|República de Nicaragua|
Republic of Nicaragua
|Anthem: Salve a ti, Nicaragua|
(and largest city)
|-||President||Daniel Ortega (FSLN)|
|-||Vice President||Jaime Morales Carazo|
|-||Declared||September 15, 1821|
|-||Recognized||July 25, 1850|
|-||Revolution||July 19, 1979|
|-||Total||129,494 km² (97th)|
50,193 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||7. The Flag of Nicaragua was adopted on August 27, 1971. It is based on the flag of the United States of Central America. The Nicaraguan coat of arms was adopted first on 21 August 1823 (as the Coat of arms of Central America) but underwent several changes during the course of history A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Salve a ti Nicaragua (Hail to thee Nicaragua is the Nicaraguan National anthem. Demographics Ethnic groups The majority of the Nicaraguan population is Mestizo and White Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Nicaraguans ( Spanish: Nicaragüense; also Nica, Nicoya and Pinolero) are people inhabiting in originating or having significant heritage For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature The position of President of Nicaragua was created in the Constitution of 1854 José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (xoˈse ðanjεl ɔrteγa saˈβeðra(born 11 November 1945 is the current President of Nicaragua. The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party. Vice President of Nicaragua is the second highest political position in Nicaragua. Jaime Rene Morales Carazo (b September 10, 1936, Granada) is Nicaraguan politician currently serving as Vice President Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 14|
|-||July 2006 estimate||5,603,000 (107th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$15. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 839 billion (109th)|
|-||Per capita||$3,200 (128th)|
|Gini (2001)||43. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 1 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 710 (medium) (110th)|
|1||English and indigenous languages on Caribbean coast are also spoken. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The córdoba ( ISO 4217 code NIO is the Currency of Nicaragua. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States|
Nicaragua (IPA: /ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə/) officially the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: , Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika ðe nikaˈɾaɣwa]), is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America. Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives It is also the least densely populated with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbors. The country is bordered by Honduras to the north and by Costa Rica to the south. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in The Pacific Ocean lies to the west of the country, while the Caribbean Sea lies to the east. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere Falling within the tropics, Nicaragua sits 11 degrees north of the Equator, in the Northern Hemisphere. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'
The country's name is derived from Nicarao, the name of the Nahuatl-speaking tribe which inhabited the shores of Lago de Nicaragua before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and the Spanish word Agua, meaning water, due to the presence of the large lakes Lago de Nicaragua (Cocibolca) and Lago de Managua (Xolotlán), as well as lagoons and rivers in the region. Nicarao is the name of the then-leader and/or the capital city of the most populous indigenous tribe when the Spanish arrived in Nicaragua. Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Lake Managua (also known as Lake Xolotlán) (located at) is a Lake in Nicaragua. 
At the time of the Spanish conquest, Nicaragua was the name given to the narrow strip of land between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific Ocean. Chief Nicarao ruled over the land when the first conquerors arrived. Nicarao is the name of the then-leader and/or the capital city of the most populous indigenous tribe when the Spanish arrived in Nicaragua. The term was eventually applied, by extension, to the Nicarao or Niquirano groups that inhabited that region.
The Nicarao tribe migrated to the area from northern regions after the fall of Teotihuacán, on the advice of their religious leaders. Teotihuacan is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the Pre-Columbian Americas According to tradition, they were to travel south until they encountered a lake with two volcanoes rising out of the waters, and so they stopped when they reached Ometepe, the largest fresh-water volcanic island in the world. Ometepe is an island formed by two Volcanoes rising from Lake Nicaragua in the Republic of Nicaragua.
In Pre-Columbian times the Indigenous people, in what is now known as Nicaragua, were part of the Intermediate Area located between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions. Nicaragua is the largest nation in Central America, but also the least densely populated with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbors Political History Much of Nicaragua's early politics following independence was characterized by the rivalry between the liberal elite of León and the conservative elite of The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The Intermediate Area is an archaeological Geographical area of The Americas that was defined in its clearest form by Gordon R Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. This has recently been updated to include the influence of the Isthmo-Colombian area. The Isthmo-Colombian area (a portion of what has previously been termed the Intermediate Area) was defined in a chapter by John W It was the point where the Mesoamerican and South American native cultures met.
Nicaragua was inhabited by Paleo-Indians as far back as 6000 years ago. Paleo-Indians or Paleo-Americans were the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age.  This is confirmed by the ancient footprints of Acahualinca, along with other archaeological evidence, mainly in the form of ceramics and statues made of volcanic stone like the ones found on the island of Zapatera and petroglyphs found in Ometepe island. The Ancient footprints of Acahualinca (ˌakawaˈliŋka Spanish: Huellas de Acahualinca) exist in Managua, Nicaragua near the southern Zapatera is a Shield volcano located in the southern part of Nicaragua. Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading Ometepe is an island formed by two Volcanoes rising from Lake Nicaragua in the Republic of Nicaragua. At the end of the 15th century, western Nicaragua was inhabited by several indigenous peoples related by culture and language to the Mayans. The Maya peoples constitute a diverse range of the Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America.  They were primarily farmers who lived in towns, organized into small kingdoms. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Meanwhile, the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua was inhabited by indigenous peoples, mostly chibcha related groups, that had migrated from what is now Colombia. Chibcha, also known as Muisca or Mosca, is "officially" an extinct Chibchan language of Colombia, formerly spoken by Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. They lived a less sedentary life based on hunting and gathering. 
The people of eastern Nicaragua appear to have traded with and been influenced by the native peoples of the Caribbean, as round thatched huts and canoes, both typical of the Caribbean, were common in eastern Nicaragua. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting In the west and highland areas, occupying the territory between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific Coast, the Niquirano were governed by chief Nicarao, or Nicaragua, a rich ruler who lived in Nicaraocali, now the city of Rivas. Nicarao is the name of the then-leader and/or the capital city of the most populous indigenous tribe when the Spanish arrived in Nicaragua. For the town and archaeological site in Costa Rica see Rivas Costa Rica. The Chorotega lived in the central region of Nicaragua. Chorotega is the name of an indigenous people of Honduras, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. These two groups had intimate contact with the Spanish conquerors, paving the way for the racial mix of native and European stock now known as mestizos. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin  However, within three decades an estimated Indian population of one million plummeted to a few tens of thousands, as approximately half of the indigenous people in western Nicaragua died from the rapid spread of new diseases brought by the Spaniards, something the indigenous people of the Caribbean coast managed to escape due to the remoteness of the area. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly 
In 1502, Christopher Columbus was the first European known to have reached what is now Nicaragua as he sailed south along the Central America isthmus. Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer On his fourth voyage Columbus sailed alongside and explored the Mosquito Coast on the east of Nicaragua. The Caribbean Mosquito Coast (or Miskito Coast) historically consisted of an area along the Atlantic coast of present-day Nicaragua, named after its native  The first attempt to conquer what is now known as Nicaragua was by Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila, whose Central American exploits began with his arrival in Panama in January 1520. Gil González Dávila (aka Gil González de Ávila) was a Spanish Conquistador and the discoverer of Nicaragua. González claimed to have converted some 30,000 indigenous peoples and discovered a possible transisthmian water link. After exploring and gathering gold in the fertile western valleys González was attacked by the indigenous people, some of whom were commanded by Nicarao and an estimated 3,000 led by chief Diriangén. Nicarao is the name of the then-leader and/or the capital city of the most populous indigenous tribe when the Spanish arrived in Nicaragua. Diriangen was the legendary tribal leader of the Chorotegas who can rightfully be called the first resistance fighter of the Nicaragua.  González later returned to Panama where governor Pedrarias Dávila attempted to arrest him and confiscate his treasure, some 90,000 pesos of gold. Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. Pedrarias Dávila ( Pedro Arias de Ávila) ( Segovia, Castile, c This resulted in González fleeing to Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo de Guzmán (known as Santo Domingo population 2084852 (Metro (2003 estimated 2253437 (Metro in 2006 is the Capital and largest city in the
It was not until 1524 that the first Spanish permanent settlements were founded. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  Conquistador Francisco Hernández de Córdoba founded two of Nicaragua's principal towns in 1524: Granada on Lake Nicaragua was the first settlement and León east of Lake Managua came after. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador There were two Spanish Conquistadores at the start of the 16th century named Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. Granada, with an estimated population of 110326 (2003 is Nicaragua 's fourth most populous city and capital of the Granada Department. León is the second largest City in Nicaragua, after Managua. Lake Managua (also known as Lake Xolotlán) (located at) is a Lake in Nicaragua. Córdoba soon found it necessary to prepare defenses for the cities and go on the offensive against incursions by the other conquistadores. Córdoba was later publicly beheaded following a power struggle with Pedrarias Dávila, his tomb and remains were discovered some 500 years later in the Ruins of León Viejo. Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal León is the second largest City in Nicaragua, after Managua. 
