|Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira Àpapọ̀ Naìjírìà |
Republic nde Naigeria
Republik Federaal bu Niiseriya
Federal Republic of Nigeria
|Motto: "Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress"|
|Anthem: "Arise O Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"|
|Recognised regional languages||Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba|
|Government||Presidential Federal republic|
|-||President||Umaru Yar'Adua (PDP)|
|-||Vice President||Goodluck Jonathan (PDP)|
|-||Senate President||David Mark (PDP)|
|-||Speaker of the House||Dimeji Bankole (PDP)|
|-||Chief Justice||Idris Kutigi|
|Independence||from the United Kingdom|
|-||Declared and recognized||October 1, 1960|
|-||Republic declared||October 1, 1963|
|-||Total||923,768 km² (32nd)|
356,667 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||1. The flag of Nigeria was designed in 1959 and first officially hoisted on October 1, 1960. The Coat of Arms of Nigeria has a black shield with two white stripes that come together like the letter Y. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The " Arise O Compatriots " is the National anthem of the federal republic of Nigeria. Abuja is the Capital city of Nigeria. It is located in the centre of Nigeria in the Federal Capital Territory The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria accounts for approximately one-quarter of West Africa 's people Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A regional language is a Language spoken in an area of a Nation state, whether it be a small area a federal State or Province, or Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers spoken as a first Language by about 24 million people and as a second language by about 15 Igbo (Igbo Asusu Igbo) is a language spoken in Nigeria by around 20-35 million people the Igbo, especially in the southeastern region Yoruba (native name èdè Yorùbá, 'the Yoruba language' is a Dialect continuum of West Africa with over 25 million speakers A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria accounts for approximately one-quarter of West Africa 's people For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature A federal republic is a Federation of States with a republican form of government History When Nigeria became a Federal republic within the Commonwealth in 1963 it retained the Parliamentary system of government inherited from Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (born 16 August 1951) is the 2nd President of Nigeria 's Fourth Republic. The People's Democratic Party is a Centrist Political party in Nigeria. The Vice President of Nigeria is the second-in-command to the President of Nigeria in the Government of Nigeria. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan (born November 20 1957) is a Nigerian politician and current Vice President of Nigeria. The People's Democratic Party is a Centrist Political party in Nigeria. The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Senate of Nigeria. David Alechenu Bonaventure Mark (born April 1948 is the President of the Senate of Nigeria He is a member of the People's Democratic Party (PDP The People's Democratic Party is a Centrist Political party in Nigeria. The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the Federal House of Representatives of Nigeria. Oladimeji Sabur Bankole (born November 14, 1969) is a Nigerian politician and Speaker of the House of Representatives. The People's Democratic Party is a Centrist Political party in Nigeria. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of the judicial branch of the Government of Nigeria, and presides over the country's Idris Legbo Kutigi (born December 31, 1939) is a Nigerian lawyer and judge See also Nigeria Early history See also Early Nigerian history Recent archaeological research has shown that people were already living in southwestern The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 4|
|-||2007 United Nation estimate||148,000,000  (8th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$191. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 4 billion (47th²)|
|-||Per capita||$1,500 (165th²)|
|Gini (2003)||43. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 7 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 470 (low) (158th)|
|Currency||Nigerian naira (₦) (|
|Time zone||WAT (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+1)|
|1 Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The naira is the Currency of Nigeria. The ISO currency code is NGN ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in western and west-central Africa (though not in countries west of Benin, which instead use GMT Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E ² The GDP estimate is as of 2006; the total and per capita ranks, however, are based on 2005 numbers.|
Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory. A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" A constitutional Republic is a State where the Head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and Nigeria is currently divided into 36 states and one federal capital territory Geography The territory is located just north of the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. Niger ( or /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/) officially the Republic of Niger, is a Landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Its coast lies on the Gulf of Guinea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, in the south. The Gulf of Guinea is the part of the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Africa. The capital city is Abuja. Abuja is the Capital city of Nigeria. It is located in the centre of Nigeria in the Federal Capital Territory
The people of Nigeria have an extensive history, and archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BC. See also Nigeria Early history See also Early Nigerian history Recent archaeological research has shown that people were already living in southwestern Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos  The Benue-Cross River area is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BC and the 2nd millennium AD. The Benue River (la Bénoué is the major Tributary of the Niger River. Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires The second millennium is a period of time that commenced on January 1, 1001, and ended on December 31, 2000.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world with a population of over 140 million. List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is one of the fastest growing in the world with the International Monetary Fund projecting growth of 9% in 2008 and 8. The Next Eleven (or N-11) are eleven countries — Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic 3% in 2009. 
The Nok people in central Nigeria produced terracotta sculptures that have been discovered by archaeologists. The Nok civilization appeared in Nigeria around 500 BC and mysteriously vanished around 200 AD  A Nok sculpture resident at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, portrays a sitting dignitary wearing a "Shepherds Crook" on the right arm, and a "hinged flail" on the left. These are symbols of authority associated with Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs, and the god Osiris, and suggests that an ancient Egyptian style of social structure, and perhaps religion, existed in the area of modern Nigeria during the late Pharonic period.  In the northern part of the country, Kano and Katsina has recorded history which dates back to around AD 999. Kano is the administrative center of the Kano State and the third largest City in Nigeria, in terms Katsina is also an alternative spelling the Pueblo religious practices of Kachina. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem-Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa. The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. The Kanem Empire (700 - 1376 was located in the present countries of Chad and Libya.
The Yoruba people date their presence in the area of modern republics of Nigeria, Benin and Togo to about 8500 BC. The kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria became prominent about 700-900 and 1400 respectively. Ife (Ifè also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba City in south-western Nigeria. However, the Yoruba mythology believes that Ile-Ife is the source of the human race and that it predates any other civilization. Ifẹ produced the terra cotta and bronze heads, the Ọyọ extended as far as modern Togo. TOGO was a Japanese roller coaster design company famous for inventing the Stand-up roller coaster. Another prominent kingdom in south western Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. The Benin Empire or Edo Empire (1440-1897 was a large pre-colonial African state of modern Nigeria. Their dominance reached as far as the well known city of Eko which was named Lagos by the Portuguese traders and other early European settlers. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with In the 18th century, the Oyo and the Aro confederacy were responsible for most of the slaves exported from Nigeria. The Oyo Empire (c 1400 - 1835 was a West African empire of what is today western Nigeria. The Aro Confederacy (1690-1902 was a slave trading political union orchestrated by the Igbo subgroup the Aro people, centered in Arochukwu in present 
Following the Napoleonic wars, the British expanded trade with the Nigerian interior. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In 1885 British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. The Royal Niger Company was a mercantile company chartered by the British government in the nineteenth century George Goldie Sir George Dashwood Taubman Goldie ( 20 May, 1846 &ndash 20 August, 1925) was a Manx administrator who played a In 1900 the company's territory came under the control of the British Government, which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria. On January 1, 1901 Nigeria became a British protectorate, part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
In 1914 the area was formally united as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Administratively Nigeria remained divided into the northern and southern provinces and Lagos colony. Western education and the development of a modern economy proceeded more rapidly in the south than in the north, with consequences felt in Nigeria's political life ever since. Following World War II, in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British Government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including By the middle of the 20th century, the great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa.
