|République du Niger|
Republic of Niger
|Motto: "Fraternité, Travail, Progrès" (French)|
"Fraternity, Work, Progress"
|Anthem: La Nigérienne|
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Seyni Oumarou|
|-||Declared||August 3, 1960|
|-||Total||1,267,000 km² (22nd)|
489,678 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The Flag of Niger has been the national symbol of the West African Republic of Niger since 1959 a year prior to its formal independence from France The coat of arms of Niger shows a four-part flag draping in the national colors orange white and green A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's "La Nigérienne" is the National anthem of Niger. The lyrics are by Maurice Albert Thiriet. The largest ethnic groups in Niger are the Hausa, who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria, and the Zarma Songhay (also Niamey, Population 674950 (2002 census is the Capital of Niger. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Latest election List of Heads of State of Niger (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Affiliations Colonel (ret Tandja Mamadou (born 1938 in Maïné-Soroa, Niger) is a Nigerien politician and current President, as well as the List of Heads of Government of Niger Affiliations See also Niger Heads of State of Niger Seyni Oumarou (born August 9 1950) is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since June 2007. This is the history of Niger. See also the History of Africa and the History of West Africa. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different surface Areas here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 02|
|-||July 2005 estimate||13,957,000 (64th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$910. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 951 million (132nd)|
|-||Per capita||$872 (171st)|
|Gini (1995)||50. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 5 (high)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 374 (low) (174th)|
|Currency||West African CFA franc (|
|Time zone||WAT (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+1)|
Niger (pronounced /niːˈʒɛər/ or /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/); in French pronounced [niʒɛʁ]), officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The West African CFA franc ( French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code XOF) is the currency of eight independent states spanning ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in western and west-central Africa (though not in countries west of Benin, which instead use GMT Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles It borders Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria and Libya to the north and Chad to the east. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa. Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. The capital city is Niamey. Niamey, Population 674950 (2002 census is the Capital of Niger.
Niger's main international airport is Diori Hamani International Airport at Niamey. An international airport is an Airport typically equipped with Customs and Immigration facilities to handle international flights to and from other Diori Hamani International Airport is an airport in Niamey, the capital of Niger. Other airports in Niger include Mano Dayak International Airport at Agadez and Zinder Airport near Zinder. List of Airports in Niger, sorted by location List Airport names show in bold indicate the airport has scheduled service on commercial Mano Dayak International Airport is an airport in Agadez in Niger. Agadez (also Agades) is the largest city in northern Niger, with a population of 88569 (2005 census Zinder Airport is an Airport near Zinder, Niger. Zinder (which is locally called Damagaram is the second largest city in Niger, with a population of 170574 ( 2002 census
While most of what is now Niger has been subsumed into the inhospitable Sahara desert in the last two thousand years, five thousand years ago the north of the country was fertile grasslands. This is the history of Niger. See also the History of Africa and the History of West Africa. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest Populations of pastoralists have left paintings of abundant wildlife, domesticated animals, chariots, and a complex culture that dates back to at least 10,000 BCE. Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of Agriculture concerned with the raising of Livestock.
One of the first empires in what is now Niger was the Songhai Empire. The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire was a pre-colonial African state of west Africa. During recent centuries, the nomadic Tuareg formed large confederations, pushed southward, and, siding with various Hausa states, clashed with the Fulani Empire of Sokoto, which had gained control of much of the Hausa territory in the late 18th century. The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. The Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto, Sa’adu Abubakar. Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to where the Sokoto River and Rima River meet
In the 19th century, contact with the West began when the first European explorers—notably Mungo Park (British) and Heinrich Barth (German)—explored the area, searching for the source of the Niger River. Mungo Park ( September 11, 1771 &ndash 1806 was a Scottish explorer of the African continent Heinrich Barth ( February 16 1821 &ndash November 25, 1865) was a German Explorer and Scholar of Africa The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles Although French efforts at "pacification" began before 1900, dissident ethnic groups, especially the desert Tuareg, were not fully subdued until 1922, when Niger became a French colony. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War. The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic
Niger's colonial history and development parallel that of other French West African territories. French West Africa ( Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a Federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: France administered its West African colonies through a governor general in Dakar, Senegal, and governors in the individual territories, including Niger. For the Dakar Rally see Dakar Rally. For the Israeli submarine see INS Dakar. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. In addition to conferring French citizenship on the inhabitants of the territories, the 1946 French constitution provided for decentralization of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory assemblies.