The inevitable clash between the Spanish forces did not impede their devastation of the indigenous population. The Indian civilization was destroyed. The series of battles came to be known as The War of the Captains.  By 1529, the conquest of Nicaragua was complete. Several conquistadores came out winners, and some were executed or murdered. Pedrarias Dávila was a winner; although he had lost control of Panama, he had moved to Nicaragua and established his base in León. Through adroit diplomatic machinations, he became the first governor of the colony.  The land was parceled out to the conquistadores. The area of most interest was the western portion. Many indigenous people were soon enslaved to develop and maintain "estates" there. Others were put to work in mines in northern Nicaragua, few were killed in warfare, and the great majority were sent as slaves to other New World Spanish colonies, for significant profit to the new landed aristocracy. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Many of the indigenous people died as a result of disease and neglect by the Spaniards who controlled everything necessary for their subsistence. 
In 1538, the Viceroyalty of New Spain was established. The Corn Islands (Las Islas del Maíz are two Islands about 70 km east off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, constituting one of 12 municipalities of the The Caribbean Mosquito Coast (or Miskito Coast) historically consisted of an area along the Atlantic coast of present-day Nicaragua, named after its native The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, By 1570, the southern part of New Spain was designated the Captaincy General of Guatemala. The Captaincy General of Guatemala (Capitanía General de Guatemala also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala (Spanish Reino de Guatemala) was an administrative division The area of Nicaragua was divided into administrative "parties" with León as the capital. León is the second largest City in Nicaragua, after Managua. In 1610, the Momotombo erupted, destroying the capital. It was rebuilt northwest of what is now known as the Ruins of Old León. Nicaragua became a part of the Mexican Empire and then gained its independence as a part of the United Provinces of Central America in 1821 and as an independent republic in its own right in 1838. The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. The Federal Republic of Central America, also known as the United Central Provinces of America, was a short-lived American State in Central America A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The Mosquito Coast based on the Caribbean coast was claimed by the United Kingdom and its predecessors as a protectorate from 1655 to 1850; this was delegated to Honduras in 1859 and transferred to Nicaragua in 1860, though it remained autonomous until 1894. The Caribbean Mosquito Coast (or Miskito Coast) historically consisted of an area along the Atlantic coast of present-day Nicaragua, named after its native The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority Jose Santos Zelaya, president of Nicaragua from 1893-1909, managed to negotiate for the annexation of this region to the rest of Nicaragua. José Santos Zelaya López ( November 1, 1853 - May 17, 1919) was President of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909 In his honour the entire region was named Zelaya. Zelaya is a former department in Nicaragua. The capital was Bluefields.
Much of Nicaragua's politics since independence has been characterized by the rivalry between the liberal elite of León and the conservative elite of Granada. The Constitutionalist Liberal Party ( Spanish: Partido Liberal Constitucionalista PLC is an opposition Political party in Nicaragua. The Conservative Party (Partido Conservador is a conservative Political party in Nicaragua. The rivalry often degenerated into civil war, particularly during the 1840s and 1850s. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state Initially invited by the Liberals in 1855 to join their struggle against the Conservatives, a United States adventurer named William Walker (later executed in Honduras) set himself up as president of Nicaragua, after conducting a farcical election in 1856. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the William Walker ( May 8, 1824 &ndash September 12, 1860) was an American filibuster, adventurer and Mercenary Honduras and other Central American countries united to drive him out of Nicaragua in 1857, after which a period of three decades of Conservative rule ensued. 
In the 1800s Nicaragua experienced a wave of immigration, primarily from Europe. In particular, families from Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Belgium generally moved to Nicaragua to set up businesses with money they brought from Europe. They established many agricultural businesses such as coffee and sugar cane plantations, and also newspapers, hotels and banks.
In 1909, the United States provided political support to conservative-led forces rebelling against President Zelaya. The United States occupied Nicaragua from 1912-1933 and intervened in the country several times before that The Inter-Oceanic Nicaragua Canal is a proposed waterway that would connect the Caribbean Sea, and therefore the Atlantic Ocean, with the Pacific Ocean U. S. motives included differences over the proposed Nicaragua Canal, Nicaragua's potential as a destabilizing influence in the region, and Zelaya's attempts to regulate foreign access to Nicaraguan natural resources. The Inter-Oceanic Nicaragua Canal is a proposed waterway that would connect the Caribbean Sea, and therefore the Atlantic Ocean, with the Pacific Ocean On November 18, 1909, U. S. warships were sent to the area after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) were executed by order of Zelaya. The U. S. justified the intervention by claiming to protect U. S. lives and property. Zelaya resigned later that year. U.S. Marines occupied Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933, except for a nine month period beginning in 1925. From 1910 to 1926, the conservative party ruled Nicaragua. The Chamorro family, which had long dominated the party, effectively controlled the government during that period. The Chamorro family has its origin in Spain. A branch of the family became prominent in Nicaragua in the 18th century and its influence continues to the present In 1914, the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty was signed, giving the U. The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty was signed on August 5, 1914 under the approval of the Taft administration S. control over the proposed canal, as well as leases for potential canal defenses.  Following the evacuation of U. S. marines, another violent conflict between liberals and conservatives took place in 1926, known as the Constitutionalist War, which resulted in a coalition government and the return of U. S. Marines. 
From 1927 until 1933, Gen. Augusto César Sandino led a sustained guerrilla war first against the Conservative regime and subsequently against the U. Augusto Nicolás Calderón Sandino ( May 18, 1895 &ndash February 21, 1934) was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc S. Marines, who withdrew upon the establishment of a new Liberal government. Sandino was the only Nicaraguan general to refuse to sign the el tratado del Espino Negro agreement and then headed up to the northern mountains of Las Segovias, where he fought the US Marines for over five years.  The revolt finally forced the United States to compromise and leave the country. When the Americans left in 1933, they set up the Guardia Nacional (National Guard), a combined military and police force trained and equipped by the Americans and designed to be loyal to U. In Nicaragua, the National Guard (Guardia Nacional otherwise known as es ''Guardia'' was a Militia created during the occupation of that country by the S. interests. Anastasio Somoza García, a close friend of the American government, was put in charge. Anastasio Somoza García ( February 1, 1896 &ndash September 29, 1956) was officially the thirty-fourth and thirty-ninth President He was one of the three rulers of the country, the others being Sandino and the mostly figurehead President Juan Bautista Sacasa. Juan Bautista Sacasa (1874-1946 was President of Nicaragua from 1933-1936
After the US Marines withdrew from Nicaragua in January 1933, Sandino and the newly-elected Sacasa government reached an agreement by which he would cease his guerrilla activities in return for amnesty, a grant of land for an agricultural colony, and retention of an armed band of 100 men for a year.  But a growing hostility between Sandino and Somoza led Somoza to order the assassination of Sandino.  Fearing future armed opposition from Sandino, Somoza invited him to a meeting in Managua, where Sandino was assassinated on February 21 of 1934 by the National Guard. Hundreds of men, women, and children were executed later. 
Nicaragua has seen many interventions by the United States. It has also experienced long military dictatorships, the longest one being the rule of the Somoza family for much of the 20th century. The Somoza family came to power as part of a US-engineered pact in 1927 that stipulated the formation of the National Guard to replace the small individual armies that had long reigned in the country.  Somoza deposed Sacasa and became president on Jan. 1, 1937 in a rigged election. Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. 
Nicaragua was the first country to ratify the UN Charter, and declared war on Germany during World War II. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including No troops were sent to the war but Somoza did seize the occasion to confiscate attractive properties held by German-Nicaraguans, the best-known of which was the Montelimar estate which today operates as a privately-owned luxury resort and casino. Montelimar is a Beach located on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua in the department of Managua. 
Somoza used the National Guard to force Sacasa to resign, and took control of the country in 1937, destroying any potential armed resistance.  Somoza was in turn assassinated by Rigoberto López Pérez, a liberal Nicaraguan poet, in 1956. Rigoberto López Pérez ( May 13, 1929 – September 21, 1956) was a Nicaraguan poet and music composer After his father's death, Luis Somoza Debayle, the eldest son of the late dictator, was appointed President by the congress and officially took charge of the country. Luis Somoza Debayle ( November 18, 1922 &ndash April 13, 1967) was the fortieth president of Nicaragua from 1956&ndash1963 but was  He is remembered by some for being moderate, but was in power only for a few years and then died of a heart attack. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply Then came president Rene Schick whom most Nicaraguans viewed "as nothing more than a puppet of the Somozas". René Schick Gutiérrez (1909 &ndash 1966 was President of Nicaragua from 1963 to 1966 but was considered puppet of Luis Somoza Debayle. A puppet is a representational figure manipulated by a Puppeteer.  Somoza's brother, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, who succeeded his father in charge of the National Guard, controlled the country, and officially took the presidency after Schick. Anastasio ("Tachito" Somoza Debayle (anasˈtasjo soˈmosa ðeˈβaile ( December 5, 1925 &ndash September 17, 1980) was officially
Nicaragua experienced high economic growth during the 1960s and 1970s largely as a result of industrialization, and became one of Central America's most developed nations despite its political instability. Due to its stable and high growth economy, foreign investments grew, primarily from U. S. companies such as Citigroup, Sears, Westinghouse and Coca Cola. However, the capital city of Managua suffered a major earthquake in 1972 which destroyed nearly 90% of the city creating major losses. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name The 1972 Nicaragua earthquake refers to the Earthquake that occurred at 1229 a  Some Nicaraguan historians see the 1972 earthquake that devastated Managua as the final 'nail in the coffin' for Somoza. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name The mishandling of relief money also prompted Pittsburgh Pirates star Roberto Clemente to personally fly to Managua on December 31, 1972, but he died enroute in an airplane accident. The Pittsburgh Pirates are a Major League Baseball club based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Roberto Clemente Walker (August 18 1934 &ndash December 31 1972 was a professional baseball player and a Major League Baseball Right fielder. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Even the economic elite were reluctant to support Somoza, as he had acquired monopolies in industries that were key to rebuilding the nation, and did not allow the elite to share the profits that would result. In 1973 (the year of reconstruction) many new buildings were built, but the level of corruption in the government prevented further growth, and the ever increasing tensions and anti-government uprisings slowed growth in the last two years of the Somoza dynasty.