On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained its independence from the United Kingdom. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The new republic incorporated a number of people with aspirations of their own sovereign nations. Newly independent Nigeria's government was a coalition of conservative parties: the Nigerian People's Congress (NPC), a party dominated by Northerners and those of the Islamic faith, and the Igbo and Christian dominated National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) led by Nnamdi Azikiwe, who became Nigeria's maiden Governor-General in 1960. The National Party of Nigeria (NPN was the dominant political party in Nigeria during the Second Republic ( 1979 - 1983) For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Igbo [iɡɓo] ( Igbo: Igbo, sometimes Nd'Igbo) sometimes referred to (usually formerly as the Ibo, Eboe, Ebo National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC, was a Nigerian Political party from 1944 to 1966. Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe ( November 16, 1904 – May 11, 1996) usually referred to as Nnamdi Azikiwe, or informally The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription Forming the opposition was the comparatively liberal Action Group (AG), which was largely dominated by Yorubas and led by Obafemi Awolowo. In Sociology and Anthropology, an action group or task group is a group of people joined temporarily to accomplish some task or take part in some organized The Yoruba (Yo•row•ba ( Yorùbá in Yoruba Orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or Ethnic groups in West Africa Jeremiah Obafemi Awolowo ( March 6, 1909 &mdash May 9, 1987) was a Nigerian politician and leader a Yoruba and native 
An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the 1961 plebiscite. Southern Cameroon opted to join the Republic of Cameroon while northern Cameroon chose to remain in Nigeria. Southern Cameroons was the southern part of the British Mandate territory of Cameroons in West Africa. The northern part of the country was now far larger than the southern part. The nation parted with its British legacy in 1963 by declaring itself a Federal Republic, with Azikiwe as the first president. A federal republic is a Federation of States with a republican form of government History When Nigeria became a Federal republic within the Commonwealth in 1963 it retained the Parliamentary system of government inherited from When elections came about in 1965, the AG was outmanoeuvred for control of Nigeria's Western Region by the Nigerian National Democratic Party, an amalgamation of conservative Yoruba elements backed heavily by the Federal Government amid dubious electoral circumstances. The Nigerian National Democratic Party ( NNDP) was Nigeria's first Political party. This left the Igbo NCNC to coalesce with the remnants of the AG in a weak progressive alliance. 
This disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led in 1966 to several back-to-back military coups. The first was in January and led by a collection of young leftists under Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna & Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu, it was partially successful - the coupists overthrew the embattled government but could not install their choice, jailed opposition leader Chief Obafemi Awolowo, General Johnson Aguiyi-ironsi, then head of the army was invited by the rump of the Balewa regime to take over the affairs of the country as head of state. This coup was counter-acted by another successful plot, supported primarily by Northern military officers and Northerners who favoured the NPC, it was engineered by Northern officers, which allowed Lt Colonel Yakubu Gowon to become head of state. General Yakubu "Jack" Dan-Yumma Gowon (born October 19, 1934) was the head of state (Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria This sequence of events led to an increase in ethnic tension and violence. The Northern coup, which was mostly motivated by ethnic and religious reasons was a bloodbath of both military officers and civilians, especially those of Igbo extraction.
The violence against Igbos increased their desire for autonomy and protection from the military's wrath. By May 1967, the Eastern Region had declared itself an independent state called the Republic of Biafra under the leadership Lt Colonel Emeka Ojukwu in line with the wishes of the people. The Republic of Biafra was a Secessionist state in south-eastern Nigeria. General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Ikemba Nnewi, known as Emeka Ojukwu, (born November 4, 1933) was the leader of the The Nigerian side attacked Biafra on July 6, 1967 at Garkem signalling the beginning of the 30 month war that ended on January 1970. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar.  Following the war, Nigeria became to an extent even more mired in ethnic strife, as the defeated southeast and indeed southern Nigeria was now conquered territory for the federal military regime, which changed heads of state twice as army officers staged a bloodless coup against Gowon and enthroned Murtala Mohammed; Olusegun Obansanjo succeeded the former after an assassination. Buka Suka Dimka, a Lieutenant Colonel in the Nigerian army (an officer of the army physical training corps led the February 13 1976 abortive military
During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria joined OPEC and billions of dollars generated by production in the oil-rich Niger Delta flowed into the coffers of the Nigerian state. The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a However, increasing corruption and graft at all levels of government squandered most of these earnings. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain The northern military clique benefited immensely from the oil boom to the detriment of the Nigerian people and economy. As oil revenues fuelled the rise of federal subventions to states and precariously to individuals, the Federal Government soon became the centre of political struggle and the centre became the threshold of power in the country. As oil production and revenue rose, the Nigerian government created a dangerous situation as it became increasingly dependent on oil revenues and the international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns eschewing economic stability. That spelled doom to federalism in Nigeria. 
Beginning in 1979, Nigerians participated in a brief return to democracy when Obasanjo transferred power to the civilian regime of Shehu Shagari. Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari, Turakin Sakkwato (born February 25, 1925,) served as the President of Nigeria 's Second Republic (1979 The Shagari government was viewed as corrupt and incompetent by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society, so when the regime was overthrown by the military coup of Mohammadu Buhari shortly after the regime's fraudulent re-election in 1984, it was generally viewed as a positive development by most of the population. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain  Buhari promised major reforms but his government fared little better than its predecessor, and his regime was overthrown by yet another military coup in 1985.  The new head of state, Ibrahim Babangida, promptly declared himself President and Commander in chief of the Armed Forces and the ruling Supreme Military Council and also set 1990 as the official deadline for a return to democratic governance. General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (born August 17 1941) popularly known as IBB, was the military ruler of Nigeria from his coup President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The Supreme Military Council was an ad hoc political party established in Ghana after a coup lasting from 1975 to 1979 Babangida's tenure was marked by a flurry of political activity: he instituted the International Monetary Fund's Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) to aid in the repayment of the country's crushing international debt, which most federal revenue was dedicated to servicing. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic He also inflamed religious tensions in the nation and particularly the south by enrolling Nigeria in the Organization of the Islamic Conference,
After Babangida survived an abortive coup, he pushed back the promised return to democracy to 1992. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. When free and fair elections were finally held on the 12th of June, 1993, Babangida declared that the results showing a presidential victory for Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola null and void, sparking mass civilian violence in protest which effectively shut down the country for weeks and forced Babangida to keep his shaky promise to relinquish office to a civilian run government. Chief Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola (often referred to as M  Babangida's regime is adjudged to be at the apogee of corruption in the history of the nation as it was during his time that corruption became officially diluted in Nigeria. 
Babangida's caretaker regime headed by Ernest Shonekan survived only until late 1993 when General Sani Abacha took power in another military coup. Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (born 16 August 1951) is the 2nd President of Nigeria 's Fourth Republic. The People's Democratic Party is a Centrist Political party in Nigeria. Ernest Adegunle Oladeinde Shonekan (born 9 May 1936 in Lagos, south-west Nigeria) is a British trained Nigerian lawyer General Sani Abacha ( Kano, 20 September 1943 &ndash Abuja, 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian military leader and politician Abacha proved to be perhaps Nigeria's most brutal ruler and employed violence on a wide scale to suppress the continuing pandemic of civilian unrest. Money had been found in various western European countries banks traced to him. He avoided coup plots by bribing army generals. Several hundred millions dollars in accounts traced to him were unearthed in 1999.  The regime would come to an end in 1998 when the dictator was found dead amid dubious circumstances. Abacha's death yielded an opportunity for return to civilian rule.
Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 when it elected Olusegun Obasanjo, a Yoruba and former military head of state, as the new President ending almost thirty three-years of military rule (between from 1966 until 1999) excluding the short-lived second republic (between 1979-1983) by military dictators who seized power in coups d'état and counter-coups during the Nigerian military juntas of 1966-1979 and 1983-1998. General (rtd Olusegun Aremu Okikiola Matthew Obasanjo, GCFR (Oluṣẹgun Mathew Okikiọla Arẹmu Ọbasanjọ olúʃɛ̙́ɡũ ɒ̙básandʒɒ̙́ (born circa March The Yoruba (Yo•row•ba ( Yorùbá in Yoruba Orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or Ethnic groups in West Africa History When Nigeria became a Federal republic within the Commonwealth in 1963 it retained the Parliamentary system of government inherited from Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari, Turakin Sakkwato (born February 25, 1925,) served as the President of Nigeria 's Second Republic (1979 The two Nigerian Military Juntas of 1966-1979 and 1983-1998 were a pair of Military dictatorships in the African country of Nigeria that were led by the
Although the elections which brought Obasanjo to power in 1999 and again in 2003 were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and to hasten development. While Obasanjo showed willingness to fight corruption, he was accused by others of the same.