A further revision in the organization of overseas territories occurred with the passage of the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of July 23, 1956, followed by reorganizing measures enacted by the French Parliament early in 1957. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In addition to removing voting inequalities, these laws provided for creation of governmental organs, assuring individual territories a large measure of self-government. After the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on December 4, 1958, Niger became an autonomous state within the French Community. See also Government of France The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Following full independence on August 3, 1960, however, membership was allowed to lapse. Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Niger is a landlocked nation in West Africa located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. In Computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap, is a Data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of Pixels The Map Library should not be confused with the Map Library of The British Museum. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries Its geographic coordinates are latitude 16°N and longitude 8°E. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement Its area is 1,267,000 square kilometres (489,000 sq mi) of which 300 square kilometres (115 sq mi) is water. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. This makes Niger slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas, and the world's twenty-second largest country (after Chad). A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Niger is comparable in size to Angola. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central
Niger borders seven countries on all sides and has a total of 5,697 kilometres (3,540 mi) of borders. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The longest border is Nigeria to the south (1,497 km; 930 mi). Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal This is followed by Chad to the east, at 1,175 kilometres (730 mi), Algeria to the north-northwest (956 km; 594 mi), and Mali at 821 kilometres (510 mi). Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Niger also has small borders in its far southwest frontier with Burkina Faso at 628 kilometres (390 mi) and Benin at 266 kilometres (165 mi) and to the north-northeast (Libya at 354 kilometres (220 mi). Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab
Niger's subtropical climate is mainly very hot and dry, with much desert area. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. In the extreme south there is a tropical climate on the edges of the Niger River basin. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles The terrain is predominantly desert plains and sand dunes, with flat to rolling savannah in the south and hills in the north. In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes.
The lowest point is the Niger River, with an elevation of 200 metres (722 ft). The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles The highest point is Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès in the Aïr Massif at 2,022 metres (6,634 ft). The Aïr Mountains (also known as the Aïr Massif; the name is Ayăr in Tuareg and Azbin / Abzin in eastern / western
For its first fourteen years as an independent state, Niger was run by a single-party civilian regime under the presidency of Hamani Diori. This is a List of cities and towns in Niger. All larger cities are also Communes of Niger. Politics of Niger takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Niger is Latest election List of Heads of State of Niger (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Affiliations Hamani Diori ( 6 June 1916 – 23 April 1989) was the first President of the Republic of Niger. In 1974, a combination of devastating drought and accusations of rampant corruption resulted in a coup d'état that overthrew the Diori regime. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain Col. Seyni Kountché and a small military group ruled the country until Kountché's death in 1987. Seyni Kountché ( 1 July 1931 – 10 November 1987) was a Nigerien military officer who led a 1974 Coup d'état that deposed He was succeeded by his Chief of Staff, Col. Ali Saibou, who released political prisoners, liberalized some of Niger's laws and policies, and promulgated a new constitution. Ali Saibou (born 1940 was the President of Niger from 1987 to 1993 succeeding the deceased Seyni Kountché. A political prisoner is someone held in Prison or otherwise detained perhaps under House arrest, for his or her involvement in political activity A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity However, President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the end of 1990. New political parties and civic associations sprang up, and a national peace conference was convened in July 1991 to prepare the way for the adoption of a new constitution and the holding of free and fair elections. The debate was often contentious and accusatory, but under the leadership of Prof. André Salifou, the conference developed consensus on the modalities of a transition government. André Salifou (born 1942 is a Nigerien politician diplomat and professor A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime A transition government was installed in November 1991 to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put into place in April 1993. While the economy deteriorated over the course of the transition, certain accomplishments stand out, including the successful conduct of a constitutional referendum; the adoption of key legislation such as the electoral and rural codes; and the holding of several free, fair, and non-violent nationwide elections. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita Freedom of the press flourished with the appearance of several new independent newspapers. Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press
