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Practices and Attainment
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Practices and attainment
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Nirvana (Sanskrit: निर्वाण, Nirvāṇa; Pali: निब्बान, Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण, Nivvāṇa; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃, Mandarin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: 涅槃, nehan; Korean: 열반, yeolban; Thai: นิพพาน, nibpan; Tibetan: mya-ngan-las-'das-pa; Mongolian: asalang-aca nögcigsen; Burmese: nate ban edAmef); is a Sanskrit word that literally means "to cease blowing" (as when a candle flame ceases to flicker) and/or extinguishing (that is, of the passions). English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam) Tibetan refers to a group of languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia as well as by overseas Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The History of Buddhism spans the 6th century BCE to the present starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. Foundation to the Common Era Some sources give the date of the Buddha's birth as 563 BCE and others as 624 BCE Theravada Buddhist countries tend to use the latter figure Lists and numbering of Buddhist councils vary between and even within schools Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term Background Why the Buddha is said to have taught in this way is illuminated by the social context of the time in which he lived The Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures, the Three Refuges, or the Triple Gem, are the three things that Buddhists take refuge Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term According to the Buddhist tradition all phenomena other than Nirvana, ( sankhara) are marked by three characteristics sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals In Buddhist phenomenology and Soteriology, the five skandhas ( Sanskrit) or khandhas ( Pāli) are five "aggregates" Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates ( Skandhas Dhamma ( Pāli: धम्म or Dharma (धर्म in Buddhism has two primary meanings the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment The doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit paticcasamuppāda; rten Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means "action" or "doing" whatever A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools Individuals are grouped by nationality except in cases where the Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools Individuals are grouped by nationality except in cases where the In Buddhism, buddhahood ( Sanskrit: buddhatva. Pali: buddhatta. In the Buddhist context a bodhisattva (बोधिसत्त्व bodhisattva;; Vietnamese Bồ Tát; बोधिसत्त bodhisatta The four stages of Enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life Theravada Buddhism Theravada Buddhism 's teachings on the paramitas can be found in late canonical books and post-canonical commentaries Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of Meditation techniques that develop Mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight In English translations of Buddhist literature, householder denotes a variety of terms Obtaining exact numbers of practicing Buddhists can be difficult and may be reliant on the definition used Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region There are distinctions between and within the Buddhism practised in various regions including In South Asia Mahayana Buddhism is the State religion of Bhutan, and Buddhists comprise 98% of its population. History See also History of Buddhism in Cambodia Unconfirmed Singhalese sources assert that missionaries of King Asohka introduced Buddhism into Chinese Buddhism ( Pinyin fójiào refers collectively to the various schools of Buddhism that have flourished in China proper since ancient times Buddhism is a world religion which arose in Bihar, India and is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who is known as the Buddha (literally Among the five official religions of Indonesia, according to the state ideology of Pancasila According to Suharto, Buddhism and Hinduism were Indonesia's classical The history of Buddhism in Japan can be roughly divided into three periods namely the Nara period (up to 784 the Heian period (794–1185 and the post-Heian period Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism Buddhism is the primary religion of Laos. The Buddhism practiced in Laos is of the Theravada tradition Buddhism is the second largest religion in Malaysia after Islam, with 19 Buddhism in Mongolia is essentially Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelugpa school History The history of Buddhism in Burmaextends nearly a millennium Buddha was born in Shakya kingdom which lies in Rupandehi district Lumbini zone of Nepal Historically Buddhism was incorporated into Russian lands as early as the late 16th century, when Russian explorers travelled to and settled in As of 2000 425% of the Singaporeans register themselves as Buddhist by religion General Buddhism in Sri Lanka is primarily of the Theravada school and constitutes the religious faith of about 70% of the populationAccording to traditional Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school Nearly 95% of Thailand 's population is Buddhist of the Theravada school though Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Buddhism came to Vietnam in the first century CE By the end of the second century Vietnam developed a major Buddhist centre in the region commonly known as the Luy Lâu Buddhism in the West broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism outside of Asia. The Schools of Buddhism. Buddhism is classified in various ways History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Vajrayana Buddhism is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and The Early Buddhist schools are those schools into which according to most scholars the Buddhist monastic Sangha initially split due originally to differences in The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used by some scholars to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being Buddhist texts can be categorized in a number of ways The Western terms "scripture" and "canonical" are applied to Buddhism in inconsistent ways by Western scholars Historicity and Background Place in the Canon Various Mahayana Sutras have been included in the Tibetan Canon and the Chinese Canon. The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of Sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include Buddhist Festivals and Observances Vesak The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Aggañña Sutta Ahimsa Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Navakar Mantra (णमोकार मंत्र is the fundamental prayer in Jainism and can be recited at any time of the day Timeline of Jainism Prehistory Jainism is one of the oldest religions of India Ahiṃsā ( Sanskrit: अहिंसा Prakrit: अहिंसा means “non-violence” “non-injury” or absence of desire to harm any life forms Achaurya is a Sanskrit word meaning "avoidance of stealing" or "non-stealing" Brahmacharya (brʌmatʃərɪə Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य is the first ashram in Vedic culture in which a person is dedicated to the quest for self realization Satya is a Sanskrit word that loosely translates into English as " Truth " or "correct Anekāntavāda (Devanagari sa [[wiktअनेकान्तवाद अनेकान्तवाद]] is one of the most important and basic doctrines of Jainism. Kevala Jñāna ( Sanskrit: केवलज्ञान)or Kevala Ṇāṇa (Prakrit: केवल णाण in Jainism, (also known as "absolute knowledge" According to Jainism, this loka or universe is an uncreated entity existing since infinity having no beginning or an end Karma in Jainism ( Sanskrit: कर्म kär'mə kär'mən Prakrit: कम्म kä'mmə refers not only to the actions and deeds that are part of the Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the word Dharma (धर्म or Dhamma ( Prakrit: धम्म Mokṣa ( Sanskrit: मोक्ष liberation or Mokkha ( Prakrit: मोक्ख) means liberation salvation or emancipation of soul The Swadhyay Parivar is an association of people who study the Bhagavad Gita and carry out various activities of social good ( swadhyaya literally means self-study In Jainism, a Tirthankar (" Fordmaker " (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a Human being who achieves enlightenment (perfect In Jainism, Rishabh Dev (ऋषभदेव or Adinatha (other names used Riṣhabh, Riṣhabhanāth, Rushabh, Rushabhdev Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान An acharya ( acariya in Pali) is an important religious teacher ( Guru) who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit 'achara' behavior In Jainism, a Ganadhara is a primary disciple of a Tirthankara. Siddhasen Diwakar (Fifth century A D (आचार्य सिद्दसैन दिवाकर was a highly intelligent Jain Acharya of his time Haribhadra Suri (c700-c770 or 459-529 traditional was a Svetambara Mendicant Jain leader and author There are 5200000 Jain in the total population of India of 1028 billion Jainism is a religion that has traditionally been confined to the Indian sub-continent and parts of the middle east The Svetambara (श्वेतांबर श्वेतपट also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetabmbar or Swetambar) is one of Digambar (दिगंबर (sky-clad in Sanskrit) (alternate orthographies Digambara) has many different meaning and associations throughout Indian Terapanth (or Tera Panth the name given to two independent Jain sects Digambar Terapanth: A sect of the Digambara tradition that Sthanakvasi (स्थानकवासी is a sect of Jainism originally founded by a merchant named Lavaji about 1653 CE that believes that God is 'nirakar' (without Bisapantha is sub-sect of the Digambar sect of Jainism. The term refers to Digambaras who are not Terapanthis Murtipujaka is also known as Deravasi and is the term for a sect of Jainism which includes most members of the Shvetambar sect Kalpasutra (कल्पसूत्र is a Jain ancient text containing the biographies of the last two Jain Tirthankaras Parshvanath Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra or Moksh-Shastra) is a Jaina text written by Acharya Umaswati or Umasvami A Acaranga Sutra Adipurana Agama (text Antakrddaasah Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. Prakrit (also transliterated as Pracrit) ( Sanskrit: prākṛta प्राकृत (from pra-kṛti प्रकृति according to one Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam) is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and Tibetan refers to a group of languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia as well as by overseas The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ myà̃mà bàθà MLCTS: myanma bhasa) is the official Language of Burma. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Passion (from the Latin patior, meaning to suffer or to endure is an emotion of feeling very strongly about a person It is a sramana philosophical concept, used by the Jains and the Buddhists, to describe the enlightenment and liberation of their respective teachers. A Shramana ( Sanskrit sa श्रमण śramaṇa, Pāli pi शमण samaṇa) is a wandering monk in certain Ascetic Nibbāna is a word used by the Buddha to describe the perfect peace of the mind that is free from craving, anger and other afflictive states (kilesa). Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" This peace, which is in reality the fundamental nature of the mind, is revealed when the root causes of the afflictive states are dissolved. The causes themselves (see sankhara) lie deep within the mind (that part of the mind that Western psychology calls the subconscious) but their undoing is gradually achieved by living a disciplined life (see eightfold path). Saṅkhāra ( Pali; Devanagari: सङ्खार or saṃskāra ( Sanskrit; Devanagari संस्कार is a term figuring prominently In Nibbana the root causes of craving and aversion have been extinguished such that one is no longer subject to human suffering (dukkha) or further states of rebirths in samsara. Dukkha ( Pāli दुक्ख Sanskrit दुःख duḥkha; according to grammatical tradition derived from dus-kha "uneasy" Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates ( Skandhas Buddhist scholar, Prof. Herbert Guenther, states of Nirvana: "The notion of Nirvana is a transcendental postulate, which can only be proven psychologically/subjectively, not scientifically. Yet all highest and final goals lead towards it; indeed, it appears even to constitute the very commencement of the entire spiritual life . . . With the reaching of Nirvana the Path has come to its end and reached its goal. The Self-realisation which was striven after and which here becomes Reality, signifies the ideal personality, the true human being. " (Guenther, The Problem of the Soul in Early Buddhism, Curt Weller Verlag, Constanz, 1949, pp. 156-157). The Buddha in the Dhammapada says of nirvana that it is "the highest happiness". The Dhammapada ( Pāli; Prakrit: Dhamapada; Sanskrit Dharmapada; sometimes translated into English as Path of the This happiness is rather an enduring, transcendental happiness integral to the calmness attained through enlightenment or bodhi, than the happiness of blindful entertainment. Bodhi (बोधि is both the Pāli and Sanskrit word traditionally translated into English as "enlightenment The knowledge accompanying nirvana is expressed through the word bodhi. Bodhi (बोधि is both the Pāli and Sanskrit word traditionally translated into English as "enlightenment In Jainism, it means final release from the karmic bondage. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Karma in Jainism ( Sanskrit: कर्म kär'mə kär'mən Prakrit: कम्म kä'mmə refers not only to the actions and deeds that are part of the When an enlightened human, such as, an Arhat or a Tirthankara extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvana. In Jainism, a Tirthankar (" Fordmaker " (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a Human being who achieves enlightenment (perfect Karma in Jainism ( Sanskrit: कर्म kär'mə kär'mən Prakrit: कम्म kä'mmə refers not only to the actions and deeds that are part of the Technically, the death of an Arhat is called nirvana of Arhat, as he has ended his wordly existence and attained liberation. Moksa, that is to say, liberation follows nirvana. An Arhat becomes a siddha, the liberated one, after attaining nirvana.
The Buddha explains nirvana as "the unconditioned" (asankhata) mind, a mind that has come to a point of perfect lucidity and clarity due to the absence of volitional formations. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Saṅkhāra ( Pali; Devanagari: सङ्खार or saṃskāra ( Sanskrit; Devanagari संस्कार is a term figuring prominently This being is described by the Buddha as "deathlessness" (Pali: amata or amaravati) and as the highest spiritual attainment, the natural result that accrues to one who lives a life of virtuous conduct and practise in accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path. Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. Such a life dissolves the causes for future becoming (Skt, karma; Pali, kamma) that otherwise keep beings forever wandering through the impermanent and suffering-generating realms of desire, form, and formlessness, termed samsara. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India.
Nirvana in sutra is never conceived of as a place (such as one might conceive heaven), but rather the antinomy of samsara (see below) which itself is synonymous with ignorance (avidyā, Pāli avijjā). Avidyā is a Sanskrit word that holds the Semantic field of " Ignorance " " Delusion " "unlearned" "unwise" This said:
Nirvāna is meant specifically - as pertains gnosis - that which ends the identity of the mind (citta) with empirical phenomena. Gnosis (from one of the Greek words for Knowledge, γνώσις is the spiritual knowledge of a Saint or mystically enlightened human being Doctrinally Nibbāna is said of the mind which "no longer is coming (bhava) and going (vibhava)", but which has attained a status in perpetuity, whereby "liberation (vimutta) can be said".