In 1961, a young student, Carlos Fonseca, turned back to the historical figure of Sandino, and along with 2 others founded the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until For the Brazilian boxer with the same name see Carlos Fonseca (boxer Carlos Fonseca Amador ( June 23 1936 &ndash November The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party.  The FSLN was a tiny party throughout most of the 1960s, but Somoza's utter hatred of it and his heavy-handed treatment of anyone he suspected to be a Sandinista sympathizer gave many ordinary Nicaraguans the idea that the Sandinistas were much stronger. The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party.
After the 1972 earthquake and Somoza's brazen corruption, mishandling of relief, and refusal to rebuild Managua, the ranks of the Sandinistas were flooded with young disaffected Nicaraguans who no longer had anything to lose.  These economic problems propelled the Sandinistas in their struggle against Somoza by leading many middle- and upper-class Nicaraguans to see the Sandinistas as the only hope for removing the brutal Somoza regime. On January 1978, Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, the editor of the national newspaper La Prensa and ardent opponent of Somoza, was assassinated. Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal ( September 23, 1924 – January 10, 1978) was a Nicaraguan journalist and publisher La Prensa is a Nicaraguan Newspaper, with offices in the capital Managua.  This is believed to have led to the extreme general disappointment with Somoza. The planners and perpetrators of the murder were at the highest echelons of the Somoza regime and included the dictator's son, “El Chiguin”, the President of Housing, Cornelio Hueck, the Attorney General, and Pedro Ramos, a close Cuban ally who commercialized blood plasma. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended 
The Sandinistas, supported by much of the populace, elements of the Catholic Church, and regional and international governments, took power in July of 1979. Somoza fled the country and eventually ended up in Paraguay, where he was assassinated in September 1980, allegedly by members of the Argentinian Revolutionary Workers Party. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only  The Sandinistas inherited a country in ruins with a debt of U.S.$1. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 6 billion dollars, an estimated 50,000 war dead, 600,000 homeless, and a devastated economic infrastructure.  To begin the task of establishing a new government, they created a Council (or junta) of National Reconstruction, made up of five members – Sandinista militants Daniel Ortega and Moises Hassan, novelist Sergio Ramírez Mercado (a member of Los Doce "the Twelve"), businessman Alfonso Robelo Callejas, and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (the widow of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro). José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (xoˈse ðanjεl ɔrteγa saˈβeðra(born 11 November 1945 is the current President of Nicaragua. Sergio Ramírez Mercado (bAugust 5 1942 in Masatepe, Nicaragua) is a leading Nicaraguan writer and intellectual who served in the leftist Government El Grupo de los Doce, or Group of Twelve, were a dozen members of the Nicaraguan establishment whose support for the Sandinista National Liberation Luis Alfonso Robelo Callejas (born October 11, 1939) a Nicaraguan Businessman, was the founder of the Nicaraguan Democratic Movement Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (born October 18, 1929) is a Nicaraguan political leader and Publisher. The preponderance of power, however, remained with the Sandinistas and their mass organizations, including the Sandinista Workers' Federation (Central Sandinista de Trabajadores), the Luisa Amanda Espinoza Nicaraguan Women's Association (Asociación de Mujeres Nicaragüenses Luisa Amanda Espinoza), and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers (Unión Nacional de Agricultores y Ganaderos). The Luisa Amanda Espinoza Association of Nicaraguan Women (Asociación de Mujeres Nicaragüenes Luisa Amanda Espinoza AMNLAE) was initially established in 1977 under the name
Upon assuming office in 1981, U.S. President Ronald Reagan condemned the FSLN for joining with Cuba in supporting Marxist revolutionary movements in other Latin American countries such as El Salvador. The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party. The Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing Nicaragua 's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional Sandinista Junta of National The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in November 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. The Republic of Nicaragua v The United States of America was a case heard in 1986 by the International Court of Justice which ruled in favor of Nicaragua The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. His administration authorized the CIA to begin financing, arming and training rebels, some of whom were the remnants of Somoza's National Guard, as anti-Sandinista guerrillas that were branded "counter-revolutionary" by leftists (contrarrevolucionarios in Spanish). near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all  This was shortened to Contras, a label the anti-Communist forces chose to embrace. The Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing Nicaragua 's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional Sandinista Junta of National Eden Pastora and many of the indigenous guerrilla forces, who were not associated with the "Somozistas," also resisted the Sandinistas. The Contras operated out of camps in the neighboring countries of Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in  As was typical in guerrilla warfare, they were engaged in a campaign of economic sabotage in an attempt to combat the Sandinista government and disrupted shipping by planting underwater mines in Nicaragua's Corinto harbour, an action condemned by the World Court as illegal. Corinto is a town of 17000 (1995 population on the northwest Pacific coast of Nicaragua in the department of Chinandega. See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour  The U. S. also sought to place economic pressure on the Sandinistas, and the Reagan administration imposed a full trade embargo. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce 
U. S. support for this Nicaraguan insurgency continued in spite of the fact that impartial observers from international groupings such as the European Union, religious groups sent to monitor the election, and observers from democratic nations such as Canada and the Republic of Ireland concluded that the Nicaraguan general elections of 1984 were completely free and fair. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Elections in Nicaragua gives information on Elections and election results in Nicaragua. The Reagan administration disputed these results however, despite the fact that the government of the United States never had any observers in Nicaragua at the time. 
After the U. S. Congress prohibited federal funding of the Contras in 1983, the Reagan administration continued to back the Contras by covertly selling arms to Iran and channeling the proceeds to the Contras (The Iran-Contra Affair). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in November 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration.  When this scheme was revealed, Reagan admitted that he knew about the Iranian "arms for hostages" dealings but professed ignorance about the proceeds funding the Contras; for this, National Security Council aide Lt. Col. Oliver North took much of the blame. The White House National Security Council ( NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President for considering National Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies Oliver Laurence North (born October 7 1943 in San Antonio Texas) is an American best known for his involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. Senator John Kerry's 1988 U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations report on Contra-drug links concluded that "senior U. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. S. policy makers were not immune to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contras' funding problems. " According to the National Security Archive, Oliver North had been in contact with Manuel Noriega, a Panamanian general and the de facto military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989 when he was overthrown and captured by a U. The National Security Archive is a 501(c(3 non-governmental non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Manuel Antonio Noriega (born February 11, 1934) He was never officially the President of Panama, but held the post of "chief executive officer" Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute S. invading force.  He was taken to the United States, tried for drug trafficking, and imprisoned in 1992. 
The Reagan administration's support for the Contras continued to stir controversy well into the 1990s. The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, was a Republican administration headed by In August 1996, San Jose Mercury News reporter Gary Webb published a series titled Dark Alliance, linking the origins of crack cocaine in California to the Contras. The San Jose Mercury News is the major daily Newspaper in San Jose California and Silicon Valley. Gary Webb ( August 31, 1955 &ndash December 10, 2004) was a prize-winning American Investigative journalist. Crack cocaine or crack is a solid smokable form of Cocaine. It is a freebase form of cocaine that can be made using baking soda ( Sodium bicarbonate  Freedom of Information Act inquiries by the National Security Archive and other investigators unearthed a number of documents showing that White House officials, including Oliver North, knew about and supported using money raised via drug trafficking to fund the Contras. The Freedom of Information Act ( FOIA) is the implementation of freedom of information legislation in the United States The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs Sen. John Kerry's report in 1988 led to the same conclusions; however, major media outlets, the Justice Department, and Reagan denied the allegations. 