The results of the January 1995 parliamentary election meant cohabitation between a rival president and prime minister; this led to governmental paralysis, which provided Col. Cohabitation in government occurs in Semi-presidential systems such as France 's system when the President is from a different Political party Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara a rationale to overthrow the Third Republic in January 1996. Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara ( May 9, 1949 – April 9, 1999) was a military officer in the West African country of Niger who While leading a military authority that ran the government (Conseil de Salut National) during a 6-month transition period, Baré enlisted specialists to draft a new constitution for a Fourth Republic announced in May 1996. Baré organized a presidential election in July 1996. While voting was still going on, he replaced the electoral commission. The new commission declared him the winner after the polls closed. His party won 57% of parliament seats in a flawed legislative election in November 1996. When his efforts to justify his coup and subsequent questionable elections failed to convince donors to restore multilateral and bilateral economic assistance, a desperate Baré ignored an international embargo against Libya and sought Libyan funds to aid Niger's economy. Multilateralism is a term in International relations that refers to multiple countries working in concert on a given issue This article is about the political term for the term as used in Biology, see symmetry (biology. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab In repeated violations of basic civil liberties by the regime, opposition leaders were imprisoned; journalists often arrested, and deported by an unofficial militia composed of police and military; and independent media offices were looted and burned.
As part of an initiative started under the 1991 national conference, however, the government signed peace accords in April 1995 with all, meaning Tuareg and Toubou groups that had been in rebellion since 1990. The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic The Toubou (also called Tebu or Tubu or Tebou) are an Ethnic group that live mainly in northern Chad, but also in Libya The Tuareg claimed they lacked attention and resources from the central government. The government agreed to absorb some former rebels into the military and, with French assistance, help others return to a productive civilian life. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
On April 9, 1999, Baré was killed in a coup led by Maj. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Daouda Malam Wanké, who established a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a Fifth Republic with a French style semi-presidential system. Daouda Malam Wanké a member of Hausa ethnic group (died September 15 2004) was a military and political leader in Niger. The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration In votes that international observers found to be generally free and fair, the Nigerien electorate approved the new constitution in July 1999 and held legislative and presidential elections in October and November 1999. Heading a coalition of the National Movement for a Developing Society (MNSD) and the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS), Mamadou Tandja won the election. The National Movement for the Development of Society - MNSD (1989-1991 / MNSD-NASSARA (1991- (Mouvement National de la Société de Développement is a Political The Democratic and Social Convention (Convention démocratique et sociale-Rahama is a Political party in Niger. Colonel (ret Tandja Mamadou (born 1938 in Maïné-Soroa, Niger) is a Nigerien politician and current President, as well as the
Niger's new constitution was approved in July 1999. It restored the semi-presidential system of government of the December 1992 constitution (Third Republic) in which the president of the republic, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, and a prime minister named by the president share executive power. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. As a reflection of Niger's increasing population, the unicameral National Assembly was expanded in 2004 to 113 deputies elected for a 5 year term under a majority system of representation. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber The Unicameral National Assembly of Niger is the country's legislative body Political parties must attain at least 5% of the vote in order to gain a seat in the legislature.
The constitution also provides for the popular election of municipal and local officials, and the first-ever successful municipal elections took place on July 24, 2004. Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The National Assembly passed in June 2002 a series of decentralization bills. As a first step, administrative powers will be distributed among 265 communes (local councils); in later stages, regions and departments will be established as decentralized entities. A new electoral code was adopted to reflect the decentralization context. The country is currently divided into 8 regions, which are subdivided into 36 districts (departments). The chief administrator (Governor) in each department is appointed by the government and functions primarily as the local agent of the central authorities.