It carries further connotations of stilling, cooling, and peace. The realizing of nirvana is compared to the ending of avidyā (ignorance) which perpetuates the will (cetana) into effecting the incarnation of mind into biological or other form passing on forever through life after life (samsara). Samsara is caused principally by craving and ignorance (see dependent origination). The doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit paticcasamuppāda; rten nirvana, then, is not a place nor a state, it is an absolute truth to be realized, and a person can do so without dying. When a person who has realized nirvana dies, his death is referred as his parinirvāṇa (Pali: parinibbana), his fully passing away, as his life was his last link to the cycle of death and rebirth (samsara), and he will not be reborn again. In Buddhism, parinirvana ( Sanskrit: परिनिर्वाण parinirvāṇa; Pali: परिनिब्बाण parinibbāṇa Buddhism holds that the ultimate goal and end of samsaric existence (of ever "becoming" and "dying" and never truly being) is realization of nirvana; what happens to a person after his parinirvāṇa cannot be explained, as it is outside of all conceivable experience. Disambiguation For the Wigwam album see Being (album, for spiritual or religious beingness, see Ego (spirituality
In Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta the Buddha likens nibbana to the cessation and extinguishing of a fire where the materials for sustenance has been removed:
Profound, Vaccha, is this phenomenon, hard to see, hard to realize, tranquil, refined, beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. The Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta is a Buddhist Sutta in the Majjhima Nikaya of the Tripitaka.
There is that dimension where there is neither earth, nor water, nor fire, nor wind; neither dimension of the infinitude of space, nor dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, nor dimension of nothingness, nor dimension of neither perception nor non-perception; neither this world, nor the next world, nor sun, nor moon. And there, I say, there is neither coming, nor going, nor stasis; neither passing away nor arising: without stance, without foundation, without support [mental object]. This, just this, is the end of stress.
In Mahāyāna Buddhism, calling nirvana the "opposite" of samsara or implying that it is apart from samsara is doctrinally problematic. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for According to early Mahāyāna Buddhism, they can be considered to be two aspects of the same perceived reality. By the time of Nāgārjuna, there are teachings of the identity of nirvana and samsara. Acharya Nāgārjuna ( Telugu: నాగార్జున (c 150 - 250 CE) was an Indian philosopher the founder of the Madhyamaka However, even here it is assumed that the natural man suffers from at the very least a confusion regarding the nature of samsara.
In Burton Watson's most recent translation of the Lotus Sutra, Nirvana is described in the "Expedient Means Chapter" as an expedient means teaching, which was meant "For those of dull capacities/Who delight in a little Law/. . . are perplexed and confused/By a host of troubles. "
Shakyamuni says in this chapter:
"Shariputra, listen carefully for the Law the Buddhas have attained, Through the power of Countless Expedient means They preach for the Benefit of living beings. The thoughts that are in the minds Of living beings, The different types of paths They follow, Their various desires and natures, The good and bad deeds They have done in previous existences – All these the Buddha Takes cognizance of, And then he employs causes, Similes, and parables, Words that embody the power Of expedient means, In order to gladden and Please them all. Sometimes he preaches sutras, Verses, stories of the Previous lives of disciples, Stories of the previous lives Of the Buddha, Of unheard-of things. At other times he preaches Regarding cause and conditions, Uses similes, parables, Passages of poetry or discourses. For those of dull capacities Who delight in a little Law, Who greedily cling to Birth and death, Who, despite the Innumerable Buddhas, Fail to practice the Profound and wonderful way But are perplexed and confused By a host of troubles – For these I preach nirvana. I devise these expedient means and So cause them to enter into the Buddha wisdom (Lotus Sutra P. 34). "
The Theravāda school makes the antithesis of samsara and Nibbāna the starting point of the entire quest for deliverance. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Even more, it treats this antithesis as determinative of the final goal, which is precisely the transcendence of samsara and the attainment of liberation in Nibbāna. Where Theravada differs significantly from the Mahāyāna schools, which also start with the duality of samsara and nirvana, is in not regarding this polarity as a mere preparatory lesson tailored for those with blunt faculties, to be eventually superseded by some higher realization of non-duality. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation From the standpoint of the Pāli Suttas, even for the Buddha and the Arahants suffering and its cessation, samsara and Nibbāna, remain distinct.