Umaru Yar'Adua, of the People's Democratic Party, came into power in the general election of 2007 - an election that was witnessed and condemned by the international community as being massively flawed. Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (born 16 August 1951) is the 2nd President of Nigeria 's Fourth Republic. The People's Democratic Party is a Centrist Political party in Nigeria. The Nigerian general elections of 2007 were held on 14 April and 21 April 2007. 
Ethnic violence over the oil producing Niger Delta region (see Conflict in the Niger Delta), interreligious relations and inadequate infrastructure are current issues in the country. The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the early 1990s due to tensions between the foreign oil corporations and a number of the Niger Delta's minority ethnic
Nigeria is a Federal Republic modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the president and with overtones of the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. Politics of Nigeria take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Nigeria Politics of Nigeria take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Nigeria The Executive Branch of the Government of Nigeria has 19 Federal Ministries. A federal republic is a Federation of States with a republican form of government The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United
The current president of Nigeria is Umaru Musa Yar'Adua who was elected in 2007. Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (born 16 August 1951) is the 2nd President of Nigeria 's Fourth Republic. The president presides as both Chief of State and Head of Government and is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly. The Senate is the Upper house of the National Assembly of Nigeria. The House of Representatives of Nigeria is the Lower house of the country's Bicameral National Assembly. In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral The National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a bicameral legislature established under section 4 of the Nigerian Constitution and comprises a 109-member The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. The House contains 360 seats and the number of seats per state is determined by population.
Ethnocentricism, tribalism, sectarianism (especially religious), and prebendalism have played a visible role in Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in 1960. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own Culture. The internal social structure of a tribe can vary greatly from case to case but due to the small size of tribes it is always a relatively simple structure with few (if any significant social Sectarianism is Bigotry, Discrimination, Prejudice or Hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions Richard A Joseph director of The Program of African Studies at Northwestern University, is usually credited with first using the term prebendalism to describe patron-client Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics and has spurned various attempts by tribalists to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests.  Nationalism has also led to active secessionist movements such as MASSOB, Nationalist movements such as Oodua Peoples Congress, Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta and a civil war. The Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB is a secessionist movement with the aim of securing the resurgence of the defunct state of Biafra The Oodua Peoples Congress (OPC is a militant Yoruba nationalist organization situated in Nigeria. The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta ("MEND" is a Militant indigenous people's movement dedicated to armed struggle against The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, 6 July 1967 &ndash 13 January 1970 was a political conflict caused by the attempted Secession Nigeria's three largest ethnic groups have maintained historical preeminence in Nigerian politics; competition amongst these three groups, the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo, has fuelled corruption and graft. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions The Yoruba (Yo•row•ba ( Yorùbá in Yoruba Orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or Ethnic groups in West Africa The Igbo [iɡɓo] ( Igbo: Igbo, sometimes Nd'Igbo) sometimes referred to (usually formerly as the Ibo, Eboe, Ebo 
Due to the above issues, Nigeria's current political parties are pan-national and irreligious in character (though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities). Pan-nationalism is a form of Nationalism distinguished by the large scale of the claimed national territory and because it often defines the nation on the basis of a ‘’cluster’’  The major political parties at present include the ruling People's Democratic Party of Nigeria which maintains 223 seats in the House and 76 in the Senate (61. The People's Democratic Party is a Centrist Political party in Nigeria. 9% and 69. 7% respectively) and is led by the current President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua; the opposition All Nigeria People's Party under the leadership of Muhammadu Buhari has 96 House seats and 27 in the Senate (26. Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (born 16 August 1951) is the 2nd President of Nigeria 's Fourth Republic. The All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP is a Conservative Political party in Nigeria. 6% and 24. 7%). There are also about twenty other minor opposition parties registered. The outgoing president, Olusegun Obasanjo, acknowledged fraud and other electoral "lapses" but said the result reflected opinion polls. General (rtd Olusegun Aremu Okikiola Matthew Obasanjo, GCFR (Oluṣẹgun Mathew Okikiọla Arẹmu Ọbasanjọ olúʃɛ̙́ɡũ ɒ̙básandʒɒ̙́ (born circa March In a national television address he added that if Nigerians did not like the victory of his handpicked successor they would have an opportunity to vote again in four years. 
Like in many other African societies, prebendalism and extremely excessive corruption continue to constitute major challenges to Nigeria, as vote rigging and other means of coercion are practised by all major parties in order to remain competitive. Richard A Joseph director of The Program of African Studies at Northwestern University, is usually credited with first using the term prebendalism to describe patron-client In 1983, it was adjudged by the policy institute at Kuru that only the 1959 and 1979 elections witnessed minimal rigging. 
There are four distinct systems of law in Nigeria:
The country has a judicial branch, the highest court of which is the Supreme Court of Nigeria. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Supreme Court of Nigeria is the highest Court in Nigeria, and is located in the Central District Abuja, in what is known as the Three Arms Zone
Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made the liberation and restoration of the dignity of Africa the centrepiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid regime in South Africa. Since independence with Jaja Wachuku as the first Minister of Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Relations later called External Affairs Nigerian Foreign The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa  One notable exception to the African focus of Nigeria's foreign policy was the close relationship the country enjoyed with Israel throughout the 1960s, with the latter country sponsoring and overseeing the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
Nigeria's foreign policy was soon tested in the 1970s after the country emerged united from its own civil war and quickly committed itself to the liberation struggles going on in the Southern Africa sub-region. Though Nigeria never sent an expeditionary force in that struggle, it offered more than rhetoric to the African National Congress (ANC) by taking a committed tough line with regard to the racist regime and their incursions in southern Africa, in addition to expediting large sums to aid anti-colonial struggles. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organization for African Unity (now the African Union), and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as standard-bearer for ECOWAS and ECOMOG, economic and military organizations respectively. The Economic Community of West African States ( ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen West African countries founded on May 28 The Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group or ECOMOG was a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West
With this African-centred stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time); Nigeria also supported several Pan African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding anti-colonial struggles in Mozambique, and Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) military and economically. The Congo Crisis (1960-1965 was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho is an Angolan political party The South West Africa People's Organization ( SWAPO) is a Political party and former Liberation movement in Namibia. Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast The Mozambican National Resistance ( RENAMO; Portuguese: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a conservative Political party in Mozambique The Rhodesian Bush War, also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe Liberation Struggle, was a war which lasted from July 1964 to 1979 and
Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement, and in late November 2006 organized an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts. The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc  Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court, and the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was temporarily expelled in 1995 under the Abacha regime. The International Criminal Court ( ICC or ICCt) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for Genocide, crimes against General Sani Abacha ( Kano, 20 September 1943 &ndash Abuja, 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian military leader and politician
Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC which it joined in July, 1971. The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by Oil tankers and pipelines The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes vicissitudinous international relations with both developed countries, notably the United States and more recently China and developing countries, notably Ghana, Jamaica and Kenya. The extraction and Drilling of Petroleum in Nigeria is the largest industry and main generator of GDP in the West African nation which The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES 
Millions of Nigerians have emigrated at times of economic hardship to Europe, North America and Australia among others. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. See also African Immigration to the United States Nigerian Americans are citizens of the United States of America who are of an ethnicity located in Nigeria See also African Immigration to the United States Nigerian Americans are citizens of the United States of America who are of an ethnicity located in Nigeria Of such Diasporic communities include the "Egbe Omo Yoruba" society. 