The current legislature elected in December 2004 contains seven political parties. President Mamadou Tandja was re-elected in December 2004 and reappointed Hama Amadou as Prime Minister. Colonel (ret Tandja Mamadou (born 1938 in Maïné-Soroa, Niger) is a Nigerien politician and current President, as well as the Mahamane Ousmane, the head of the CDS, was re-elected President of the National Assembly (parliament) by his peers. Mahamane Ousmane (born 20 January 1950) is a Nigerien Political figure. The new second term government of the Fifth Republic took office on December 30, 2002. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. In August 2002, serious unrest within the military occurred in Niamey, Diffa, and Nguigmi, but the government was able to restore order within several days. Niamey, Population 674950 (2002 census is the Capital of Niger. Diffa is a town in southeast Niger, near that country's border with Nigeria, with a population of 23600 (2004 N'guigmi is a small City in the eastern most part of Niger, very near to Lake Chad - lying on its shore until the lake retreated
In June 2007, Seyni Oumarou was nominated as the new Prime Minister after Hama Amadou was democratically forced out of office by the National Assembly through a motion of no confidence. Seyni Oumarou (born August 9 1950) is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since June 2007.
From 2007 to 2008, the Second Tuareg Rebellion took place in northern Niger, worsening economic prospects and shutting down political progress.
Niger is divided into 7 Regions and one capital district. |||} Niger is divided into 7 Regions (French régions singular région. |||}The Regions of Niger are subdivided into 36 Departments (departements The Departments of Niger are subdivided into communes. As of 2005 in the seven Regions and one Capitol Area there were 36 départements, divided |||} Niger is divided into 7 Regions (French régions singular région. These Regions are subdivided into 36 departments. |||}The Regions of Niger are subdivided into 36 Departments (departements The 36 Departments are currently broken down into Communes of varying types. As of 2006 there were 265 communes, including communes urbaines (Urban Communes: as subdivisions of major cities), communes rurales (Rural Communes, in sparsely populated areas and postes administratifs (Administrative Posts) for largely uninhabited desert areas or military zones. Rural communes may contain official villages and settlements, while Urban Communes are divided into quarters. Niger subvisions were renamed in 2002, in the implementation of a decentralisation project, first begun in 1998. Previously, Niger was divided into 7 Departments, 36 Arrondissements, and Communes. These subdivisions were administered by officials appointed by the national government. These offices will be replaced in the future by democratically elected councils at each level.
The departments and capital district are:
Niger pursues a moderate foreign policy and maintains friendly relations with the West and the Islamic world as well as nonaligned countries. Agadez is an administrative Region in Niger. Agadez covers 634209 km² Diffa is an administrative Region of Niger, the capital of the region is the city of Diffa. Dosso is an administrative Region of the Republic of Niger; see its eponymous capital Dosso for history The Region of Maradi is one of eight Regions of Niger. It is located east of the Region of Tahoua and west of Zinder, in the center of Niger Tahoua is one of eight administrative Regions in Niger. The capital of the Region is the Commune of Tahoua. Tillabéri (var Tillabéry) is an administrative Region in Niger; the capital of the Region is Tillabéri. Zinder Region is an administrative Region in Niger, the capital of the Region is the Commune of Zinder. Niamey, Population 674950 (2002 census is the Capital of Niger. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. It belongs to the United Nations and its main specialized agencies and in 1980-81 served on the UN Security Council. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Niger maintains a special relationship with France and enjoys close relations with its West African neighbors. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. It is a charter member of the African Union and the West African Monetary Union and also belongs to the Niger River and Lake Chad Basin Commissions, the Economic Community of West African States, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African The West African Economic and Monetary Union (or UEMOA from its name in French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization The Economic Community of West African States ( ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen West African countries founded on May 28 The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. The westernmost regions of Niger are joined with contiguous regions Mali and Burkina Faso under the Liptako-Gourma Authority. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa The Liptako-Gourma Authority is a regional organization seeking to develop the contiguous areas of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger.