Multi-party democratic elections were held in 1990, which saw the defeat of the Sandinistas by a coalition of anti-Sandinista (from the left and right of the political spectrum) parties led by Violeta Chamorro, the widow of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (born October 18, 1929) is a Nicaraguan political leader and Publisher. The defeat shocked the Sandinistas as numerous pre-election polls had indicated a sure Sandinista victory and their pre-election rallies had attracted crowds of several hundred thousand people.  The unexpected result was subject to a great deal of analysis and comment, and was attributed by commentators such as Noam Chomsky and S. Brian Willson to the U. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political S Brian Willson (born July 4 1941) is a United States Air Force (USAF veteran who became a prominent anti-war activist S. /Contra threats to continue the war if the Sandinistas retained power, the general war-weariness of the Nicaraguan population, and the abysmal Nicaraguan economic situation. The Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing Nicaragua 's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional Sandinista Junta of National
On the other hand, P. J. O'Rourke wrote in "Return of the Death of Communism", "the unfair advantages of using state resources for party ends, about how Sandinista control of the transit system prevented UNO supporters from attending rallies, how Sandinista domination of the army forced soldiers to vote for Ortega and how Sandinista bureaucracy kept $3. Patrick Jake O'Rourke (born November 14, 1947 in Toledo Ohio) is a conservative American political satirist, journalist The United Nicaraguan Opposition ( Unidad Nicaragüense Opositora, UNO was a Nicaraguan rebel umbrella group formed in 1985 led by the triumvirate of Adolfo Calero 3 million of U. S. campaign aid from getting to UNO while Daniel Ortega spent millions donated by overseas people and millions and millions more from the Nicaraguan treasury . José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (xoˈse ðanjεl ɔrteγa saˈβeðra(born 11 November 1945 is the current President of Nicaragua. . . "
Exit polls of Nicaraguans reported Chamorro's victory over Ortega was achieved with only 55%.  Violeta Chamorro was the first woman to be popularly elected as President of a Latin American nation and first woman president of Nicaragua. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (born October 18, 1929) is a Nicaraguan political leader and Publisher. Elected is the latest EP by Dutch Progressive metal project Ayreon. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Exit polling convinced Daniel Ortega that the election results were legitimate, and were instrumental in his decision to accept the vote of the people and step down rather than void the election. Nonetheless Ortega vowed that he would govern "desde abajo" (from below), in other words due to his widespread control of institutions and Sandinista individuals in all government agencies, he would still be able to maintain control and govern even without being president.
Chamorro received an economy entirely in ruins. The per capita income of Nicaragua had been reduced by over 80% during the 1980s, and a huge government debt which ascended to US$12 billion primarily due to financial and social costs of the Contra war with the Sandinista-led government.  Much to the surprise of the U. S. and the contra forces, Chamorro did not dismantle the Sandinista People's Army, though the name was changed to the Nicaraguan Army. The Sandinista Popular Army (or People's Army es Ejército Popular Sandinista, EPS was the military established in 1979 by the new Sandinista government to replace Chamorro's main contribution to Nicaragua was the disarmament of groups in the northern and central areas of the country. This provided stability that the country had lacked for over ten years.
In subsequent elections in 1996 Daniel Ortega and the Sandinistas of the FSLN were again defeated, this time by Arnoldo Alemán of the Constitutional Liberal Party (PLC). José Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo (born on 23 January 1946, in Managua) was President of Nicaragua from 1997 to 2002 The Constitutionalist Liberal Party ( Spanish: Partido Liberal Constitucionalista PLC is an opposition Political party in Nicaragua.
In the 2001 elections the PLC again defeated the FSLN, with Enrique Bolaños winning the Presidency. Enrique José Bolaños Geyer (born 13 May 1928) was the President of Nicaragua from 2002 to 2007 However, President Bolaños subsequently charged and brought forward allegations of money laundering, theft and corruption against former President Alemán. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain The ex-president was sentenced to 20 years in prison for embezzlement, money laundering, and corruption. Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets usually financial in nature by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial Transactions in order to conceal the Identity, source and/or destination of Money,  The Liberal members who were loyal to Alemán and also members of congress reacted angrily, and along with Sandinista parliament members stripped the presidential powers of President Bolaños and his ministers, calling for his resignation and threatening impeachment. Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to forcibly remove a Government official
The Sandinistas alleged that their support for Bolaños was lost when U. S. Secretary of State Colin Powell told Bolaños to keep his distance from the FSLN. Colin Luther Powell, KCB (Honorary MSC, (born April 5, 1937) is a retired General in the United States Army.  This "slow motion coup" was averted partially due to pressure from the Central American presidents who would fail to recognize any movement that removed Bolaños; The U. S. , the OAS, and the European Union also opposed the "slow motion coup". The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in  The proposed constitutional changes that were going to be introduced in 2005 against the Bolaños administration were delayed until January 2007 after the entrance of the new government. Though 1 day before they were enforced the National Assembly postponed their enforcement until January 2008.
Before the general elections on 5 November 2006, the National Assembly passed a bill further restricting abortion in Nicaragua 52-0 (9 abstaining, 29 absent). Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The National Assembly ( Spanish: Asamblea Nacional is the legislative branch of the government of Nicaragua. Abortion in Nicaragua is completely illegal Prior to a change in the law, which took effect on 18 November 2006, the law allowed pregnancies to be President Enrique Bolaños supported this measure, but signed the bill into law on 17 November 2006, as a result Nicaragua is one of three countries in the world where abortion is illegal with no exceptions, along with El Salvador and Chile. Enrique José Bolaños Geyer (born 13 May 1928) was the President of Nicaragua from 2002 to 2007 An Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the
Legislative and presidential elections took place on November 5, 2006. Nicaragua held a general election on 5 November 2006. The country's voters went to the polls to elect a new President of the Republic and Daniel Ortega returned to the presidency with 37. José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (xoˈse ðanjεl ɔrteγa saˈβeðra(born 11 November 1945 is the current President of Nicaragua. 99% of the vote. This percentage was enough to win the presidency outright, due to a change in electoral law which lowered the percentage requiring a runoff election from 45% to 35% (with a 5% margin of victory). 
Politics of Nicaragua takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Nicaragua is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Politics of Nicaragua takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Nicaragua is A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The position of President of Nicaragua was created in the Constitution of 1854 Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition Executive power is exercised by the government. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The National Assembly ( Spanish: Asamblea Nacional is the legislative branch of the government of Nicaragua. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State
Nicaragua is a unitary republic. Nicaragua is a unitary Republic. For administrative purposes it is divided into 15 departments ( departamentos) and two self-governing regions |||} The departments of Nicaragua are dividied into municipalities ( municipios) Acoyapa Ahuaya A unitary state is a State whose three Organs of state are governed Constitutionally as one single unit with one Constitutionally created A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its For administrative purposes it is divided into 15 departments (departamentos) and two self-governing regions (autonomous communities) based on the Spanish model. In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative The departments are then subdivided into 153 municipios (municipalities). A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The two autonomous regions are Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte and Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, often referred to as RAAN and RAAS, respectively. Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte ( Spanish for "Autonomous Region of the Northern Atlantic" sometimes shortened to RAAN is one of two Autonomous regions Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur ( Spanish for "Autonomous Region of the Southern Atlantic" sometimes shortened to RAAS is one of two Autonomous regions Until they were granted autonomy in 1985 they formed the single department of Zelaya. Zelaya is a former department in Nicaragua. The capital was Bluefields. 