In the experience of all, nirvana is a state which all six bases (Eye, Ear, Nose, Tongue, Body and Mind) cannot feel.
It is probably best to understand the relationship between nirvana and samsara in terms of the Buddha while on earth. Buddha was both in saṃsāra while having attained to Nirvāṇa so that he was seen by all, and simultaneously free from samsara.
Sarvastivādin commentary, Abhidharma-mahavibhāsa-sāstra, gives the complete context of the possible meanings from its Sanskrit roots:
The nature of nirvana assumes a differently aspected Mahāyāna focus in the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra or Nirvana Sutra, which alleges to be the final of all Mahāyāna sutras, delivered - the sutra indicates - by the Buddha on his last day of life on earth. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Mahayana and the Nirvana Sutra Sasaki (1999 in a review of Shimoda (1997 conveys a key premise of Shimoda's work namely that the origins of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana and the Nirvana Sutra Sasaki (1999 in a review of Shimoda (1997 conveys a key premise of Shimoda's work namely that the origins of Mahayana Buddhism Here, as well as in a number of related "tathagatagarbha" sutras, in which the Tathagatagarbha is equated with the Buddha's eternal Self or eternal nature, nirvana is spoken of by the Mahāyāna Buddha in very "cataphatic", positive terms. In Mahayana and Tantric Buddhism, the Tathāgatagarbha (如來藏 doctrine (often essentially the same as the Buddha nature concept teaches In Mahayana and Tantric Buddhism, the Tathāgatagarbha (如來藏 doctrine (often essentially the same as the Buddha nature concept teaches Nirvana, or "Great Nirvana", is indicated to be the sphere or domain (vishaya) of the True Self. It is seen as the state which constitutes the attainment of what is "Eternal, the Self, Bliss, and the Pure". Mahā-nirvāṇa ("Great Nirvana") thus becomes equivalent to the ineffable, unshakeable, blissful, all-pervading and deathless Selfhood of the Buddha himself - a mystery which no words can adequately reach and which, according to the Nirvāṇa Sutra, can only be fully known by an Awakened Being - a perfect Buddha - directly.
The Buddha of the Mahaparinirvāṇa Sutra gives the following definition of the attributes of nirvana, which includes the ultimate reality of the Self (not to be confused with the "worldly ego" of the five skandhas):
The attributes of nirvana are eightfold. In Buddhist phenomenology and Soteriology, the five skandhas ( Sanskrit) or khandhas ( Pāli) are five "aggregates" What are these eight? Cessation (nirodha), loveliness/wholesomeness (subha), Truth (satya), Reality (tattva), eternity (nitya), bliss (sukha), the Self (atman), and complete purity (parisuddhi): that is nirvana.
He further states: "Non-Self is samsara (the cycle of rebirth); the Self (atman) is Great Nirvāṇa. Ātman (आत्मन् or Atta ( Pāli) literally means "self" but is sometimes translated as " Soul " or " Ego " "
An important facet of nirvana in general is that it is not something that comes about from a concatenation of causes, that springs into existence as a result of an act of creation or an agglomeration of causative factors: it was never created; it always was, is and will be. But due to the moral and mental darkness of ordinary, samsarically benighted sentient beings, it remains hidden from unawakened perception. The Buddha of the Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra insists on its eternal nature and affirms its identity with the enduring, blissful Self, saying:
It is not the case that the inherent nature of nirvana did not primordially exist but now exists. Mahayana and the Nirvana Sutra Sasaki (1999 in a review of Shimoda (1997 conveys a key premise of Shimoda's work namely that the origins of Mahayana Buddhism If the inherent nature of nirvana did not primordially exist but does now exist, then it would not be free from taints (āsravas) nor would it be eternally (nitya) present in nature. Regardless of whether there are Buddhas or not, its intrinsic nature and attributes are eternally present . . . Because of the obscuring darkness of the mental afflictions (kileśas), beings do not see it. The Tathāgata, endowed with omniscient awareness (sarvajñā-jñāna), lights the lamp of insight with his skill-in-means (upāya-kauśalya) and causes Bodhisattvas to perceive the Eternal, Bliss, the Self, and the Pure of nirvana. Tathāgata (pronounced tāht-āhgatah) in Pali and Sanskrit (Chin In the Buddhist context a bodhisattva (बोधिसत्त्व bodhisattva;; Vietnamese Bồ Tát; बोधिसत्त bodhisatta