The border dispute with Benin, inherited from colonial times and concerning inter alia Lete Island in the River Niger was finally solved by the ICJ in 2005 to Niger's advantage. Lété Island is an island in the River Niger approx 16 kilometres long and 4 kilometres wide located around 40 kilomeres from the town of Gao Niger The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour
The Niger Armed Forces total 12,000 personnel with approximately 3,700 gendarmes, 300 air force, and 6,000 army personnel. The Niger Armed Forces ( FAN) comprises both the military and national police services of the West African nation of Niger, totaling around 12000 The air force has four operational transport aircraft. The armed forces include general staff and battalion task force organizations consisting of two paratroop units, four light armored units, and nine motorized infantry units located in Tahoua, Agadez, Dirkou, Zinder, Nguigmi, N'Gourti, and Madewela. Since January 2003, Niger has deployed a company of troops to Côte d’Ivoire as part of the ECOWAS stabilization force. In 1991, Niger sent four hundred military personnel to join the American-led allied forces against Iraq during the Gulf War.
Niger's defense budget is modest, accounting for about 1. 6% of government expenditures. France provides the largest share of military assistance to Niger. Morocco, Algeria, China, and Libya have also provided military assistance. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Approximately 15 French military advisers are in Niger. Many Nigerien military personnel receive training in France, and the Nigerien Armed Forces are equipped mainly with material either given by or purchased in France. In the past, U. S. assistance focused on training pilots and aviation support personnel, professional military education for staff officers, and initial specialty training for junior officers. A small foreign military assistance program was initiated in 1983. A U. S. Defense Attaché office opened in June 1985 and assumed Security Assistance Office responsibilities in 1987. The office closed in 1996 following a coup d'état. A U. S. Defense Attaché office reopened in July 2000. The United States provided transportation and logistical assistance to Nigerien troops deployed to Cote d’Ivoire in 2003. Additionally, the U. S. provided initial equipment training on vehicles and communications gear to a select contingent of Nigerien soldiers as part of the Department of State Pan Sahel Initiative. The Pan-Sahel Initiative, according to a November 7 2002 Office of Counterterrorism U
The economy of Niger centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Drought cycles, desertification, a 2. 9% population growth rate, and the drop in world demand for uranium have undercut the economy.
Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, "céfa" or just franc colloquially is a currency used in twelve formerly French -ruled The Central Bank of West African States (Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest BCEAO is a Central bank serving the eight West African countries which The West African Economic and Monetary Union (or UEMOA from its name in French, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization
In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Heavily Indebted Poor Countries ( HIPC) are a group of 37 Developing countries with high levels of Poverty and Debt overhang which are eligible The Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF is an arm of the International Monetary Fund which lends to the world's poorest countries Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. In December 2005, it was announced that Niger had received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translates into the forgiveness of approximately $86 million USD in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Uranium prices have recovered somewhat in the last few years. A drought and locust infestation in 2005 led to food shortages for as many as 2. 5 million Nigeriens.
Niger's agricultural and livestock sectors are the mainstay of all but 18% of the population. Fourteen percent of Niger's GDP is generated by livestock production—camels, goats, sheep, and cattle—said to support 29% of the population. Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The 15% of Niger's land that is arable is found mainly along its southern borders with Nigeria, Benin and Burkina Faso. Rainfall varies and when insufficient, Niger has difficulty feeding its population and must rely on grain purchases and food aid to meet food requirements. Although the rains in 2000 were not good, the three following years brought relatively plentiful and well-distributed rainfall, resulting in good harvests. Millet, sorghum, and cassava are Niger's principal rain-fed subsistence crops. Cowpeas and onions are grown for commercial export, as are limited quantities of garlic, peppers, gum arabic, and sesame seeds. Allium sativum L, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the Onion family Alliaceae. Capsicum is a Genus of Plants from the nightshade family ( Solanaceae) native to the Americas, where it was cultivated for thousands Gum arabic, a Natural gum also called gum acacia, and chaar gund or char goond (in India is the hardened Sap taken from two species Sesame ( Sesamum indicum) is a Flowering plant in the genus Sesamum.