Nicaragua occupies a landmass of 129,494 km² - roughly the size of Greece or the state of New York and 1. Boaco is the capital city and Municipality of the Boaco department of Nicaragua. Jinotepe is a city in Nicaragua located in Department of Carazo in the South Pacific region of Nicaragua at the municipality of Jinotepe. Chinandega is a town and the departmental seat of Chinandega department in Nicaragua. Juigalpa is the capital city of the Chontales Department of Nicaragua. Estelí is a city and Municipality within the Estelí department. Granada, with an estimated population of 110326 (2003 is Nicaragua 's fourth most populous city and capital of the Granada Department. Jinotega is the capital of Jinotega Department in the north central region of Nicaragua. León is the second largest City in Nicaragua, after Managua. Somoto, meaning The Valley of Geese, is a town located in the hills of Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name Masaya, called the City of Flowers is the capital city of the Masaya department of Nicaragua. Matagalpa is a city in Nicaragua, the capital of the department of Matagalpa. Ocotal is the capital of the Nueva Segovia Department in Nicaragua, Central America, located within the Municipality of Ocotal For the town and archaeological site in Costa Rica see Rivas Costa Rica. San Carlos is the capital city of the Municipality of San Carlos and of the Río San Juan Department of Nicaragua. Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte ( Spanish for "Autonomous Region of the Northern Atlantic" sometimes shortened to RAAN is one of two Autonomous regions Bilwi, with an approximate population of 60000 is the main city of the Municipality of Puerto Cabezas in the North Atlantic Coast department ( Región Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur ( Spanish for "Autonomous Region of the Southern Atlantic" sometimes shortened to RAAS is one of two Autonomous regions Bluefields is the capital of the Municipality of the same name and of R Natural regions Pacific lowlands The Pacific lowlands extend about 75 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast See also Lists of volcanoes This is a list of active and extinct Volcanoes in Nicaragua The Wildlife of Nicaragua includes its Flora and Fauna. Nicaragua has a wide variety of Wildlife, most of which live in wildlife reserves Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous 5 times larger than Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Close to 20% of the country's territory is designated as protected areas such as national parks, nature reserves and biological reserves. The protected areas of Nicaragua are areas that have natural beauty or significance and are protected by Nicaragua. The country is bordered by Costa Rica on the south and Honduras on the north, with the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions
Nicaragua has three distinct geographical regions: the Pacific Lowlands, the North-Central Mountains or highlands and the Atlantic Lowlands. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The Caribbean Mosquito Coast (or Miskito Coast) historically consisted of an area along the Atlantic coast of present-day Nicaragua, named after its native
Located in the west of the country, these lowlands consist of a broad, hot, fertile plain. Punctuating this plain are several large volcanoes of the Marrabios mountain range, including Mombacho just outside Granada, and Momotombo near León. Cordillera Los Maribios (or Cordillera Los Marrabios) is a mountain range in León and Chinandega departments western Nicaragua, at. Mombacho is a Volcano in Nicaragua, near the city of Granada. Momotombo is a Volcano in Nicaragua, not far from the city of León. The lowland area runs from the Gulf of Fonseca to Nicaragua's Pacific border with Costa Rica south of Lake Nicaragua. The Gulf of Fonseca (Golfo de Fonseca part of the Pacific Ocean, is a gulf in Central America, bordering El Salvador, Honduras Lake Nicaragua is the largest freshwater lake in Central America (20th largest in the world), and is home to the world's only freshwater sharks (Nicaraguan shark). The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, also known as the bull whaler, Zambezi shark or unofficially known as Zambi in Africa and Nicaragua  The Pacific lowlands region is the most populous, with over half of the nation's population. The capital city of Managua is the most populous and it is the only city with over 1 million inhabitants. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name
In addition to its beach and resort communities, the Pacific Lowlands is also the repository for much of Nicaragua's Spanish colonial heritage. Cities such as Granada and León abound in colonial architecture and artifacts. Granada, with an estimated population of 110326 (2003 is Nicaragua 's fourth most populous city and capital of the Granada Department. León is the second largest City in Nicaragua, after Managua. Granada, founded in 1524, is the oldest colonial city in the Americas. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America 
This is an upland region away from the Pacific coast, with a cooler climate than the Pacific Lowlands. About a quarter of the country's agriculture takes place in this region, with coffee grown on the higher slopes. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Oaks, pines, moss, ferns and orchids are abundant in the cloud forests of the region. The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. Mosses are small soft Plants that are typically 1–10  cm (0 A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta A cloud forest, also called a fog forest, is a generally Tropical or Subtropical evergreen Montane moist forest characterized by a
Bird life in the forests of the central region includes Resplendent Quetzal, goldfinches, hummingbirds, jays and toucanets. The Resplendent Quetzal, Pharomachrus mocinno, is a spectacular bird of the Trogon family The Lesser Goldfinch or Dark-backed Goldfinch ( Carduelis psaltria) is a very small Songbird of the Americas. Hummingbirds are Birds in the family Trochilidae, and are endemic to the Americas. The jays are several Species of medium-sized usually colorful and noisy Passerine Birds in the Crow family Corvidae The Emerald Toucanet, Aulacorhynchus prasinus, is a Near-passerine Bird occurring in mountainous regions from Mexico, through Central America
This large rainforest region, with several large rivers running through it, is very sparsely populated. Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches The Rio Coco is the largest river in Central America, it forms the border with Honduras. The Río Coco, formerly known as the Río Segovia is a river in southern Honduras and northern Nicaragua. The Caribbean coastline is much more sinuous than its generally straight Pacific counterpart. Lagoons and deltas make it very irregular.
Nicaragua's Bosawas Biosphere Reserve is located in the Atlantic lowlands, it protects 1. The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve in the northern part of Nicaragua is a hilly tropical forest designated in 1997 as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve. 8 million acres (7,300 km²) of Mosquitia forest - almost seven percent of the country's area - making it the largest rainforest north of the Amazon in Brazil. The Amazon Rainforest (Brazilian Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica or Amazonía |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld 
Nicaragua's tropical east coast is very different from the rest of the country. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The climate is predominantly tropical, with high temperature and high humidity. Around the area's principal city of Bluefields, English is widely spoken along with the official Spanish and the population more closely resembles that found in many typical Caribbean ports than the rest of Nicaragua. Bluefields is the capital of the Municipality of the same name and of R
A great variety of birds can be observed including eagles, turkeys, toucans, parakeets and macaws. Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera A turkey is either of two extant Species of large Birds in the Genus Meleagris native to North America. Toucans are a family Ramphastidae, of Near-passerine Birds from the Neotropics (i A parakeet is a North American term for any one of a large number of unrelated small to medium sized Parrot species that generally have long-tail feathers Macaws are small to large often colourful New World Parrots Of the many different Psittacidae (true parrots genera, six are classified as Animal life in the area includes different species of monkeys, ant-eaters, white-tailed deer and tapirs. A monkey is any member of either the New World monkeys or Old World monkeys two of the three groupings of Simian Primates the third group being Anteaters are the four Mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua commonly known for eating Ants and Termites Together with the Sloths A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Tapirs (ˈteɪpɚ as in "taper" or /təˈpɪər/ as "ta-pier" are large browsing Mammals, roughly pig-like in shape with short
Nicaragua's economy ranks as 61st freest economy, although it is 1. The economy of Nicaragua has made significant progress toward macro-economic stabilization over the past few years - even with the damage caused by Hurricane Mitch in the fall 7% lower than in 2006, it ranks 14 (out of 29) in the Americas. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America Nicaragua's economy is 62. 7% free with high levels of fiscal, government, labor, investment, financial, and trade freedom.  Nicaragua is primarily an agricultural country, but light industry (maquila), tourism, banking, mining, fisheries, and general commerce are expanding. Nicaragua's agrarian economy has historically been based on the export of cash crops such as bananas, coffee, sugar, beef and tobacco. For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. At present agriculture constitutes 60% of its total exports which annually yield approximately US $300 million.  In addition, Nicaragua's Flor de Caña rum is renowned as among the best in Latin America, and its tobacco and beef are also well regarded. Flor de Caña ( Spanish, translated to " Flower of the Cane " is a brand of Rum distributed by Compañía Licorera de Nicaragua which is headquartered Nicaragua also depends heavily on remittances from Nicaraguans living abroad, which totaled $655. 5 million in 2006. During the war between the Contras and the Sandinistas in the 1980s, much of the country's infrastructure was damaged or destroyed. The Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing Nicaragua 's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional Sandinista Junta of National The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party.  Inflation averaged 30% throughout the 1980s. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time After the United States imposed a trade embargo in 1985, which lasted 5 years, Nicaragua's inflation rate rose dramatically. The 1985 annual rate of 220% tripled the following year and skyrocketed to more than 13,000% in 1988, the highest rate for any country in the Western Hemisphere in that year. The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West Since the end of the war almost two decades ago, more than 350 state enterprises were privatized, reducing inflation from 33,500% in 1988 to 9. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business 45% in 2006, and cutting the foreign debt in half. 
Though sources give slightly differing data on the country's gross domestic product (GDP), Nicaragua is one of the smallest economies in the Western Hemisphere. The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West  According to the CIA Fact Book, inflation averaged 8. The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the 1% from 2000 through 2006. As of 2007, Nicaragua's inflation stands at 9. 8%. The World Bank also indicates moderate economic growth at an average of 5% from 1995 through 2004. The World Bank Group (WBG is a family of five International organizations responsible for providing Finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic In 2005 the economy grew 4%, with overall GDP reaching $4. 91 billion. In 2006, the economy expanded by 3. 7% as GDP reached $5. 3 billion. According to the United Nations, 28% of the population in Nicaragua live in poverty (2006 est), unemployment is 3. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. 1%, and another 46. 5% are underemployed (2007 est. In Economics, the term underemployment has three different distinct meanings and applications ).
As in many other developing countries, a large segment of the economically poor in Nicaragua are women. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties In addition, a relatively high proportion of Nicaragua's average homes have a woman as head of household: 39% of urban homes and 28% of rural homes. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time
The country is still a recovering economy and it continues to implement further reforms, on which aid from the IMF is conditional. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic In 2005 finance ministers of the leading eight industrialized nations (G-8) agreed to forgive some of Nicaragua's foreign debt, as part of the HIPC program. Heavily Indebted Poor Countries ( HIPC) are a group of 37 Developing countries with high levels of Poverty and Debt overhang which are eligible According to the World Bank Nicaragua's GDP was around $4. 9 US billion dollars. Recently, in March 2007, Poland and Nicaragua signed an agreement to write off 30. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland 6 million dollars which was borrowed by the Nicaraguan government in the 1980s. 