The military in Nigeria have played a major role in the country's history since independence. The Military of Nigeria has active duty personnel in three armed services totalling approximately 85000 troops and 82000 paramilitary personnel Various juntas have seized control of the country and ruled it through most of its history. Its last period of rule ended in 1999 following the sudden death of dictator Sani Abacha in 1998. General Sani Abacha ( Kano, 20 September 1943 &ndash Abuja, 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian military leader and politician
Taking advantage of its role of sub-Saharan Africa's most populated country, Nigeria has repositioned its military as an African peacekeeping force. Since 1995, the Nigerian military through ECOMOG mandates have been deployed as peacekeepers in Liberia (1997), Ivory Coast (1997-1999), Sierra Leone 1997-1999, and presently in Sudan's Darfur region under an African Union mandate. The Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group or ECOMOG was a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The War in Darfur is a military conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan.
Active duty personnel in the three Nigerian armed services total approximately 115,000. The Nigerian Army, the largest of the services, has about 99,000 personnel deployed in two mechanized infantry divisions, one armoured division, one composite division (airborne and amphibious), the Lagos Garrison Command (a division size unit), the Abuja-based Brigade of Guards and other regimental size units (e. The Military of Nigeria has active duty personnel in three armed services totalling approximately 85000 troops and 82000 paramilitary personnel g. artillery brigade). It has demonstrated its capability to mobilize, deploy, and sustain battalions in support of peacekeeping operations in Liberia, former Yugoslavia, Angola, Rwanda, Somalia, and Sierra Leone. Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The Republic of Rwanda (ruːˈændə or /rəˈwɑːndə/ in English ɾwanda or in Kinyarwanda is a small Landlocked country in the Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. The Nigerian Navy (7,000 members) is equipped with frigates, fast attack craft, corvettes, and coastal patrol boats. The Military of Nigeria has active duty personnel in three armed services totalling approximately 85000 troops and 82000 paramilitary personnel The MEKO family of Warships was developed by the German company Blohm + Voss. The Nigerian Air Force (9,000 members) flies transport, trainer, helicopter, and fighter aircraft, many of which are currently non-operational, but there is an ongoing policy of reorganization, and the provision of a very professional armed forces with high capability. The Nigerian Air Force is the air arm of the Nigerian military. Nigeria also has pursued a policy of developing domestic training and military production capabilities.
Nigeria has continued a strict policy of diversification in military procurement from various countries. After the imposition of sanctions by many Western nations, Nigeria turned to the People's Republic of China, Russia, North Korea, and India for the purchase of military equipment and training. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of 923,768 km² (356,669 mi²), making it the world's 32nd-largest country (after Tanzania). Nigeria is a country in West Africa. Nigeria shares land Borders with the Republic of Benin in the west Chad and Cameroon In Computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap, is a Data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of Pixels The Map Library should not be confused with the Map Library of The British Museum. Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya It is comparable in size to Venezuela, and is about twice the size of California. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. It shares a 4047 km (2515-mile) border with Benin (773 km), Niger (1497 km), Chad (87 km), Cameroon (1690 km), and has a coastline of at least 853 km. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States 
The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 feet). Chappal Waddi is a mountain in Nigeria and at 2419 meters is the country's highest point A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit
Nigeria has a varied landscape. From the Obudu Hills in the southeast through the beaches in the south, the rainforest, the Lagos estuary and savannah in the middle and southwest of the country and the Sahel to the encroaching Sahara in the extreme north. Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches A savanna or savannah is a Tropical or Subtropical Grassland or Woodland Ecosystem. See also Sahel Tunisia, a region of eastern Tunisia. The Sahel or Sahel Belt (from Arabic ساحل sāḥil The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest
Nigeria's main rivers are the Niger and the Benue which converge and empty into the Niger Delta, the world's largest river deltas. The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles The Benue River (la Bénoué is the major Tributary of the Niger River. The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a
Nigeria is also an important centre for biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. It is widely believed that the areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies. Calabar is a city in southeastern Nigeria. The City is watered by the Calabar and Great Qua Rivers and creeks of the Cross A butterfly is an Insect of the order Lepidoptera. Like all Lepidoptera butterflies are notable for their unusual life cycle with a The drill monkey is only found in the wild in Southeast Nigeria and neighboring Cameroon. The Drill ( Mandrillus leucophaeus) is a Primate of the Cercopithecidae (Old-world Monkeys family closely related to the Baboons and even The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa.
Nigeria is divided into thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory, which are further sub-divided into 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Nigeria is currently divided into 36 states and one federal capital territory Nigeria is currently divided into 36 states and one federal capital territory |||} Nigeria has 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs Each local government area is administered by a Local Government Council consisting of a chairman who is the Chief A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Geography The territory is located just north of the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers |||} Nigeria has 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs Each local government area is administered by a Local Government Council consisting of a chairman who is the Chief The plethora of states, of which there were only three at independence, reflect the country's tumultuous history and the difficulties of managing such a heterogeneous national entity at all levels of government.
Nigeria has six cities with a population of over 1 million people (from largest to smallest: Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, and Benin City). Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with Kano is the administrative center of the Kano State and the third largest City in Nigeria, in terms Ibadan (Ìlú Èbá-Ọdàn the town at the junction the savannah and the forest the Capital of Oyo State, is the third largest city Kaduna is the state capital of Kaduna State in north-central Nigeria. Port Harcourt is the Capital city of Rivers State, Nigeria. It lies along the Bonny River Benin City, a city (2006 est pop 1147188 in Edo State, southern Nigeria, is a city approximately twenty-five miles North of the Benin River. Lagos is the largest city in sub-Saharan Africa, with a population of over 10 million in its urban area alone. The following is a list of the 50 most populous cities in Africa. The question of which are the World's largest cities is a complex one to which there is no single correct answer simply because there are many different ways of defining a "city"
Nigeria's Delta region, home of the large oil industry, experiences serious oil spills and other environmental problems. Lagos Islandjpg|thumb| Lagos, Lagos State, most populous city]] This is a List of cities in Nigeria. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with Kano is the administrative center of the Kano State and the third largest City in Nigeria, in terms Ibadan (Ìlú Èbá-Ọdàn the town at the junction the savannah and the forest the Capital of Oyo State, is the third largest city Kaduna is the state capital of Kaduna State in north-central Nigeria. Port Harcourt is the Capital city of Rivers State, Nigeria. It lies along the Bonny River Benin City, a city (2006 est pop 1147188 in Edo State, southern Nigeria, is a city approximately twenty-five miles North of the Benin River. Maiduguri or Yerwa is the capital of Borno State in Nigeria and sits along the Ngadda River. Zaria is a major city in Kaduna State in Northern Nigeria. First known as Zazzau it was one of the original seven Hausa city-states. The extraction and Drilling of Petroleum in Nigeria is the largest industry and main generator of GDP in the West African nation which For the fictional character see Oil Slick (Transformers. An oil spill is the release of a Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbon into See Environmental issues in the Niger Delta for more details, and Conflict in the Niger Delta about strife which has arisen in connection with those issues. Key environmental issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria relate to its Oil industry. Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the early 1990s due to tensions between the foreign oil corporations and a number of the Niger Delta's minority ethnic
Waste management including sewage treatment, the linked processes of deforestation and soil degradation, and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria. Waste management is the collection Transport, processing, Recycling or disposal of Waste materials Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing Contaminants from Wastewater, both Runoff ( Effluents Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Soils retrogression and degradation in the French school of pedology are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable Soil Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the
Waste management presents problems in a mega city like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development, population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste. A megacity is generally defined as a Metropolitan area with a total Population in excess of 10 million people Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanization, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major Nigerian cities. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Some of the 'solutions' have been disastrous to the environment, resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and groundwater. 
