|N. F. S. Grundtvig|
Portrait of N. F. S. Grundtvig
|Born||September 8, 1783|
|Died||September 2, 1872 (aged 88)|
|Occupation||Lutheran pastor, hymn-writer, and educator|
Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (September 8, 1783 – September 2, 1872) (pronounced [ˈneg̊olaɪ̯ˀ ˈfʁaðˀʁæg̊ ˈsɛʋəʁin ˈg̊ʁɔnd̥ʋi]), most often referred to as simply N. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Zealand (also Sealand Danish: Sjælland;) is the largest Island (7031 km² of Denmark (excluding Greenland Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city A pastor is an official person within a Protestant group of people and related to the positions of Priest or Bishop within the Anglican, Roman Catholic Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1783 ( MDCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year F. S. Grundtvig, was a Danish teacher, writer, poet, philosopher, historian, pastor, and politician. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it A pastor is an official person within a Protestant group of people and related to the positions of Priest or Bishop within the Anglican, Roman Catholic A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person He is one of the most influential people in Danish history, his philosophy giving rise to a new form of nationalism in Denmark in the last half of the 19th century. He was married three times, the last time in his seventy-sixth year.
Grundtvig and his followers, Grundtvigians, are credited with being very influential in the formulation of modern Danish national consciousness. Their attitude is well illustrated in the very different reaction of Danes to their national defeat in the Second Schleswig War in 1864 against Prussia compared to the national trauma of German defeat in World War I. The First Schleswig War occurred in 1848–1851. The Second Schleswig War (2 World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Called Frederik rather than Nikolaj by those close to him, N. F. S. Grundtvig was the son of a Lutheran pastor, Johan Ottosen Grundtvig. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther He was brought up in a very religious atmosphere, although his mother also had great respect for old Norse legends and traditions. He was schooled in the tradition of the European Enlightenment, but his faith in reason was shaken by German romanticism and the history of the Nordic countries. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, 
In 1791 he was sent to live at the house of a pastor in Jutland, Laurids Feld, and studied at the Cathedral School of Aarhus from 1798 until he graduated left for Copenhagen in 1800 to study theology, and he was accepted to the University of Copenhagen in 1801. This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland. Geography The city lies roughly at the geographical centre of Denmark on the peninsula of Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city The University of Copenhagen (Københavns Universitet is the oldest and largest University and research institution in Denmark.  At the close of his university life he began to study Icelandic and the Icelandic Sagas, until in 1805 he took the position of tutor in a house on the island of Langeland. Icelandic ( is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland. The Sagas of Icelanders ( Icelandic: Íslendingasögur)&mdashmany of which are also known as family sagas &mdashare prose histories describing Langeland is a Danish Island located between the Great Belt and Bay of Kiel. The next three years were spent in the study of Shakespeare, Schiller, Schelling and Fichte. William Shakespeare ( baptised Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller krɪstɔf friːtʁɪç fɔn ʃɪləʁ/ʃɪlɐ (10 November 1759 9 May 1805 was a German Poet, Philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ( January 27, 1775 – August 20, 1854) later von Schelling, was a German Philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte ( May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher  His cousin, the philosopher Henrich Steffens, had returned to Copenhagen in 1802 full of the teaching of Schelling and his lectures and the early poetry of Adam Oehlenschläger opened the eyes of Grundtvig to the new era in literature. Henrik Steffens ( May 2 1773 &ndash February 13 1845) was a Norwegian -born philosopher, scientist, and Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger (November 14 1779 &ndash January 20 1850 was a Danish Poet and Playwright.  His first work, On the Songs in the Edda, attracted no attention.
Returning to Copenhagen in 1808 he achieved greater success with his Northern Mythology, and again in 1809 with a long reading drama, The Fall of the Heroic Life in the North. The boldness of the ecclesiastical views expressed in his first sermon in 1810, which was a passionate denunciation of the clergy of the city.  He had originally preached the sermon at an examination under the presence of one university professor, who described it as excellent, but when Grundtvig published the sermon three weeks later it offended the ecclesiastical authorities, and they demanded him punished. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the 
In 1810 a violent religious crisis converted him into a strongly held Lutheranism and he retired to his father's country parish in Udby as his chaplain. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther  His new found conviction was expressed in his The First World Chronicle (Kort Begreb af Verdens Krønike i Sammenhæng) of 1812, a presentation of European history in which he attempts to explain how God is at throughout human history and in which he gives ideological criticisms of many prominent Danes.  It won him notoriety among his peers and lost him several friends, notably the historian Christian Molbech.  Upon his Father's death in 1813 he applied to be his successor but was rejected.  In the following years his rate of publication is staggering: aside from a continuing stream of articles and poems, a number of books including two more histories of the world (1814 and 1817), the long, historical poem Roskilde-Riim (Rhyme of Roskilde) (1813) and a book sized attempt at writing a commentary to it, Roskilde Saga.  From 1816 to 1819 he was editor of and almost sole contributor to a philosophical, poetical and polemical journal entitled Danne-Virke. 