According to the World Bank, Nicaragua ranked as the 62nd best economy for starting a business making it the second best in Central America, after Panama. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. 
The Nicaraguan unit of currency is the Córdoba (NIO) and was named after Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, its national founder. The córdoba ( ISO 4217 code NIO is the Currency of Nicaragua. There were two Spanish Conquistadores at the start of the 16th century named Francisco Hernández de Córdoba.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2007 was estimated at $18. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 17 billion USD.  The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 56. 9%, followed by the industrial sector at 25. 9% (2006 est. ). Agriculture represents only 17. 1% of GDP (2007 est. ). Nicaraguan labor force is estimated at 2. 262 million of which 29% is occupied in agriculture, 19% in the industry sector and 52% in the service sector (est. 2007).
Tourism in Nicaragua is booming, it is currently the second largest industry in the nation, over the last 7 years tourism has grown about 70% nationwide with rates of 10%-16% annually. Tourism in Nicaragua has grown considerably recently and it is now the second largest industry in the nation Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel  Nicaragua has seen positive growth in the tourism sector over the last decade and is expected to become the first largest industry in 2007. The increase and growth led to the income from tourism to rise more than 300% over a period of 10 years. Income, refers to consumption opportunity gained by an entity within a specified time frame which is generally expressed in monetary terms  The growth in tourism has also positively affected the agricultural, commercial, and finance industries, as well as the construction industry. Despite the positive growth throughout the last decade, Nicaragua remains the least visited nation in the region. 
Every year about 60,000 U. S. citizens visit Nicaragua, primarily business people, tourists, and those visiting relatives. Some 5,300 people from the U.S. reside in the country now. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The majority of tourists that visit Nicaragua are from the U.S., Central or South America, and Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a According to the Ministry of Tourism of Nicaragua (INTUR), the colonial city of Granada is the preferred spot for tourists. Granada, with an estimated population of 110326 (2003 is Nicaragua 's fourth most populous city and capital of the Granada Department. Also, the cities of León, Masaya, Rivas and the likes of San Juan del Sur, San Juan River, Ometepe, Mombacho Volcano, the Corn Islands, and others are main tourist attractions. León is the second largest City in Nicaragua, after Managua. San Juan del Sur is a coastal city on the Pacific Ocean, in south-west Nicaragua. Ometepe is an island formed by two Volcanoes rising from Lake Nicaragua in the Republic of Nicaragua. The Corn Islands (Las Islas del Maíz are two Islands about 70 km east off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, constituting one of 12 municipalities of the In addition, ecotourism and surfing attract many tourists to Nicaragua. Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of Tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals Surfing is a surface water sport in which the participant is carried along the face of a breaking wave, most commonly using a Surfboard, although wave-riders
According to TV Noticias (news program) on Canal 2, a Nicaragua television station, the main attractions in Nicaragua for tourists are the beaches, scenic routes, the architecture of cities such as León and Granada and most recently ecotourism and agritourism, particularly in Northern Nicaragua. Televicentro Canal 2 is a nationwide terrestrial television channel from Nicaragua owned by Televicentro de Nicaragua S Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of Tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals Agritourism is a style of vacation that normally takes place on a Farm. 
According to the CIA World Factbook, Nicaragua has a population of 5,570,129; 69% mestizo, 17% white, 9% black and 5% amerindian. The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin White Latin Americans are the white population of Latin America. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Nicaraguan demographics reflected a different composition prior to the Sandinista revolution of 1979. Most of the migration during the years that followed were primarily of white upper or middle class Nicaraguans. A growing number of these expats have been returning although the vast majority remain living abroad. There is also large and ever growing expatriate (expat) community of people of all ages, the majority of whom move for business, investment or who are retirees. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely The expat communities include people from United States, Canada, Europe, Taiwan, and other countries, the majority have settled in Managua, Granada and San Juan del Sur. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Granada, with an estimated population of 110326 (2003 is Nicaragua 's fourth most populous city and capital of the Granada Department. San Juan del Sur is a coastal city on the Pacific Ocean, in south-west Nicaragua.
The most populous city in Nicaragua is the capital city, Managua, with a population of 1. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name 2 million (2005). As of 2005, over 4. 4 million inhabitants live in the Pacific, Central and North regions, 2. 7 in the Pacific region alone, while inhabitants in the Caribbean region only reached an estimated 700,000.  The population is 54% urban and many Nicaraguans live abroad, outside of Nicaragua. The 1980s were the backdrop to a savage civil war which saw conflict destroy the nation of Nicaragua, and the lives of 50000+ civilians in the process
The majority of the Nicaraguan population is Mestizo and White. Exactly 69% are Mestizos (mixed Amerindian and White) and 17% are White with the majority being of Spanish, German, Italian, or French ancestry. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Mestizos and Whites mainly reside in the western region of the country and combined make up 86% of the Nicaraguan population, approximately 4. 8 million people.
About 9% of Nicaragua's population is black, or Afro-Nicaragüense, and mainly reside on the country's sparsely populated Caribbean or Atlantic coast. The black population is mostly of West Indian (Antillean) origin, the descendants of indentured laborers brought mostly from Jamaica when the region was a British protectorate. The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Nicaragua has the largest Afro Latin American population in Central America with the second largest percentage. There is also a smaller number of Garifuna, a people of mixed Carib, Angolan, Congolese and Arawak descent. The Garinagu (singular Garifuna) are an ethnic group of mixed ancestry who live primarily in Central America. Cariban languages Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people after whom the Caribbean Sea was named live in the Lesser Antilles islands Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The Bakongo or the Kongo people (meaning "hunter" also sometimes referred to as Congolese, live along the Atlantic coast of Africa The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for Cassava flour was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in
The remaining 5% are Amerindians, the unmixed descendants of the country's indigenous inhabitants. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Nicaragua's pre-Colombian population consisted of many indigenous groups. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences In the western region the Nicarao people, whom the country is named after, were present along with other groups related by culture and language to the Mayans. Nicarao is the name of the then-leader and/or the capital city of the most populous indigenous tribe when the Spanish arrived in Nicaragua. The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua was inhabited by indigenous peoples who were mostly chibcha related groups that had migrated from South America, primarily present day Colombia and Venezuela. Chibcha, also known as Muisca or Mosca, is "officially" an extinct Chibchan language of Colombia, formerly spoken by South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the These groups include the Miskitos, Ramas and Sumos. The Miskitos are a group of Native Americans in Central America. The Rama are an indigenous people of Nicaragua. The 900 ethnic Rama live within a thirty mile radius of the Rama Cay island on the Caribbean The Sumo (also known as Sumu or Mayangna) are a people that live on the eastern coasts of Nicaragua and Honduras, an area commonly known as the In the nineteenth century, there was a substantial indigenous minority, but this group was also largely assimilated culturally into the mestizo majority. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar In Ecology, an indigenous Species is an Organism which is native to a given region or Ecosystem. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin In the mid-1980s, the government divided the department of Zelaya - consisting of the eastern half of the country - into two autonomous regions and granted the black and indigenous people of this region limited self-rule within the Republic. Zelaya is a former department in Nicaragua. The capital was Bluefields.
In the 1800s Nicaragua experienced several waves of immigration, primarily from Europe. In particular, families from Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Belgium immigrated to Nicaragua, particularly the departments in the Central and Pacific region. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those As a result, the Northern cities of Esteli, Jinotega and Matagalpa have significant fourth generation Germans. Estelí is a city and Municipality within the Estelí department. Jinotega is the capital of Jinotega Department in the north central region of Nicaragua. Matagalpa is a city in Nicaragua, the capital of the department of Matagalpa. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as They established many agricultural businesses such as coffee and sugar cane plantations, and also newspapers, hotels and banks.
Also present is a small Middle Eastern-Nicaraguan community of Syrians, Armenians, Palestinian Nicaraguans, Jewish Nicaraguans, and Lebanese people in Nicaragua with a total population of about 30,000. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Syrians today are an overall indigenous Levantine people closely related to their immediate neighbours like the Lebanese and (to a lesser extent Jordanians The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Palestinian Nicaraguan ( Spanish: Palestino Nicaragüense are Nicaraguans of Palestinian ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Nicaragua Jewish Nicaraguans or Nicaraguan Jews (Judío Nicaragüense are Nicaraguans of Jewish Ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Nicaragua Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية There is also an East Asian community mostly consisting of Chinese, Taiwanese, and Japanese. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Chinese Nicaraguan population is estimated at around 12,000. Chinese Nicaraguans ( Simplified Chinese: 尼加拉瓜华人 Pinyin: ní jiā lā guā huá rén Spanish: Chino Nicaragüense) are  The Chinese arrived in the late 1800s but were unsubstantiated until the 1920s.