Uranium is Niger's largest export. Foreign exchange earnings from livestock, although difficult to quantify, are second. Actual exports far exceed official statistics, which often fail to detect large herds of animals informally crossing into Nigeria. Some hides and skins are exported, and some are transformed into handicrafts.
The persistent uranium price slump has brought lower revenues for Niger's uranium sector, although uranium still provides 72% of national export proceeds. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the The nation enjoyed substantial export earnings and rapid economic growth during the 1960s and 1970s after the opening of two large uranium mines near the northern town of Arlit. When the uranium-led boom ended in the early 1980s, however, the economy stagnated, and new investment since then has been limited. Niger's two uranium mines—SOMAIR's open pit mine and COMINAK's underground mine—are owned by a French-led consortium and operated by French interests. However, as of 2007, many licences have been given to other companies from countries such as Canada and Australia in order to exploit new deposits.
Exploitable deposits of gold are known to exist in Niger in the region between the Niger River and the border with Burkina Faso. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa On October 5, 2004, President Tandja announced the official opening of the Samira Hill Gold Mine in the region of Tera and the first Nigerien gold ingot was presented to him. Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " An ingot is a material usually metal that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing This marked a historical moment for Niger as the Samira Hill Gold Mine represents the first commercial gold production in the country. Samira Hill is owned by a company called SML (Societe des Mines du Liptako) which is a joint venture between a Moroccan company, Societe Semafo, and a Canadian company, Etruscan Resources. Societe Semafo ( is a Mining company active in West Africa. Semafo operates active Gold mines in Guinea, at Kiniero; and in Etruscan Resources Incorporated ( is a Mining company based in Nova Scotia, in Canada, that operates Gold and Diamond mines in Both companies own 80% (40% - 40%) of SML and the Government of Niger 20%. The first year’s production is predicted to be 135,000 troy ounces (4,200 kg; 9,260 lb avoirdupois) of gold at a cash value of USD 177 per ounce ($5. Troy weight is a system of units of Mass customarily used for Precious metals Black powder, and Gemstones Named after Troyes The avoirdupois (ˌævərdəˈpɔɪz French avwaʀdypwɑ system is a system of weights (or properly Mass) based on a pound of sixteen Ounces 70/g). The mine reserves for the Samira Hill mine total 10,073,626 tons at an average grade of 2. 21 grams per ton from which 618,000 troy ounces (19,200 kg; 42,400 lb) will be recovered over a 6 year mine life. SML believes to have a number of significant gold deposits within what is now recognized as the gold belt known as the "Samira Horizon", which is located between Gotheye and Ouallam.
Substantial deposits of phosphates, coal, iron, limestone, and gypsum also have been found in Niger. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 Niger has oil potential. In 1992, the Djado permit was awarded to Hunt Oil, and in 2003 the Tenere permit was awarded to the China National Petroleum Company. An ExxonMobil-Petronas joint venture now holds the sole rights to the Agadem block, north of Lake Chad, and oil exploration is ongoing. The Exxon Mobil Corporation, or ExxonMobil, is an American oil and gas Corporation and a direct descendant of John D Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17 1974. Lake Chad (in French Lac Tchad) is a historically large shallow lake in Africa, whose size has varied greatly over the centuries The parastatal SONICHAR (Societe Nigerienne de Charbon) in Tchirozerine (north of Agadez) extracts coal from an open pit and fuels an electricity generating plant that supplies energy to the uranium mines. There are additional coal deposits to the south and west that are of a higher quality and may be exploitable.