From 1813 to 1815, he attempted to form a movement with purpose of supporting the Norwegians against the Swedes, and later preached on how the weakness of the Danish faith was the cause of the loss of Norway in 1814 to an enthusiastic congregation in Copenhagen, but without his own parish, and as more and more churches barred him from preaching, he withdrew from the pulpit. Carl Christian Constantin Hansen (Constantin Hansen ( November 3, 1804 – March 29, 1880) was one of the painters associated with the "Golden 1814 was a pivotal year in Norwegian history. It started with Norway as a part of the Danish kingdom subject to a Naval blockade, saw a constitutional  He resumed his preaching briefly in 1821 upon being granted the country living of Præstø, returning to the capital the year after. Præstø is a town and a former municipality ( Danish, kommune) in Vordingborg municipality in Region Sjælland on the east coast of In 1825 he published a pamphlet, The Church's Rejoinder (Kirkens Gienmæle), a reply written in the name of the church to a work on the doctrines, rites and constitutions of Protestantism and Catholicism by H. N. Clausen, who was professor of theology in the university of Copenhagen. Clausen had argued that although the Bible was the foundation principle of Christianity, it was in inself an inadequate expression of its full meaning, and he described the church as a "community for the purpose of advancing general religiousness. " In his reply, Grundtvig denounced Clausen as an anti-Christian teacher, arguing that Christianity is not a theory to be derived from the bible and elaborated by scholars and questioning the right of theologists to interpret the Bible.  Grundtvig was publicly prosecuted for libel and fined, and for seven years he was forbidden to preach, years which he spent in publishing a collection of his theological works, in paying two visits to England, and in studying Anglo-Saxon. 
In 1832 he obtained permission to preach again, and in 1839 he became pastor of the workhouse church of Vartov hospital, Copenhagen, a post he continued to hold until his death. Between 1837 and 1841 he published Sang-Værk til den Danske Kirke (Song Work for the Danish Church), a rich collection of sacred poetry; in 1838 he brought out a selection of early Scandinavian verse; in 1840 he edited the Anglo-Saxon poem of The Phoenix, with a Danish translation. He visited England a third time in 1843.
From 1844 until after the First Schleswig War Grundtvig took a very prominent part in politics, developing from a conservative into an absolute liberal position. The First Schleswig War (Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg or Three Years' War (Treårskrigen was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern In 1861 he received the titular rank of bishop, but without a see. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight An episcopal see is the ecclesiastical domain of authority of a Bishop. He went on writing till his death, and preached in Vartov every Sunday until a few days before his death. His preaching attracted large congregations, and he soon had a following. His hymn-book effected a great change in Danish church services, substituting the hymns of the national poets for the slow measures of the orthodox Lutherans. A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther All in all Grundtvig wrote or translated about 1500 hymns, including God's Word Is Our Great Heritage. God's Word Is Our Great Heritage, is the title of a popular hymn sung in many churches especially the Lutheran Church
Grundtvig's theological development is long and takes a number of important turns throughout his life from the initial "Christian Awakening" of 1810 to the congregational and sacramental Christianity of his later years. He is usually identified with and most famous for the latter. He always calls himself a pastor, not a theologian, reflecting the distance between him and the academic theology. The chief characteristic of his theology, was the substitution of the authority of the "living word" for the apostolic commentaries, and he desired to see each congregation a practically independent community. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective
Grundtvig is the ideological father of the folk high school though his own ideas on education had another focus. Folk High Schools Folk high schools ( Danish: Folkehøjskole Finnish: kansanopisto and työväenopisto or kansalaisopisto He advocated reforming the ailing Sorø Academy into a popular school aiming at another form of higher education than what was common at the university. Sorø Academy ( Danish, Sorø Akademi) in Sorø, Denmark is the second-oldest school in Denmark and is known for its role as Rather than educating learned scholars it was to educate its students for active participation in society and popular life. Thus practical skills as well as national poetry and history should form an essential part of the instruction. This idea came very close to implementation during the reign of Christian VIII, whose wife Caroline Amalie was an ardent supporter of Grundtvig, but the death of the monarch in 1848 and the dramatic political development in Denmark during this and the following years put an end to these plans. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap At that time, however, the first folk high school had already been established by one of his followers, Kristen Kold.
