving up or quitting one's office or position WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Real life footage of Nixon's state funeral in Yorba Linda, California, plays out over the extended end credits, and all living presidents at the time, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton, are shown in attendance . Yorba Linda is an affluent suburban community in Orange County, California, approximately northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and southeast of Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States
Eric Hamburg, former speechwriter and staff member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, got the idea of a film about Nixon after having dinner with Oliver Stone. James Thomas Patrick Walsh ( September 28, 1943 – February 27, 1998) was an American Character actor known for his roles Haldeman and Ehrlichman discuss policy 1973png|thumb|200px|right|"The Berlin Wall" of Ehrlichman and Haldeman on April 27, 1973 three days before they would be asked to resign Paul Anthony Sorvino (born April 13 1939 is an American actor whose solid career has largely been the portrayal of authority figures both as a legal enforcer and criminal in television Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973 Powers Allen Boothe (born June 1, 1948) is an American Television and Film Actor. Alexander Meigs Haig Jr (born December 2 1924 is a retired four-star General in the United States Army who served as the U Edward Allen "Ed" Harris (born November 28 1950 is a four-time Academy Award -nominated and Golden Globe -winning American actor writer and director Everette Howard Hunt Jr ( October 9 1918 – January 23 2007) was an American Author and spy. Robert William "Bob" Hoskins Jr (born 26 October 1942 is an English Actor, known for playing Cockney rough diamonds and gangsters and WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Postnominal initials E G Marshall ( June 18 1914 - August 24 1998) was a two-time Emmy Award -winning American Actor who co-starred John Newton Mitchell (September 1913 &ndash November 9, 1988) was the first United States Attorney General ever to be convicted of illegal activities and David Paymer (born August 30 1954) is an Academy Award -nominated American Character actor, seen in such films as Quiz Show Ronald Louis Ziegler ( May 12, 1939 &ndash February 10, 2003) was White House Press Secretary during United States President David Hyde Pierce (born April 3, 1959) is an American Actor, best known for his role as Psychiatrist Dr John Wesley Dean III (born October 14, 1938) was White House Counsel to U Kevin Dunn (born February 26 1956 is an American Actor who has appeared in supporting roles in a number of films since the 1980s Kingdoms in Conflict (1988 but I don't know where--> Charles (Chuck Wendell Colson (born October 16  Originally, Oliver Stone had been developing two projects — the musical Evita and a movie about Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega. Evita is the 1996 Film adaptation of Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber 's musical based on the life of Eva Manuel Antonio Noriega (born February 11, 1934) He was never officially the President of Panama, but held the post of "chief executive officer" When they both failed to get made, Stone turned his attention to a biopic about Richard Nixon.  The former President's death in April 1994 was also a key factor in Stone's decision to make a Nixon film. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) He pitched the film to Warner Brothers, but, according to the director, they saw it, "as a bunch of unattractive older white men sitting around in suits, with a lot of dialogue and not enough action. Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and "
In 1993, Hamburg mentioned the idea of a Nixon film to writer Stephen J. Rivele with the concept being that they would incorporate all of the politician's misdeeds, both known and speculative.  Rivele liked the idea and had previously thought about writing a play exploring the same themes. Hamburg encouraged Rivele to write a film instead and with his screenwriting partner, Christopher Wilkinson, they wrote a treatment on November 1993.  They conceived of a concept referred to as "the Beast," which Wilkinson describes as "a headless monster that lurches through postwar history," a metaphor for a system of dark forces that resulted in the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr., the Vietnam War, and helped Nixon's rise to power and his fall from it as well. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20 1925 – June 6 1968 also called RFK, was the United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964 and a Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia  Stone said in an interview that Nixon realizes that "the Beast" "is more powerful than he is. We can't get into it that much, but we hint at it so many times — the military-industrial complex, the forces of money. " In another interview, the director elaborates, "I see the Beast in its essence as a System. . . which grinds the individual down. . . it's a System of checks and balances that drives itself off: 1) the power of money and markets; 2) State power, Government power; 3) corporate power, which is probably greater than state power; 4) the political process, or election through money, which is therefore in tow to the System; and 5) the media, which mostly protects the status quo and their ownership's interests. " It was this concept that convinced Stone to make Nixon and he told Hamburg to hire Rivele and Wilkinson. Stone commissioned the first draft of the film's screenplay in the fall of 1993.  Rivele and Wilkinson delivered the first draft of their script on June 17, 1994, the anniversary of the Watergate break-in. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar)  Stone loved the script but felt that the third act and the ending needed more work.  They wrote another draft and delivered it on August 9th, the 20th anniversary of Nixon's resignation. 