The economic competitiveness created by the January 1994 devaluation of the Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) franc contributed to an annual average economic growth of 3. The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, "céfa" or just franc colloquially is a currency used in twelve formerly French -ruled 5% throughout the mid-1990s. But the economy stagnated due to the sharp reduction in foreign aid in 1999 (which gradually resumed in 2000) and poor rains in 2000. Reflecting the importance of the agricultural sector, the return of good rains was the primary factor underlying economic growth of 5. 1% in 2000, 3. 1% in 2001, 6. 0% in 2002, and 3. 0% in 2003.
In recent years, the Government of Niger drafted revisions to the investment code (1997 and 2000), petroleum code (1992), and mining code (1993), all with attractive terms for investors. The present government actively seeks foreign private investment and considers it key to restoring economic growth and development. With the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), it has undertaken a concerted effort to revitalize the private sector.
The importance of external support for Niger's development is demonstrated by the fact that about 45% of the government's FY 2002 budget, including 80% of its capital budget, derived from donor resources. The most important donors in Niger are France, the European Union, the World Bank, the IMF, and UN agencies—UNDP, UNICEF, FAO, WFP, and UNFPA. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The United Nations Children's Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946 The United Nations Population Fund ( UNFPA) began operations in 1969 as the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (the name was changed in 1987 Other donors include the United States, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, China, Italy, Libya, Egypt, Morocco, Iran, Denmark, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi While the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) does not have an office in Niger, the United States is a major donor, contributing on average $8 million each year to Niger’s development increasing to $12 million in FY 2004. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the United States federal government organization responsible for most non- military The United States also is a major partner in policy coordination in food security, education, water management and HIV/AIDS sectors.
In January 2000, Niger's newly elected government inherited serious financial and economic problems, including a virtually empty treasury, past-due salaries (11 months of arrears) and scholarship payments, increased debt, reduced revenue performance, and lower public investment. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund (IMF) program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Heavily Indebted Poor Countries ( HIPC) are a group of 37 Developing countries with high levels of Poverty and Debt overhang which are eligible The Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF is an arm of the International Monetary Fund which lends to the world's poorest countries In January 2001, Niger reached its decision point and subsequently reached its completion point in 2004. Total relief from all of Niger's creditors is worth about $890 million, corresponding to about $520 million in net present value (NPV) terms, which is equivalent to 53. 5% of Niger’s total debt outstanding as of 2000.
The debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing about $40 million per year over the coming years for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing The overall impact on Niger's budget is substantial. Debt service as a percentage of government revenue will be slashed from nearly 44% in 1999 to 10. 9% in 2003 and average 4. 3% during 2010-19. The debt relief cuts debt service as a percentage of export revenue from more than 23% to 8. 4% in 2003, and decreases it to about 5% in later years.
In addition to strengthening the budgetary process and public finances, the Government of Niger has embarked on an ambitious program to privatize 12 state-owned companies. Maradi is the third largest city in Niger and the administrative centre of Maradi Region. To date, seven have been fully privatized, including the water and telephone utilities, with the remainder to be privatized in 2005. A newly installed multisectoral regulatory agency will help ensure free and fair competition among the newly privatized companies and their private sector competitors. In its effort to consolidate macroeconomic stability under the PRGF, the government is also taking actions to reduce corruption, and as the result of a participatory process encompassing civil society, has devised a Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan that focuses on improving health, primary education, rural infrastructure, agricultural production, environmental protection, and judicial reform.