In terms of global warming, Africans contribute only about one metric ton of carbon dioxide per person per year. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the It is perceived by many climate change experts that food production and security in the northern sahel region of the country will suffer as semi-arid areas will have more dry periods in the future. See also Sahel Tunisia, a region of eastern Tunisia. The Sahel or Sahel Belt (from Arabic ساحل sāḥil 
The currency unit of Nigeria is the Nigerian Naira. The Petroleum -based economy of Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability corruption and poor macroeconomic management is undergoing substantial economic reform Decaying infrastructure is one of the deficiencies that Nigeria ’s National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS seeks to address The naira is the Currency of Nigeria. The ISO currency code is NGN
Years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement have hampered economic activity and output in Nigeria and continue to do so, despite the restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reform. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, According to the Economist Intelligence Unit and the World Bank, Nigerian GDP at purchasing power parity was only at $170. The Economist Intelligence Unit ( EIU) is part of The Economist Group. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 7 billion as of FY 2005. The GDP per head is at $692. 
Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy, accounting for 40% of the GDP. The extraction and Drilling of Petroleum in Nigeria is the largest industry and main generator of GDP in the West African nation which It is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves and the country was also a founding member of OPEC. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador However, due to crumbling infrastructure, corruption, and ongoing civil strife in the Niger Delta, its main oil producing region, oil production and export is not at 100% capacity. The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a
Mineral resources that are present in Nigeria but not yet fully exploited are coal and tin. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Other natural resources in the country include iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, and arable land.  Despite huge deposits of these natural resources, the mining industry in Nigeria is almost non-existent. About 60% of Nigerians are employed in the agricultural sector. Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria. Perhaps, one of the most daunting ramifications of the discovery of oil was the decline of agricultural sector. So tragic was this neglect that Nigeria, which in the 1960s grew 98% of his own food and was a net food exporter, now must import much of the same cash crops it was formerly famous for as the biggest exporter. Agricultural products include groundnuts, palm oil, cocoa, coconut, citrus fruits, maize, pearl millet, cassava, yams and sugar cane. Palm oil is an edible plant oil derived from the Fruit of the Arecaceae Elaeis Oil palm. Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of Millet. The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native Yam is the common name for some species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae It also has a booming leather and textile industry, with industries located in Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos.
Like many Third World nations, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Many of the projects financed by these debts were inefficient, bedeviled by corruption or failed to live up to expectations. Eventually, Nigeria defaulted on its principal debt repayments as arrears and penalty interest accumulated and increased the size of the debt. However, after a long campaign by the Nigeria authorities, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement that reduced Nigeria's debt by approximately 60%. The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the world's richest countries which provides financial services such as debt restructuring debt relief and debt Nigeria used part of its oil windfall to pay the residual 40%, freeing up at least $1. 15 billion annually for poverty reduction programmes. As of April 2006, Nigeria became the first African Country to fully pay off her debt (estimated $30billion) owed to the Paris Club. The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the world's richest countries which provides financial services such as debt restructuring debt relief and debt
Nigeria also has significant production and manufacturing facilities such as factories for the French car manufacturer Peugeot, the English truck manufacturer Bedford, now a subsidiary of General Motors. For the article about the bicycle manufacturer see Cycles Peugeot. Bedford was a subsidiary of Vauxhall Motors, itself the British subsidiary of General Motors (GM established in 1930 and constructing commercial General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. Nigeria also manufactures t-shirts and processed food. A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a Shirt which is pulled on over the head to cover most of a person's Torso. Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw Ingredients into Food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by
Nigeria has a National Space Research and Development Agency. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA is the national Space agency of Nigeria.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa but exactly how populous is a subject of speculation. The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria accounts for approximately one-quarter of West Africa 's people The United Nations estimates that the population in 2004 was at 131,530,000 , with the population distributed as 48. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 3% Urban and 51. 7% rural and population density at 139 people per square km. National census results in the past few decades have been disputed. The results of the most recent census by the Government of Nigeria have been released 29 December 2006. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The census gave a population of 140. 003. 542. The only breakdown available was Total: 140. 003. 542 Men: 71. 709. 859 Women: 68. 293. 083
According to the United Nations, Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world. By their projections, Nigeria will be one of the countries in the world that will account for most of the world's total population increase by 2050.  According to current data, one out of every four Africans is Nigerian.  Presently, Nigeria is the eighth most populous country in the world, and even conservative estimates conclude that more than 20% of the world's black population lives in Nigeria. The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time 2006 estimates claim 42. 3% of the population is between 0-14 years of age, while 54. 6% is between 15-65; the birth rate is significantly higher than the death rate, at 40. Crude birth rate is the natality or Childbirths per 1000 people per year Mortality rate is a measure of the number of Deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in some population scaled to the size of that population per unit time 4 and 16. 9 per 1000 people respectively. 
Health, health care, and general living conditions in Nigeria are poor. Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing Life expectancy is 47 years (average male/female) and just over half the population has access to potable water and appropriate sanitation; the percentage is of children under five has gone up rather than down between 1990 and 2003 and infant mortality is 97. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing human contact from the hazards of wastes to promote health 1 deaths per 1000 live births. A live birth occurs when a Fetus, whatever its Gestational age, exits the Maternal body and subsequently shows any sign of life such as voluntary  HIV/AIDS rate in Nigeria is much lower compared to the other African nations such as Kenya or South Africa whose prevalence (percentage) rates are in the double digits. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Nigeria, like many developing countries, also suffers from a polio crisis as well as periodic outbreaks of cholera, malaria, and sleeping sickness. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral Infectious disease spread from person to person primarily via Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis is a Parasitic Disease of people and animals caused by Protozoa of species As of 2004, there has been a vaccination drive, spearheaded by the W.H.O., to combat polio and malaria that has been met with controversy in some regions. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral Infectious disease spread from person to person primarily via Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including 
Education is also in a state of neglect, though after the oil boom on the oil price in the early 1970s, tertiary education was improved so it would reach every subregion of Nigeria. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Education is provided free by the government, but the attendance rate for secondary education is only 29% (average male 32%/female 27%). The education system has been described as "dysfunctional" largely due to decaying institutional infrastructure. 68% of the population is literate, and the rate for men (75. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, 7%) is higher than that for women (60. 6%). 
Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. Nigeria provides free government-supported education but attendance is not compulsory at any level and certain groups such as nomads and the handicapped are underserved Nigeria, a large African nation is organised into 36 states and a federal capital territory(FCT in Abuja. The largest ethnic groups are the Fulani/Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, accounting for 68% of population, while the Edo, Ijaw (10%), Kanuri, Ibibio, Ebira Nupe and Tiv comprise 27%; other minorities make up the remaining 7 percent. The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. The Igbo [iɡɓo] ( Igbo: Igbo, sometimes Nd'Igbo) sometimes referred to (usually formerly as the Ibo, Eboe, Ebo The Bini (also known as the Edo or Benin are an ethnic group in Nigeria. The Ijaw (also known by the subgroups " Ijo " or " Izon " are a collection of peoples indigenous mostly to the forest regions of the The Kanuri are an African Ethnic group living in Bornu state in northeastern Nigeria, southeast Niger, western Chad and The Ibibio (also known as Moco or Moko during slavery) people are an ethnic group in southeastern Nigeria. The Nupe, tradititionally called the Tapa by the neighbouring Yoruba, are an Ethnic group located primarily in the Middle belt and northern The Tiv are an Ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa.  The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar. The Kofyar are a population in central Nigeria numbering around 50000
There are small minorities of British, Americans, East Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Syrian, Lebanese and refugees and immigrants from other West African or East African nations. British people, or Britons, are the native inhabitants of Great Britain and their descendants or citizens of the United Kingdom, of the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. The are the dominant Ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent of these approximately 127 million are residents of Japan Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja, or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with Abuja is the Capital city of Nigeria. It is located in the centre of Nigeria in the Federal Capital Territory The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a A number of Cubans settled Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of the United States proxy ruler General Fulgencio Batista 's regime on January 1, A number of them include Afro-Cubans and mixed-raced Cubans. The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans of African ancestry and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community
In the middle of the nineteenth century, a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos, Ibadan and other regions of Nigeria. The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans of African ancestry and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community Afro-Brazilian, or Black Brazilian, is the term used to racially categorize Brazilian citizens who are black or Multiracial Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with Ibadan (Ìlú Èbá-Ọdàn the town at the junction the savannah and the forest the Capital of Oyo State, is the third largest city Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in Latin America. Emancipation is a term used to describe various efforts to obtain Political rights or equality, often for a specifically Disenfranchised group or more Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saros (immigrants from Sierra Leone) and Amaro (ex-slaves from Brazil) later became prominent merchants and missionaries in Lagos and Abeokuta. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with Abeokuta is a city in Ogun State in southwest Nigeria and is situated at, on the Ogun River; 64 miles north of Lagos by railway or 81
The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521. The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521 This number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The choice of English as the official language was partially related to the fact that a part of Nigerian population spoke English as a result of British colonization that ended in 1960.