Stone immersed himself in research with the help of Hamburg.  With Hamburg and actors Hopkins and James Woods, Stone flew to Washington, D.C. and interviewed the surviving members of Nixon's inner circle: lawyer Leonard Garment and Attorney General Elliot Richardson. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Leonard Garment (born May 11 1924, Brooklyn, USA was acting Special Counsel to U Elliot Lee Richardson ( July 20, 1920 &ndash December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet He also interviewed Robert McNamara, a former member of the Kennedy Administration. Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9 1916 in Oakland, California) is an American business executive and former United States Secretary of Defense The director also hired Alexander Butterfield, a key figure in the Watergate scandal who handled the flow of paper to the President, as a consultant to make sure that the Oval Office was realistically depicted, former deputy White House counsel John Sears, and John Dean, who made sure that every aspect of the script was accurate and wrote a few uncredited scenes for the film. Alexander Porter Butterfield (born April 6, 1926) was the deputy assistant to Richard Nixon from 1969 until 1973 John Patrick Sears is an attorney and a Republican political strategist John Wesley Dean III (born October 14, 1938) was White House Counsel to U . To research their roles, Powers Boothe, David Hyde Pierce and Paul Sorvino talked to their real-life counterparts, but J. T. Walsh decided not to contact John Ehrlichman because he had threatened to sue after reading an early version of the script and was not happy with how he was portrayed. Haldeman and Ehrlichman discuss policy 1973png|thumb|200px|right|"The Berlin Wall" of Ehrlichman and Haldeman on April 27, 1973 three days before they would be asked to resign  Hopkins watched a lot of documentary footage on Nixon. At night, he would go to sleep with the Nixon footage playing, letting it seep into his subconscious.  Hopkins said, "It's taking in all this information and if you're relaxed enough, it begins to take you over. "
Stone originally had a three-picture deal with New Regency Films which included JFK, Heaven and Earth, and Natural Born Killers. JFK is a 1991 American film directed by Oliver Stone. The film was released on December 20 1991 Heaven & Earth is a 1993 film written and directed by Oliver Stone, and starring Tommy Lee Jones, Haing S Natural Born Killers is a 1994 Crime film Satire directed by Oliver Stone about Serial killers and their coverage by the After the success of Killers, Arnon Milchan, head of New Regency, signed Stone for three more motion pictures.  Stone could make any film up to a budget of $42. 5 million.  When Stone told Milchan that he wanted to make Nixon, Milchan, who was not keen on the idea, told the director that he would only give him $35 million, thinking that this would cause Stone to abandon the project.  Stone took the project to Hungarian financier Andrew Vajna who had co-financing deal with Disney. Andrew George Vajna (born Vajna András György on August 1, 1944 in Budapest, Hungary) is a film Producer who has done  Vanjna's company, Cinergi Films, were willing to finance the $38 million film. This angered Milchan who claimed that Nixon was his film because of his three-picture deal with Stone and he threatened to sue. He withdrew after Stone paid him an undisclosed amount.  Stone was finalizing the film's budget a week before shooting was to begin.  He made a deal with Cinergi and Disney's Hollywood Pictures in order to supply the $43 million budget. Hollywood Pictures is one of The Walt Disney Company 's several alternate movie divisions  To cut costs, Stone leased the White House sets from Rob Reiner's film, The American President. Robert "Rob" Reiner (born March 6, 1947) is an American Actor, director, producer, Writer, and The American President is a 1995 Romantic comedy film directed by Rob Reiner and written by Aaron Sorkin. 
The film began shooting on May 1, 1995 but there was a week of pre-shooting at the end of April to film scenes that would be used as part of a mock documentary about Nixon's career. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995  Early on during principal photography, Hopkins was intimidated by the amount of dialogue he had to learn, that was being added and changed all the time as he recalled, "There were moments when I wanted to get out, when I wanted to just do a nice Knots Landing or something. Knots Landing is a Primetime Television Soap opera that aired for 14 seasons from December 27 1979 to May 13 " Sorvino told him that his accent was all wrong.  Sorvino claims that he told Hopkins that he thought "there was room for improvement" and that he would be willing to help him.  Woods says that Sorvino told Hopkins that he was "doing the whole thing wrong" and that he was an "expert" who could help him.  Woods recalls that Sorvino took Hopkins to lunch and then he quit that afternoon.  Hopkins told Stone that he wanted to quit the production but the director managed to convince him to stay.  According to the actors, this was all good-natured joking. Woods said, "I'd always tell him how great he was in Psycho. Psycho is a suspense / Horror film directed by auteur Alfred Hitchcock, from the Screenplay by Joseph I'd call him Lady Perkins all the time instead of Sir Anthony Hopkins. "
In Spring of 1994, Time magazine reported that an early draft of the screenplay linked Nixon to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of  The facts contained in the script were based on research from various sources, including documents, transcripts and hours of footage from the Nixon White House. Dean said about the film's accuracy: "In the larger picture, it reflected accurately what happened. " Stone addressed the criticism of fictional material in the film, saying, "The material we invented was not done haphazardly or whimsically, it was based on research and interpretation. " John Taylor, head of the Nixon Presidential Library, leaked a copy of the script to Richard Helms, former Director of the CIA, who threatened to sue the production. Richard McGarrah Helms ( March 30, 1913 &ndash October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI from 1966 to 1973 near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all  In response, Stone cut out all scenes with Helms from the theatrical print and claimed that he did for "artistic reasons" only to reinstate this footage on the home video release. 