Relative to its overall population, Nicaragua has never experienced any large scale wave of immigrants. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term The total number of immigrants to Nicaragua, both originating from other Latin American countries and all other countries, never surpassed 1% of its total population prior to 1995. The 2005 census showed the foreign-born population at 1. 2%, having risen a mere . 06% in 10 years.  This is not to say that immigrants were not important to the evolution of Nicaragua or the Nicaraguan society.
Nicaraguan culture has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by European culture but enriched with Amerindian sounds and flavors. Nicaraguan culture has several distinct strands The west of the country was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish -speaking Latin American The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures Nicaraguan culture can further be defined in several distinct strands. The Pacific coast has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by Europeans. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra It was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Caribbean coast of the country, on the other hand, was once a British protectorate. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect English is still predominant in this region and spoken domestically along with Spanish and indigenous languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The official language of Nicaragua is Spanish; however Nicaraguans on the Caribbean coast speak indigenous languages and also Its culture is similar to that of Caribbean nations that were or are British possessions, such as Jamaica, Belize, The Cayman Islands, etc. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Belize (bəˈliːz formerly British Honduras, is a country in Central America. The Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory located in the western Caribbean Sea, comprising the islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac The indigenous groups that were present in the Pacific coast have largely been assimilated into the mestizo culture, however, the indigenous people of the Caribbean coast have maintained a distinct identity.
Nicaraguan music is a mixture of indigenous and European, especially Spanish, influences. Carnival is a festival season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February and March Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name Theater See also Culture of Nicaragua, El Güegüense Indigenous theater groups performed with music and dance Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Musical instruments include the marimba and others common across Central America. In some parts of Africa the term "marimba" refers to the Kalimba. The marimba of Nicaragua is uniquely played by a sitting performer holding the instrument on his knees. He is usually accompanied by a bass fiddle, guitar and guitarrilla (a small guitar like a mandolin). The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles A mandolin is a musical instrument in the Lute family (plucked or strummed This music is played at social functions as a sort of background music. The marimba is made with hardwood plates, placed over bamboo or metal tubes of varying lengths. It is played with two or four hammers. A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object The most common uses are for driving nails fitting parts and breaking up objects The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua is known for a lively, sensual form of dance music called Palo de Mayo which is very much alive all throughout the country. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting This article is about music for dancing in general You may also be looking for Electronic dance music. Palo de Mayo (Maypole or ¡Mayo Ya! is a type of Afro-Caribbean dance with sensual movements that forms part of the culture of several communities in the RAAS region It is especially loud and celebrated during the Palo de Mayo festival in May. The Garifuna community exists in Nicaragua and is known for its popular music called Punta. The Garinagu (singular Garifuna) are an ethnic group of mixed ancestry who live primarily in Central America. Traditional Punta is a form of Garinagu Dance music performed during celebrations or festive occasions
Literature of Nicaragua can be traced to pre-Columbian times with the myths and oral literature that formed the cosmogonic view of the world that indigenous people had. The Literature of Nicaragua can be traced to Pre-Columbian times with the myths and Oral literature that formed the cosmogonic view of the world that indigenous people The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral word to Literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word Some of these stories are still know in Nicaragua. Like many Latin American countries, the Spanish conquerors have had the most effect on both the culture and the literature. Nicaraguan literature has historically been an important source of poetry in the Spanish-speaking world, with internationally renowned contributors such as Rubén Darío who is regarded as the most important literary figure in Nicaragua, referred to as the "Father of Modernism" for leading the modernismo literary movement at the end of the 19th century. Félix Rubén García Sarmiento also known as Rubén Darío (Metapa January 18, 1867 &ndash Leon February 6, 1916) was a Modernismo is Spanish and Portuguese for Modernism, however the term Modernismo also indicates a more specific art movement  Other literary figures include Ernesto Cardenal, Gioconda Belli, Claribel Alegría and Jose Coronel Urtecho, among others. Reverend Father Ernesto Cardenal Martínez (born January 20, 1925) is a Nicaraguan Catholic Priest and was one of the most famous Gioconda Belli (born December 9, 1948 in Managua, Nicaragua) is an author novelist and renowned Nicaraguan poet Clara Isabel Alegría Vides (born May 12 1924 is a Nicaraguan Poet, essayist, Novelist, and Journalist who was a major voice José Coronel Urtecho ( February 28, 1906 - March 19, 1994) was a Nicaraguan Poet, Translator, Essayist
El Güegüense is a satirical drama and was the first literary work of pre-Columbian Nicaragua. El Güegüense (also known as Macho Ratón) is a Satirical Drama and was the first literary work of post-columbian Nicaragua. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. It is regarded as one of Latin America's most distinctive colonial-era expressions and as Nicaragua's signature folkloric masterpiece combining music, dance and theater.  The theatrical play was written by an anonymous author in the 16th century, making it one of the oldest indigenous theatrical/dance works of the Western Hemisphere. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one A play, or stageplay, is a form of Literature written by a Playwright, almost always consisting of Dialogue between Fictional characters The Western Hemisphere, also Western hemisphere or western hemisphere, is a geographical term for the half of the Earth that lies West  The story was published in a book in 1942 after many centuries. 
Spanish is spoken by about 90% of the country's population. In Nicaragua the Voseo form is common, just as in other countries in Central and South America like Honduras, El Salvador, Argentina, Uruguay or coastal Colombia. In Spanish, voseo is the use of the second person singular Pronoun vos instead of tú. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Spanish has many different dialects spoken throughout Latin America, Central American Spanish is the dialect spoken in Nicaragua. Central American Spanish ( Spanish: español centroamericano) is the general name of the Spanish language Dialects spoken in the Central America In the Caribbean coast many afro-Nicaraguans and creoles speak English and creole English as their first language. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States An English-based creole language, or English creole for short is a Creole language that was significantly influenced by the English language. Also in the Caribbean coast, many Indigenous people speak their native languages, such as the Miskito, Sumo, Rama and Garifuna language. Miskito is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Atlantic Autonomous Region Sumo (also known as Sumu) is the collective name for a group of Misumalpan languages spoken in Nicaragua and Honduras. Rama is one of the Indigenous languages of the Chibchan family spoken by the Rama people on the island of Rama Cay and south of lake Bluefields Garifuna is an Arawakan language spoken in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Belize by the Garifuna people.  In addition, many ethnic groups in Nicaragua, such as the Chinese Nicaraguans and Palestinian Nicaraguans, have maintained their ancestral languages, which are minority languages, while also speaking Spanish or English. Chinese Nicaraguans ( Simplified Chinese: 尼加拉瓜华人 Pinyin: ní jiā lā guā huá rén Spanish: Chino Nicaragüense) are Palestinian Nicaraguan ( Spanish: Palestino Nicaragüense are Nicaraguans of Palestinian ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Nicaragua These minority languages include Chinese, Arabic, German, and Italian, among others. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy.
Nicaragua has a total of 3 extinct languages, one of which was never classified. According to some definitions an extinct language is a Language which no longer has any speakers, whereas a dead language is a language which is no longer spoken Nicaraguan Sign Language is also of particular interest to linguists. Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN Spanish Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua, Portuguese Idioma de Signos Nicaragüense) is a signed language Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields
|Religion affiliation in Nicaragua|
|The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Managua|
|Roman Catholic||58. Religion in Nicaragua is a significant part of the culture of Nicaragua and forms part of the constitution. The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception ( Spanish: Catedral Metropolitana de la Purisima Concepcion) referred to as the New Cathedral Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name 5%|
|Evangelical||21. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel 6%|
|Moravian||1. This page is about the Moravian Church globally For information about the church in a particular geographic area use the links at Organisation below 6%|
|Jehovah's Witnesses||0. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination 9%|
|None||15. Nothing is a concept that describes the lack or absence of anything at all 7%|
|Other1||1. The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in Continental philosophy, opposed to the Same 6%|
|1 Includes Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism among other religions. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut|
|Source: 2005 Nicaraguan Census|
Religion is a significant part of the culture of Nicaragua and forms part of the constitution. The Constitution of Nicaragua was reformed due to a negotiation of the executive and legislative branches in 1995. Religious freedom, which has been guaranteed since 1939, and religious tolerance is promoted by both the Nicaraguan government and the constitution. Bishops are expected to lend their authority to important state occasions, and their pronouncements on national issues are closely followed. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight They can also be called upon to mediate between contending parties at moments of political crisis. 