Vitally, according to these Mahāyāna teachings, any being who has reached nirvana is not blotted out or extinguished: there is the extinction of the impermanent and suffering-prone "worldly self" or ego, comprised of the five changeful skandhas, but not of the immortal "supramundane" Self of the indwelling Buddha Principle [Buddha-dhatu]. In Buddhist phenomenology and Soteriology, the five skandhas ( Sanskrit) or khandhas ( Pāli) are five "aggregates" Spiritual death for such a nirvana-ed being becomes an utter impossibility. The Buddha states in the "Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sutra" (Tibetan version): "Nirvana is deathless . . . Those who have passed into nirvana are deathless. I say that anybody who is endowed with careful assiduity is not compounded and, even though they involve themselves in compounded things, they do not age, they do not die, they do not perish. "
In the Visuddhimagga, Ch. Summary It is composed of four parts which discuss 1 Sila (discipline 2 Samadhi (meditative concentration 3 The land of wisdom I, v. 6 (Buddhaghosa & Ñāṇamoli, 1999, pp. 6-7), Buddhaghosa identifies various options within the Pali canon for pursuing a path to nirvana, including:
Depending on one's analysis, each of these options could be seen as a reframing of the Buddha's Threefold Training of virtue, mental development and wisdom. The Buddha identified the threefold training ( sikkhā) as training in higher virtue ( adhisīla-sikkhā) higher Bhavana ( Pali and Sanskrit) means "development" In the teaching of the Buddha it is often used in a compound form in such phrases as In the Pali Canon In the Pali Canon, paññā is defined in a variety of overlapping ways frequently centering on concentrated insight
Nirvana in Jainism means :-
Jains celebrate Diwali as the day of Nirvana of Mahavira. Nirvāṇa ( Sanskrit: sa निर्वाण Prakrit: णिव्वाण Nivvāṇa) in Jainism means final release from the karmic Mokṣa ( Sanskrit: मोक्ष liberation or Mokkha ( Prakrit: मोक्ख) means liberation salvation or emancipation of soul Kalpasutra gives an elaborate account of Mahavira’s nirvana. Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान 
|“||The aghatiya Karma’s of venerable Ascetic Mahavira got exhausted, when in this Avasarpini era the greater part of the Duhshamasushama period had elapsed and only three years and eight and a half months were left. Mahavira had recited the fifty-five lectures which detail the results of Karma, and the thirty-six unasked questions (the Uttaradhyana Sutra). The moon was in conjunction with the asterism Svati, at the time of early morning, in the town of Papa, and in king Hastipala's office of the writers, (Mahivira) single and alone, sitting in the Samparyahka posture, left his body and attained nirvana, freed from all pains. ” (147)|
In the fourth month of that rainy season, in the seventh fortnight, in the dark (fortnight) of Karttika, on its fifteenth day, in the last night, in the town of Papa, in king Hastipala's office of the writers, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira died, went off, cut asunder the ties of birth, old age, and death; became a Siddha, a Buddha, a Mukta, a maker of the end (to all misery), finally liberated, freed from all pains. (123)
That night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira died, freed from all pains, was lighted up by many descending and ascending gods. (125)
In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, died, freed from all pains, the eighteen confederate kings of Kasi and Kosala, the nine Mallakis and nine Licchavis, on the day of new moon, instituted an illuminations on the Poshadha, which was a fasting day; for they said: 'Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us make an illumination of material matter!'(128)
Uttaradhyana Sutra provides an account of Gautama explaining the meaning of nirvana to Kesi a disciple of Parsva. 
|“||There is a safe place in view of all, but difficult of approach, where there is no old age nor death, no pain nor disease. It is what is called Nirvâna, or freedom from pain, or perfection, which is in view of all; it is the safe, happy, and quiet place which the great sages reach. That is the eternal place, in view of all, but difficult of approach. Those sages who reach it are free from sorrows, they have put an end to the stream of existence. (81-4)||”|