During the post-production phase, Stone had his editors in three different rooms with the scenes from the film revolving from one room to another, "depending on how successful they were. " If one editor wasn't successful with a scene then it went to another. Stone said that it was "the most intense post- I've ever done, even more intense than JFK" because they were screening the film three times a week, making changes in 48-72 hours, rescreening the film and then making another 48 hours of changes. 
In its opening weekend, Nixon grossed a total of $2,206,506 in 514 theaters. As of December 19, 2006, the film has grossed a total of $13,681,765 domestically, well below its $44 million budget. Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  The film holds a 74 percent "fresh" rating at Rotten Tomatoes. Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies.
Two days before the film was released in theaters, the Nixon family issued a statement calling parts of it "reprehensible" and that it was designed to "defame and degrade President and Mrs. Nixon's memories in the mind of the American public. " This statement was actually issued by the Richard Nixon Library and birthplace in Yorba Linda, California on behalf of the Nixon family based on a published copy of the script. The Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum is the Presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, the 37th Yorba Linda is an affluent suburban community in Orange County, California, approximately northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and southeast of  The statement also criticized Stone's depiction of Nixon's private life, that of his childhood, and his part in planning the assassination of Fidel Castro. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until Stone responded that his "purpose in making the film Nixon, was neither malicious nor defamatory," and was an attempt to gain "a fuller understanding of the life and career of Richard Nixon — the good and the bad, the triumphs and the tragedies, and the legacy he left his nation and the world. " Walt Disney's daughter, Diane Disney Miller, wrote a letter to Nixon's daughters saying that Stone had "committed a grave disservice to your family, to the Presidency, and to American history. Walter Elias Disney (December 5 1901 – December 15 1966 was a multiple Academy Award -winning American Film producer, director, Screenwriter " Stone does not see his film as the definitive statement on Nixon but as "a basis to start reading, to start investigating on your own. "
Some critics took Stone to task for portraying Nixon as an alcoholic but this information came from books by Stephen Ambrose, Fawn Brodie and Tom Wicker. Stephen Edward Ambrose ( January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American Historian and Biographer of U Fawn McKay Brodie (September 15 1915 – January 10 1981 was a biographer and professor of history at UCLA, best known for Thomas Jefferson Thomas Grey (Tom Wicker (born June 18, 1926) is an American Journalist.  Roger Ebert, a film critic of the Chicago Sun-Times praised the film for how it took "on the resonance of classic tragedy. Roger Joseph Ebert (iːbɝt born June 18, 1942) is an American film critic and Screenwriter. The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily Newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois. Tragedy requires the fall of a hero, and one of the achievements of Nixon is to show that greatness was within his reach. " Ebert also placed the film on his list of the top ten films of the year. Janet Maslin from The New York Times praised Anthony Hopkins' performance and "his character's embattled outlook and stiff, hunched body language with amazing skill. Janet Maslin (born 1948 is an American Journalist. She is best known as a film and literary critic for The New York Times " However, Mick LaSalle in the San Francisco Chronicle, felt that "the problem here isn't accuracy. The San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H It's absurdity. Hopkins' exaggerated portrayal of Nixon is the linchpin of a film that in its conception and presentation consistently veers into camp. "
It was nominated for four Academy Awards for Best Actor in a Leading Role (Anthony Hopkins), Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Joan Allen), Best Music, Original Dramatic Score and Best Writing, Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to recognize Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS The Academy Award for Original Music Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best script not based upon previously published material
A director's cut was released on DVD with 28 minutes of previously deleted scenes restored. A director's cut is a specially edited version of a Film, and less often TV series, Music video, commercials or Video games DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is Much of the added time consists of two scenes: one in which Nixon meets with Central Intelligence Agency director Richard Helms (played by Sam Waterston) and another on Tricia Nixon's wedding day, where J. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all Richard McGarrah Helms ( March 30, 1913 &ndash October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI from 1966 to 1973 Samuel Atkinson "Sam" Waterston (born November 15 1940) is an American actor noted particularly for his portrayal of Jack McCoy Patricia "Tricia" Nixon Cox (born February 21, 1946, in Whittier, California) is the first daughter of the late U Edgar Hoover persuades Nixon to install the taping system in the Oval Office. | |-| |-| |- | |-| |-| |-| |-| |} The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States. The film will be re-released on DVD and Blu-ray disc on August 21, 2008 with an anamorphic widescreen version of the film. Events 1192 - Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the De facto ruler of Japan. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Anamorphic widescreen is a videographic technique utilising rectangular (wide pixels to store a Widescreen image to standard 43 aspect ratio.