The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of African languages - the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Yoruba, Ibo, the Hausa language is Afro-Asiatic; and Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily Borno State, is a member of the Nilo-Saharan family. There are an estimated 2000 Languages spoken in Africa. About a hundred of these are widely used for inter-ethnic communication The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families, and Africa 's largest in terms of geographical area number of speakers and number Yoruba (native name èdè Yorùbá, 'the Yoruba language' is a Dialect continuum of West Africa with over 25 million speakers Igbo (Igbo Asusu Igbo) is a language spoken in Nigeria by around 20-35 million people the Igbo, especially in the southeastern region Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers spoken as a first Language by about 24 million people and as a second language by about 15 The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a Language family with about 375 languages ( SIL estimate and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa Kanuri is a dialect continuum spoken by approximately 4 million people in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, as well as small minorities Role of the emirs The state is dominated by the Kanuri ethnic group and is an example of the endurance of traditional political institutions in some areas of Africa The Nilo-Saharan languages are a hypothetical group of African languages spoken mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers (hence the term Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes. English as a first language, however, remains an exclusive preserve of a small minority of the country's urban elite, and is not spoken at all in some rural areas. With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages. Some of the largest of these, notably Yoruba and Ibo, have derived standardized languages from a number of different dialects and are widely spoken by those ethnic groups. Hausa is a lingua franca throughout much of West Africa, and serves this function in Northern Nigeria as well, particularly amongst the Muslim population. Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers spoken as a first Language by about 24 million people and as a second language by about 15 A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Nigerian Pidgin English, often known simply as 'Pidgin' or 'Broken' (Broken English), is also as a popular lingua franca, though with varying regional influences on dialect and slang. Nigerian Pidgin is an English -based pidgin or creole language spoken as a kind of Lingua franca across Nigeria that is referred to simply A pidgin is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common in situations such as Trade Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language. The pidgin English or Nigerian English is widely spoken within the Niger Delta Regions, predominately in Warri,Sapele, Port-Harcourt, Agenebode, Benin City etc. The Yoruba language has the most varied forms and dialects. This variation is usually based on the different towns or as it were Kingdoms that existed before the advent of Europeans. They are as diverse as the number of city states that there are. Examples are Awori, Ondo/Ekiti, Egba/Yewa, Oyo/Ibadan, Ijebu, Ijesa/Ife, Ilorin, Kabba/Okun.
Nigeria has a rich literary history, and Nigerians have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language. The Culture of Nigeria is shaped by Nigeria 's multiple ethnic groups Nigeria has produced many prolific writers Many have won accolades for their Writing abilities including Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka, Ken Saro-Wiwa Postcolonialism ( postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is an intellectual discourse that holds together a set of theories found among the texts and English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Nigeria's best-known writers are Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel Laureate in Literature and Chinua Achebe, the legendary writer best known for the novel, Things Fall Apart and his controversial critique of Joseph Conrad. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Things Fall Apart is a 1959 English-language novel by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924 was a Polish-born English novelist Other Nigerian writers and poets who are well known on the international stage include John Pepper Clark, Ben Okri, Buchi Emecheta, Helon Habila,Chidi Anthony Opara, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Lanre Adekola, and Ken Saro Wiwa who was executed in 1995 by the military regime. A Adam Abdulahi Yusufu Adamu Chris Abani Andy Abulu Chinua Achebe Poets from Nigeria include Toyin Adewale-Gabriel Gbola Adiamoh Awal Idris Evuti Dr John Pepper Clark-Bekederemo (born April 6 1935) is a Nigerian Poet and Playwright who originally published under the name of Ben Okri (born on March 15, 1959) is a Nigerian Poet and Novelist. Dr Buchi Emecheta (born July 21 1944 in Nigeria) is a prolific African Novelist who has published over 20 books plays and shorts including Helon Habila (born 1967 is a Nigerian novelist and poet He won the Caine Prize for African fiction (short story in 2001 and the Commonwealth Writers Prize (Best Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (born September 15, 1977) is an acclaimed Nigerian writer Kenule "Ken" Beeson Saro-Wiwa ( October 10, 1941 &ndash November 10, 1995) was a Nigerian author television producer and
Nigeria (naija) has been called "the heart of African music" because of its role in the development of West African highlife and palm-wine music, which fuses native rhythms with techniques imported from the Congo, Brazil, Cuba and elsewhere. Olufela Olufemi Anikulapo Kuti (commonly known as Femi Kuti is an award-winning Nigerian Musician and the eldest son of legendary Afrobeat pioneer Fela Anikulapo Kuti (born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti, October 15 1938 – August 2 1997) or simply Fela, was Afrobeat is a combination of Yoruba music, Jazz, Highlife, and Funk Rhythms fused with percussion and Vocal The music of Nigeria includes many kinds of Folk and Popular music, some of which are known worldwide Nollywood redirects here For the Nollywood TV channel in the UK see Nollywood Movies (TV channel. The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continent's many regions, nations and Ethnic groups Although there is no distinctly pan-African Highlife is a Musical genre that originated in Ghana and spread to Sierra Leone and Nigeria in the 1920s and other West African Maringa redirects here For the Brazilian city see Maringá. Palm-wine music (known as maringa in Sierra Leone) The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la
Nigerian music includes many kinds of folk and popular music, some of which are known worldwide. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more Styles of folk music are related to the multitudes of ethnic groups in the country, each with their own techniques, instruments and songs. The most populous country in Africa, Nigeria accounts for approximately one-quarter of West Africa 's people As a result, there are many different types of music that come from Nigeria.
Many late 20th century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with American Jazz and Soul to form Afrobeat music. Fela Anikulapo Kuti (born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti, October 15 1938 – August 2 1997) or simply Fela, was Indigenous music may refer to any of the musics of Indigenous peoples, especially the folk, ceremonial or ritual, and religious Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Soul music is a Music genre that combines Rhythm and blues and Gospel music, originating in the United States. Afrobeat is a combination of Yoruba music, Jazz, Highlife, and Funk Rhythms fused with percussion and Vocal  JuJu music which is percussion music fused with traditional music from the Yoruba nation and made famous by King Sunny Adé, is also from Nigeria. Jùjú is a style of Nigerian Popular music, derived from traditional Yoruba percussion. The Yoruba (Yo•row•ba ( Yorùbá in Yoruba Orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or Ethnic groups in West Africa King Sunny Adé ( Sunday Adeniyi, born September 22 1946) is a popular performer of Yoruba Nigerian Jùjú music. There is also fuji music, a Yoruba percussion style, created and popularized by the one and only Mr. Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. Fuji is a popular Nigerian musical genre It arose from the improvisation Ajisari / Were music tradition which is a kind of Muslim music performed Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister MON, aka " Fuji Creator" is a native of Ibadan, the largest city in both Nigeria and Africa.