Nicaragua has no official religion. The largest denomination, and traditionally the religion of the majority, is Roman Catholic. However, practicing Roman Catholics have been declining, while evangelical Protestant groups and Mormons have been rapidly growing since the 1990s. Evangelism is the Christian practice of proselytisation. The intention of most evangelism is to effect Eternal salvation to those who do not follow the Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known There are also strong Anglican and Moravian communities on the Caribbean coast. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs This page is about the Moravian Church globally For information about the church in a particular geographic area use the links at Organisation below
Roman Catholicism came to Nicaragua in the sixteenth century with the Spanish conquest and remained, until 1939, the established faith. Protestantism and other Christian denominations came to Nicaragua during the nineteenth century, but only during the twentieth century have Protestant denominations gained large followings in the Caribbean Coast of the country. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Denominationalism|List of Christian denominations|Church (disambiguation A Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name structure and doctrine within Popular religion revolves around the saints, who are perceived as intermediaries between human beings and God. Most localities, from the capital of Managua to small rural communities, honor patron saints, selected from the Roman Catholic calendar, with annual fiestas. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members In many communities, a rich lore has grown up around the celebrations of patron saints, such as Managua's Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), honored in August with two colorful, often riotous, day-long processions through the city. The high point of Nicaragua's religious calendar for the masses is neither Christmas nor Easter, but La Purísima, a week of festivities in early December dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, during which elaborate altars to the Virgin Mary are constructed in homes and workplaces. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. For dogmatic context see Roman Catholic Mariology. For artistic depictions see Roman Catholic Marian art. 
The Cuisine of Nicaragua is as diverse as its inhabitants. The Cuisine of Nicaragua is as diverse as its inhabitants It is a mixture of criollo style food and pre-Columbian dishes It is a mixture of criollo style food and pre-Columbian dishes. When the Spaniards first arrived in Nicaragua they found that the Creole people present had incorporated foods available in the area into their cuisine. For the languages see Creole language. For other meanings see Creole (disambiguation. Cuisine (from French cuisine, "cooking culinary art kitchen" ultimately from Latin coquere, "to cook" is a specific set  Despite the blending and incorporation of pre-Columbian and Spanish influenced cuisine, traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast. While the Pacific coast's main staple revolves around local fruits and corn, the Caribbean coast's cuisine makes use of seafood and the coconut. Seafood is any Sea Animal or Seaweed that is served as Food, or is suitable for eating particularly saltwater animals such The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family
Gallopinto is Nicaragua's national dish, it consists of red beans and rice. Gallo pinto (or gallopinto) is the prototypical traditional dish of Costa Rica and Nicaragua cuisines A national dish is a dish, Food or a Drink that represents a particular Country, nation or region Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The dish has several variations including the addition of coconut oil and/or grated coconut which is primarily prepared on Nicaragua's Caribbean coast. Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil with many applications The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Most Nicaraguans begin and end every day with Gallopinto, it is also thought to have originated in Nicaragua, however there is some controversy about the origins of this dish.
As in many other Latin American countries, corn is a main staple. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Corn is used in many of the widely consumed dishes, such as the nacatamal, and indio viejo. A nacatamal is a Central American Tamal. They are much larger than the tamales typical of Mexico Indio Viejo is a dish whose name means "old Indian" and is made with small long strings of meat or chicken Corn is not only used in food it is also an ingredient for drinks such as pinolillo and chicha as well as in sweets and desserts. Pinolillo (or pinol) is a sweet cornmeal and Cacao -based traditional drink in Nicaragua. Chicha is a term used in some regions of Latin America for several varieties of fermented beverages, particularly those derived from Maize, but which also Nicaraguans do not limit their cuisine to corn, local grown vegetables and fruits have been in use since before the arrival of the Spaniards and their influence on Nicaraguan cuisine. Many of Nicaragua's dishes include fruits and vegetables such as jocote, mango, papaya, tamarindo, pipian, banana, avocado, yuca, and herbs such as cilantro, oregano and achiote. Jocote ( Spondias purpurea) is a species of Flowering plant in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas. Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting Trees in the Flowering plant family Anacardiaceae The papaya (from Carib via Spanish) is the Fruit of the Plant Carica papaya, in the genus Carica. This article refers to the tree For other uses see Tamarindo (disambiguation. For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. The avocado ( Persea americana) (from Nahuatl āhuacatl) also known as aguacate ( Spanish) butter pear or The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum) also commonly called cilantro, is an annual Herb in the family Apiaceae. Oregano or ( Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia 
Education is free for all Nicaraguans. Education in Nicaragua is free for all Nicaraguans Elementary education is free and compulsory although this is not strictly enforced and many children are not able to attend Universities in Nicaragua include two principal universities the Central American University (Universidad Centroaméricana - UCA and the National Autonomous University This is an incomplete list of Schools in Nicaragua American Nicaraguan School Colegio Centro América The Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign, also called the Sandinista Literacy Campaign, was a campaign launched in 1980 by the Sandinista government in order to  Elementary education is free and compulsory, however, many children in rural areas are unable to attend due to lack of schools and other reasons. Communities located on the Caribbean coast have access to education in their native languages. The majority of higher education institutions are located in Managua, higher education has financial, organic and administrative autonomy, according to the law. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name Also, freedom of subjects is recognized. 
Nicaragua's higher education consists of 48 universities and 113 colleges and technical institutes which serve student in the areas of electronics, computer systems and sciences, agroforestry, construction and trade-related services. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the Science of the theoretical foundations of Information and Computation and their Agroforestry is an agricultural approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce.  The educational system includes 1 U.S. accredited English-language university, 3 Bilingual university programs, 5 Bilingual secondary schools and dozens of English Language Institutes. Educational accreditation is a type of Quality assurance process under which services and operations of an educational institution or program are evaluated by an external body Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States instruction occurs in English and a minority language such as The purpose of an English Language Institute, or ELI, is to teach English as a second language to students from around the world In 2005, almost 400,000 (7%) of Nicaraguans held a university degree. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing  18% of Nicaragua's total budget is invested in primary, secondary and higher education. University level institutions account for 6% of 18%.
When the Sandinistas came to power in 1979, they inherited an educational system that was one of the poorest in Latin America. The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party.  Under the Somozas, limited spending on education and generalized poverty, which forced many adolescents into the labor market, constricted educational opportunities for Nicaraguans. A 1980 literacy campaign, using secondary school students, university students as well as teachers as volunteer teachers, reduced the overall illiteracy rate from 50. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, 3% to 12. 9% within only five months.  The key large scale programs of the Sandinistas included a massive National Literacy Crusade (March-August, 1980), social program, which received international recognition for their gains in literacy, health care, education, childcare, unions, and land reform. The Nicaraguan Literacy Campaign, also called the Sandinista Literacy Campaign, was a campaign launched in 1980 by the Sandinista government in order to traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Childcare (also written child care and babycare is the act of caring for and supervising minor Children (In Australia Daycare is referred A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government  In September 1980, UNESCO awarded Nicaragua with the “Nadezhda K. Krupskaya” award for their successful literacy campaign. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 This was followed by the literacy campaigns of 1982, 1986, 1987, 1995 and 2000, all of which were also awarded by UNESCO. 
Baseball is the most popular sport played in Nicaragua. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Although some professional Nicaraguan baseball teams have folded in the recent past, Nicaragua enjoys a strong tradition of American-style Baseball. Baseball was introduced to Nicaragua at different years during the 19th century. In the Caribbean coast locals from Bluefields were taught how to play baseball in 1888 by Albert Addlesberg, a retailer from the United States. Bluefields is the capital of the Municipality of the same name and of R  Baseball did not catch on in the Pacific coast until 1891 when a group of mostly students originating from universities of the United States formed "La Sociedad de Recreo" (Society of Recreation) where they played various sports, baseball being the most popular among them.  There are five teams that compete amongst themselves: Indios del Boer (Managua), Chinandega, Tiburones (Sharks) of Granada, Leon and Masaya. Players from these teams comprise the National team when Nicaragua competes internationally. The country has had its share of MLB players (including current Texas Rangers Pitcher Vicente Padilla), but the most notable is Dennis Martínez, who was the first baseball player from Nicaragua to play in Major League Baseball. The Texas Rangers are an American professional baseball team based in Arlington Texas, United States, representing the Dallas-Ft Vicente de la Cruz Padilla (born September 27, 1977 in Chinandega, Nicaragua) is a Nicaraguan Right-handed Pitcher José Dennis Martínez Ortiz (born May 14, 1955 in Granada, Nicaragua) better known as Dennis Martínez, was the first Nicaraguan  He became the first Latin-born pitcher to throw a perfect game, the 13th in major league history, against the Dodgers in 1991. A perfect game is defined by Major League Baseball as a game in which a Pitcher (or combination of pitchers pitches a victory that lasts a minimum The Los Angeles Dodgers are a Major League Baseball team based in Los Angeles California, USA 
Boxing is the second most popular sport in Nicaragua. Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight,  The country has had world champions such as Alexis Argüello and Ricardo Mayorga among others. Pro career "The Explosive Thin Man" suffered an unavenged first round TKO loss in his 1968 professional debut but then won 36 of his next 38 bouts which then led him to Ricardo Mayorga (born October 3, 1973 in Managua, Nicaragua) is a Nicaraguan professional boxer Recently, football has gained some popularity, especially with the younger population. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Dennis Martínez National Stadium has served as a venue for both baseball and soccer but the first ever national football stadium in Managua is currently under construction. Dennis Martínez National Stadium (Estadio Nacional Dennis Martínez is located in Managua, Nicaragua. Managua is the Capital city of Nicaragua as well as the department and municipality by the same name