Grundtvig's ambitions for school reform were not limited to the popular folk high school. He also dreamed of forming a Great Nordic University (The School for Passion) to be situated at the symbolic point of intersection between the three Scandinavian countries in Gothenburg, Sweden. Gothenburg ( Swedish:) /jœte'bɔrj/ is a city, a municipality, and an urban area on the west-coast of Sweden. The two pillars of his school program, The School for Life (folk high school) and The School for Passion (university) were aimed at quite different horizons of life. The popular education should mainly be taught within a national and patriotic horizon of understanding, yet always keeping an open mind towards a broader cultural and intercultural outlook. While the university should work from a strictly universal, i. e. humane and scientific outlook. The common denominator of all Grundtvig's paedagogical efforts was to promote a spirit of freedom, poetry and disciplined creativity, within all branches of educational life. He promoted soft values like wisdom, compassion, identification and equality. And he opposed all compulsion, including exams as deadening to the human soul. Instead he advocated unleashing human creativity according to the universally creative order of life. Only willing hands make light work. Therefore a spirit of freedom, cooperation and discovery is to be kindled in individuals, in science and in the civil society as a whole.
In 1815 Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin published the first edition ever of the Epic of Beowulf titled De Danorum rebus gestis secul. Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin (1752-1829 was an Icelandic scholar who became the National Archivist of Denmark and Professor of Antiquities at Copenhagen University. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between III & IV : Poëma Danicum dialecto Anglosaxonica with a Latin translation. Despite his lack of any prior knowledge of Anglo-Saxon literature Grundtvig quickly discovered a number of flaws in Thorkelin's rendering of the poems. Anglo-Saxon literature (or Old English literature) encompasses Literature written in Anglo-Saxon (Old English during the 600-year Anglo-Saxon After a heated debate with Thorkelin, Johan Bülow, who had sponsored Thorkelin's work, offered to support a renewed translation by Grundtvig this time into Danish. The result, Bjovulfs Drape (1820), was the first modern language translation of Beowulf. Beowulf and Anglo-Saxon literature continued to be a major source of inspiration throughout Grundtvig's life and has a wide ranging influence in his work.
Grundtvig holds a unique position in the cultural history of his country; he has been styled the Danish Carlyle and he might also be compared to Emerson. Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881 was a Scottish essayist satirist and historian whose work was highly influential during the Victorian era. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25 1803 &ndash April 27 1882 was an American essayist philosopher poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century But his style of writing and fields of reference are not immediately accessible to a foreigner, thus his international importance does not match his contemporaries Hans Christian Andersen and Søren Kierkegaard. Hans Christian Andersen (ˈhanˀs ˈkʰʁæʂd̥jan ˈɑnɐsn̩ in Danish or simply H Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (ˈsœːɐn ˈkʰiɐ̯kəˌɡ̊ɒˀ in Danish Anglicized as;)
He is commemorated as a bishop and a renewer of the church in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on September 2. The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ( ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago Illinois. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
Grundtvig's secular poetical works were published in a nine volume edition. The first seven volumes by his second son, the philologist Svend Hersleb Grundtvig. Svend Hersleb Grundtvig ( September 9, 1824 - July 14, 1883) was a Danish Literary historian and Ethnographer The philological practice of this work, however, is not up to the standards of modern philology. His hymns have been collected in the philologically more stable five volume edition Grundtvigs Sang-Værk. The best overall collection of his writings is Holger Begtrup's 10 volume edition Udvalgte Skrifter. His enormous oeuvre is presented in Steen Johansen: Bibliografi over N. F. S. Grundtvigs Skrifter .
No comprehensive foreign language edition of his work exists. A three volume edition in German, however, is under preparation and projects aiming at an English edition are in progress as well.
The most important editions are:
Important, too, are the numerous articles in English published in the yearbook Grundtvig-Studier (Grundtvig Studies) from 1948 and onwards. Danish is the main language of the journal, but the English articles are prominent and increasing in recent years.
The most important works on Grundtvig are a series of dissertations published since the founding of Grundtvig-selskabet (The Grundtvig Society). All of them contain summaries in major languages, most of them in English. This series includes:
|NAME||Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||N. F. S. Grundtvig|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Danish Lutheran pastor, theologian, hymn-writer and educator|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 8, 1783|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Udby, Sjælland|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 2, 1872|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Copenhagen, Denmark|