There is a budding hip hop movement in Nigeria. Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence Kennis Music, the self proclaimed "No 1 Record Label in Africa" and one of Nigeria's biggest record labels, has a roster almost entirely dominated by hip hop artists. Kennis Music is a Record label, specializing in R&B, pop and Hip-hop music founded by popular Nigerian radio DJ Kenny Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence
Some famous musicians that come from Nigeria are Fela Kuti, Adewale Ayuba, Ezebuiro Obinna, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister, King Sunny Adé, Ebenezer Obey, Femi Kuti, Lagbaja, Dr. Alban, Sade Aduand Tuface Idibia. Fela Anikulapo Kuti (born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti, October 15 1938 – August 2 1997) or simply Fela, was Adewale Ayuba ( Mr Johnson) is a Nigerian singer from Ikenne Remo Ogun State. Christogonus Ezebuiro Obinna (died June 2 1999 the Ultimate Dr Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister MON, aka " Fuji Creator" is a native of Ibadan, the largest city in both Nigeria and Africa. King Sunny Adé ( Sunday Adeniyi, born September 22 1946) is a popular performer of Yoruba Nigerian Jùjú music. Ebenezer Obey (born 1942) Nicknamed the " Chief Commander," is a Nigerian pop musician. Olufela Olufemi Anikulapo Kuti (commonly known as Femi Kuti is an award-winning Nigerian Musician and the eldest son of legendary Afrobeat pioneer Lagbaja (born Bisade Ologunde in Lagos) is a Nigerian Afrobeat musician Dr Alban (born Alban Nwapa, August 26 1957 Enugu, Nigeria) is a Stockholm, Sweden -based Musician and producer See also Sade (band Helen Folasade Adu, OBE, (born 16 January 1959 better known as Sade (pronounced "shah-day" ʃɑːˈdeɪ is a Innocent Ujah Idibia (born in Jos, Plateau State) best known as 2face Idibia is a Nigerian hip hop musician and Songwriter
The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood. Nollywood redirects here For the Nollywood TV channel in the UK see Nollywood Movies (TV channel. Many of the film studios are based in Lagos and Abuja and the industry is now a very lucrative income for these cities. A movie studio (aka film studio) is in the established sense of the term a company that distributes films.
Nigeria has a variety of religions which tend to vary regionally. The Abuja National Mosque, also known as the Nigerian National Mosque, is the national Mosque of Nigeria, a country with a substantial Several religions in Nigeria coexist helping to accentuate regional and ethnic distinctions This situation accentuates regional and ethnic distinctions and has often been seen as a source of sectarian conflict amongst the population.  The four main religions are Islam (see also Islam in Nigeria), Christianity, Orisha, and Animism. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Fifty percent of the population of Nigeria adheres to Islam. Islam came to Northern Nigeria as early as the ninth century and was Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings An Orisha (also spelled Orisa or Orixa) is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare (God in the Yoruba spiritual Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals Animist religious practices include traditional religious belief systems such as Igbo mythology. Igbo mythology is the spirituality and religious beliefs and practices that were and still are practiced by the Igbo people. Christianity is concentrated in the southeast portion of the country while Islam dominates in the north of the country. The majority of Nigerian Muslims are Sunni, but a significant Shia minority exists (see Shia in Nigeria). Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Though the majority of the Nigerian muslim population is Sunni, there is a significant Shia minority particularly in the states of Kano and Sokoto Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems, provoking controversy. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Kano state of Nigeria has sought to make Sharia law superior to the constitution. 
Across Yorubaland (western Nigeria, Benin, Togo), many people are adherents to Yorubo/Irunmole spirituality with its philosophy of divine destiny that all can become Orisha (ori, spiritual head; sha, is chosen: to be one with Olodumare (oni odu, the God source of all energy; ma re, enlighthens / triumphs). The Yoruba (Yo•row•ba ( Yorùbá in Yoruba Orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or Ethnic groups in West Africa An Orisha (also spelled Orisa or Orixa) is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare (God in the Yoruba spiritual
Other minority religious and spiritual groups in Nigeria include Hinduism, Judaism, The Bahá’í Faith, and Chrislam (a syncretic faith melding elements of Christianity and Islam). Hinduism spread to Nigeria mainly by immigration of Hindus from India and by way of Hare Krishna Missionaries. The Igbo Jews or Ibo Benei-Yisrael, are members of the Igbo people of Nigeria who practice the Jewish religion and are said to be descended The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Chrislam, or the The Will of God Mission or Ifeoluwa Mission (Ifeoluwa is a Yoruba word meaning "God's Love" is a Nigerian syncretic Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought  Further, Nigeria has become an African hub for the Grail Movement, the Rosicrucian order (AMORC), and the Hare Krishnas. The Grail Movement is an organization which originated in Germany in the late 1940s inspired by the work of Oskar Ernst Bernhardt (also known by his Pen name The term Rosicrucian (symbol the Rose Cross) describes a secret society of mystics allegedly formed in late mediaeval Germany, holding a doctrine "built on The Ancient Mystical Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC, also called Rosicrucian Order, is a philosophical and humanist worldwide Fraternal organization. The Hare Krishna Mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra ("Great Mantra" is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well 
Like many nations, football is Nigeria's national sport. Football is a popular sport in Nigeria. The Nigeria national football team competes regularly for international titles and many Nigerian footballers compete in Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered There is also a local Premier League of football. The Nigerian Premier League is the highest level of domestic Nigerian football. Nigeria's national football team, known as the Super Eagles, has made the World Cup on three occasions 1994, 1998, and 2002, won the African Cup of Nations in 1980 and 1994, and also hosted the Junior World Cup. The Nigeria national football team, nicknamed the Super Eagles, is the national team of Nigeria and is controlled by the Nigeria Football Federation The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football The 1994 FIFA World Cup, the 15th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in the United States from June 17 to July 17 1994 The 1998 FIFA World Cup, the 16th staging of the World Cup was held in France from June 10 to July 12 after 60 years to celebrate the third edition scheduled The 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 17th staging of the World Cup, was held in South Korea and Japan from May 31 to June 30. The 1980 African Cup of Nations was the 12th edition of the African Cup of Nations, the Soccer championship of Africa ( CAF) The 1994 African Cup of Nations was the 19th edition of the African Cup of Nations, the Soccer championship of Africa ( CAF) They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics (in which they beat Argentina) and have reached the finals of the U-20 World Championship in 2005. In September 2007, Nigeria won the U-17 World cup for the third time, becoming the only African nation to have achieved that feat and the second nation (after Brazil) to do so. Nigeria had previously won the very first U-17 tournament in 1985 (China '85), 1993 (Japan '93) and in 2007 (Korea '07).
The nation's cadet team to Japan '93, produced some of the world's finest players notably Nwankwo Kanu, a two-time African Footballer of the year who won the European Champions League with Ajax Amsterdam and later played with Inter Milan (Italy), Arsenal FC (London, UK), West Brom (UK) and Portsmouth F.C. (UK). Nwankwo Kanu (born 1 August 1976 in Owerri, Nigeria) usually known simply as Kanu and nicknamed Papilo, is a professional Football Club Internazionale Milano, most commonly referred to as simply Internazionale, or Inter, is an Italian professional football club Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest West Bromwich Albion Football Club (also known as West Brom, The Baggies, Albion, The Albion, The Throstles or WBA) are Portsmouth Football Club is an English football club based in the south coast city of Portsmouth. Other players that graduated from the Junior teams are Celestine Babayaro (of Newcastle United, UK), Wilson Oruma (of Marseille, France). Celestine Hycieth Babayaro (born August 29, 1978 in Kaduna) is a Nigerian footballer who plays Left-back and Newcastle United Football Club (also known as The Magpies or The Toon) is an English football club based in Newcastle upon Wilson Oruma (born December 30, 1976 in Warri, Nigeria) is a football Midfielder from Nigeria.