Privatization and liberalization have however also been the subject of strong criticism. The UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, for instance, has noted that privatization affects the poorest and most vulnerable members of Niger's society. See his reports on Niger at http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/food/visits.htm
Also, the obligations to creditor institutions and governments has locked Niger in to a process of trade liberalization that might be harmful for small farmers and in particular women, as noted by a recent report by 3D → Trade - Human Rights - Equitable Economy, on Agriculture trade liberalization and women's rights. See http://www.3dthree.org/pdf_3D/3DCEDAWNigerAg.pdf
The largest ethnic groups in Niger are the Hausa, who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria, the Djerma-Songhai, who also are found in parts of Mali. The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal The Songhai are an ethnic group from western Africa akin to the Mandé. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Both groups, along with the Gourmantche, are sedentary farmers who live in the arable, southern tier of the country. Gurma (also called Gourma or Gourmantché) is an Ethnic group living mainly in Burkina Faso, around Fada N'Gourma, and also in northern The remainder of Nigeriens are nomadic or semi-nomadic livestock-raising peoples—Fulani, Tuareg, Kanuri, Arabs, and Toubou. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of The Tuareg (also Twareg or Touareg, Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms are a Nomadic The Kanuri are an African Ethnic group living in Bornu state in northeastern Nigeria, southeast Niger, western Chad and The Toubou (also called Tebu or Tubu or Tebou) are an Ethnic group that live mainly in northern Chad, but also in Libya With rapidly growing populations and the consequent competition for meager natural resources, lifestyles of agriculturalists and livestock herders have come increasingly into conflict in Niger in recent years.
Niger's high infant mortality rate is comparable to levels recorded in neighboring countries. However, the child mortality rate (deaths among children between the ages of 1 and 4) is exceptionally high (248 per 1,000) due to generally poor health conditions and inadequate nutrition for most of the country's children. According to the organization Save the Children, Niger has the world's highest infant mortality rate . Save the Children is a leading international organisation helping children in need around the world Nonetheless, Niger has the highest fertility rate in the world (7. 2 births per woman); this means that nearly half (49%) of the Nigerien population is under age 15. Between 1996 and 2003, primary school attendance was around 30% , including 36% of males and only 25% of females. Additional education occurs through madrassas. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə.
The majority of Niger's population practises Islam: 80%, while 15% practises Animism, and 5% practise Protestant and Catholic Christianity. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
The Nigerien culture is mainly based on a traditional Muslim culture. The Nigerien culture is typical of many West African cultures.
Niger began developing diverse media in the late 1990s. Depending on how they are counted Niger has between 8 and 20 indigenous languages Niger is an African country inhabited by a mix of Ethnic groups each bringing developed musical traditions to the national culture This is a list of prominent and notable writers from Africa, including Poets Novelists Children's writers Essayists and Scholars listed Niamey boasts scores of newspapers and magazines, many of which are fiercely critical of the government.
Radio is the most important medium, as television sets are beyond the buying power of many of the rural poor, and illiteracy prevents print media from becoming a mass medium. In addition to the national and regional radio services of the state broadcaster ORTN, there are four privately owned radio networks which total more than 100 stations. Three of them—the Anfani Group, Sarounia and Tenere—are urban based commercial format FM networks in the major towns. There is also a network of over 80 community radio stations spread across all seven regions of the country, governed by the Comité de Pilotage de Radios de Proximité (CPRP), a civil society organisation. The independent sector radio networks are collectively estimated by CPRP officials to cover some 7. 6 million people, or about 73% of the population (2005).
Aside from Nigerien radio stations, the BBC's Hausa service is listened to on FM repeaters across wide parts of the country, particularly in the south, close to the border with Nigeria. Radio France Internationale also rebroadcasts in French through some of the commercial stations, via satellite. Radio France Internationale (RFI was created in 1975 as part of Radio France by the Government of France to serve as a broadcast vehicle for French Equatorial
Tenere also runs a national independent television station of the same name.
Despite relative freedom at the national level, Nigerien journalists say they are often pressured by local authorities. The state ORTN network depends financially on the government, partly through an addition to electricity bills and partly through direct subsidy.
The sector is governed by the Conseil Supérieur de Communications, established as an independent body in the late 1990s, headed by Maryam Keita, a former TV presenter at ORTN.