According to the official September 2007 FIFA World Rankings, Nigeria is currently First-ranked football nation in Africa and the 19th highest in the world. History FIFA World Ranking Leaders In December 1992 FIFA first published Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball and track and field. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria; currently, Samuel Peter is the World Heavyweight Champion. Samuel Okon Peter (born September 6, 1980 in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria) nicknamed "The Nigerian Nightmare" is a Heavyweight
Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Nigerian Cuisine, like West African cuisine in general is known for its richness and variety Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply-flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chilli peppers. A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like Palm oil is an edible plant oil derived from the Fruit of the Arecaceae Elaeis Oil palm. The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or chili, is the fruit of the plants from the Genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied. 
A type of advance fee fraud known as "419" and the "Nigerian scam" is a form of confidence trick practiced by organized crime that is commonly associated with Nigeria, though it is now used in other places. An advance-fee fraud is a Confidence trick in which the target is persuaded to advance sums of money in the hope of realizing a very much larger gain An advance-fee fraud is a Confidence trick in which the target is persuaded to advance sums of money in the hope of realizing a very much larger gain A confidence trick or confidence game (also known as a bunko, con, flim flam, gaffle, grift, scam, scheme "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. The confidence man persuades the target to advance relatively small sums of money (the advance fee) in the hope of realizing a much larger gain (usually touted as millions).  In 2003, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (or EFCC) was created to combat this and other forms of organized financial crime. The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC is a Nigerian law enforcement agency that investigates financial crimes such as Advance fee fraud (419 fraud  It has succeeded in bringing several "419" crime bosses to justice and in some cases has been able to return the stolen money to victims. A crime boss is a person in charge of a Criminal organization. 
Despite its vast government revenue from the mining of petroleum, Nigeria is beset by a number of societal problems due primarily to a history of inept governance. Some of these problems are listed below.
In its 2005 report on human rights practices around the world, the U. In its 2005 report on human rights practices around the world the U S. Department of State found that Nigeria's human rights record was "poor. " According to the report, Nigerian government officials and police were responsible for "serious abuses," including politically motivated killings; the use of lethal force against suspected criminals and hostage-seizing militants in the Niger Delta; beatings and even torture of suspects, detainees, and convicts; and extortion of civilians. Politics of Nigeria take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Nigeria The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a Other abuses included violence, discrimination, and genital mutilation directed against women, child labor and prostitution, and human trafficking. The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to Human Genitals. Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour Prostitution of children refers to the use of children as Prostitutes The definition of a "child prostitute" can vary depending on who is using the term Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude 
Compounding these abuses was the application of Islamic law (sharia) in 12 northern states. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Sentences imposed under sharia included amputations, stonings, and canings, but no death sentences were carried out. Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or Surgery. Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of Capital punishment whereby an organized group throws stones at the convicted individual until the person dies Caning is a Physical punishment (see that article for generalities and alternatives consisting of a number of hits (known as "strokes" or "cuts" with In addition, the U. S. Department of State noted restrictions on the freedoms of speech, press, assembly, religion, movement, and privacy. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation.  Homosexuality is illegal in Nigeria.
Due to its multitude of diverse, sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria has been beset since prior to independence with sectarian tensions and violence. Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the early 1990s due to tensions between the foreign oil corporations and a number of the Niger Delta's minority ethnic This is particularly true in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts gain control over regional petroleum resources. The civilian population, and especially certain ethnic groups like the Ogoni, have experienced severe environmental degradation due to petroleum extraction, but when these groups have attempted to protest these injustices, they have been met with repressive measures by Nigerian government and military forces. The Ogoni people are one of the many Indigenous peoples in the Niger Delta region of southeast Nigeria. As a result, strife and deterioration in this region continues as of 2006. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
There are also significant tensions on a national scale, especially between the primarily Muslim, highly conservative northern population and the Christian population from the Southern part of the country. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
Since the end of the civil war in 1970, ethnic and religious violence has continued. Violence between Muslims and Christians occurred until early 2004. There has subsequently been a period of relative harmony since the Federal Government introduced tough new measures against religious violence in all affected parts of the country.
In 2002, organizers of the Miss World Pageant announced that they would move the pageant from the Nigerian capital, Abuja, to London in the wake of violent protests in the Northern part of the country that left more than 100 people dead and over 500 injured. The Miss World pageant is the oldest surviving major international Beauty pageant created in the United Kingdom by Eric Morley in 1951 Abuja is the Capital city of Nigeria. It is located in the centre of Nigeria in the Federal Capital Territory London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The rioting erupted after a newspaper suggested Muhammad would have approved of the Miss World beauty contest for personal reasons. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Muslim rioters in Kaduna killed an estimated 105 men, women, and children with a further 521 injured taken to hospital. Kaduna is the state capital of Kaduna State in north-central Nigeria. Angry mobs in the mainly Muslim city 600 kilometres (375 miles) northeast of Lagos burnt churches and rampaged through the streets, stabbing, bludgeoning, and burning bystanders to death. 
Nigeria has been reorganizing its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987 formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees. Health care provision in Nigeria is a Concurrent responsibility of the three Tiers of Government in the country The Bamako Initiative was a formal statement adopted by African health ministers in 1987 in Bamako, Mali, to implement strategies designed to increase the  The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. 
The state of health care in Nigeria has been worsened by a shortage of doctors as a consequence of severe 'brain drain'. A brain drain or human capital flight is a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity Many Nigerian doctors have emigrated to North America and Europe. In 1995, 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the US alone, about the same as the number of doctors then in the Nigerian public service. Retaining these expensively-trained professionals has been identified as an urgent goal. 
In 2003, Nigerians were reported to be the happiest people in a scientific survey carried out in 65 nations in 1999-2001.  The research was reported by one of the world's top science magazines, New Scientist, and was picked up by a number of news outlets. New Scientist is a weekly International science magazine and website covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English -speaking See Nigeria tops happiness survey. The report considered that the country's family life and culture were more important than its problems and material wealth in determining happiness.
|History||Timeline | Kingdoms and empires (Oyo | Benin | Fulani | Kanem-Bornu) | Northern Nigeria | Southern Nigeria | Economic history | Civil War | Foreign relations | Military | Postal | Archaeology|
|Politics||1st Republic | 2nd Republic | 3rd Republic | 4th Republic | Constitution | Political parties (PDP | ANPP | AC) | Elections|
|Government||Executive branch ( President & Vice-President | Cabinet (Federal Executive Council) | Council of State) | Legislative branch (Senate President & Speaker | National Assembly: House of Representatives | Senate) | Judicial branch (Chief Justice | Supreme Court) | Law enforcement | Military | Federal Parastatals|
|Geography||Adamawa Plateau | Jos Plateau | Niger Delta | Niger River | Mountains | Islands | Rivers | States | Cities | Local Government Areas | Regions|
|Economy||Agriculture | Companies | Nigerian Naira | Petroleum in Nigeria | Central Bank of Nigeria | Stock Exchange|
|Society||Demographics | Languages | Religion | Media | Education (Universities) | Holidays | Opinion polls|
|Culture||Nigerian Pidgin English | Sport | Igbo mythology | Yoruba mythology | Music ( Jùjú | Afrobeat | Hip Hop) | Cinema | Literature (Poets) | Cuisine | Dance | Architecture|
|National Symbols||Flag of Nigeria | Coat of Arms of Nigeria | Seal of the President of Nigeria | Seal of the Vice-President of Nigeria | National Anthem | Presidential Villa (Aso Rock) | National Arts Theater|
|Other||Communications | Transportation (Highways | Airports) | List of Nigerians | Tourism | Conflict in the Niger Delta | Corruption in Nigeria | Ethnic organizations (MASSOB | MOSOP | Oodua Peoples Congress) | Ethnic groups | Crime | Advance fee fraud|