|Ngô Đình Diệm|
26 October 1955 – 2 November 1963
|Succeeded by||Duong Van Minh|
|Born||3 January 1901|
|Died||2 November 1963 (aged 62)|
|Political party||Front of National Salvation|
[ŋōdìŋɟi̯ɜ̂ʔm], January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). Office The President of Vietnam (Chủ tịch nước Việt Nam is the Head of state of Vietnam, although the functions of the President are often ceremonial Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. ( February 16 1916 &ndash August 6 2001) known popularly as “Big Minh” was a Vietnamese general and politician Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting ( 化 in Chữ Nôm) is the capital city of Thừa Thiên - Huế province, Vietnam. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia(pronounced
Ngô Đình Diệm was born in Huế, the original capital of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. ( 化 in Chữ Nôm) is the capital city of Thừa Thiên - Huế province, Vietnam. The Nguyễn Dynasty (Nhà Nguyễn Hán Việt: Nguyễn triều 阮朝 was the last ruling family of Vietnam. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Diệm came from the village of Phu Cam in central Vietnam. Portuguese missionaries had converted his family to Catholicism in the 17th century. Diệm would often claim that he had descended from a blue-blooded family of mandarins who were so revered that people believed that it was a great honour and good luck to be buried alongside his ancestors. Most historians dismiss this as false and believe that his family were of low rank until his father passed the imperial examinations. His father Ngô Đình Khả scrapped plans to become a Catholic priest and became a mandarin and counselor to Emperor Thành Thái during the French colonisation. Ngô Đình Khả was the father of South Vietnam ’s first President Ngô Đình Diệm, and of Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục. Emperor Thành Thái ( Hán tự: 成[[wikt 泰|泰]] 14 March, 1879 - 24 March, 1954) of the Vietnamese He rose to become the minister of the rites and chamberlain, and keeper of the eunuchs. Khả had six sons and three daughters by his second wife, whom he married after his first died childless. Devoutly Catholic, Khả took his entire family to mass every morning. The third of six sons, Diệm was christened Jean-Baptiste in the cathedral in Huế. In 1907, the French deposed the emperor on the pretext of insanity due to his complaints about the colonisation. Khả retired in protest and became a farmer. Diệm laboured in the family’s rice fields while studying at a French Catholic school, and later entered a private school started by his father. Aged fifteen, he followed his elder brother Ngô Đình Thục, later to become Vietnam’s highest ranking priest, into a monastery. Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (approximately pronounced " Ngoh Din Took ") (ŋo ɗìɲ tʰûk ( October 6 After a few months, he left, believing it to be too rigorous. At the end of his secondary schooling, his examination results at the French lycee in Huế saw him offered a scholarship to Paris but declined to contemplate becoming a priest. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city He dropped the idea, believing it to be too rigorous. He moved to Hanoi to study at the School of Public Administration and Law, a French school that trained Vietnamese bureaucrats. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam It was there that he had the only romantic relationship of his life when he fell in love with one of his teacher’s daughters. After she jilted him for a convent, he remained celibate. 
After graduating at the top of his class in 1921, Diệm followed in the footsteps of his eldest brother Ngo Dinh Khoi, joining the civil service. Ngô Ðình Khôi was a brother of South Vietnam ’s first President Ngô Đình Diệm, and of Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục. Starting from the lowest rank of mandarin, Diệm rose steadily. He first served at the royal library in Hue, and within one year was the district chief, presiding over seventy villages. Diệm was promoted to be a provincial chief at the age of 25, overseeing 300 villages. Diệm's rise was helped by Khoi’s marriage to the daughter of Nguyen Huu Bai, the Catholic head of the Council of Ministers. Nguyen Huu Bai was a Minister of the Interior in the Royal Court of Emperor Bao Dai. Bai was highly regarded among the French and Diệm's religious and family ties impressed him. The French were impressed by his work ethic but were irritated by his frequent calls to grant more autonomy to Vietnamese. Diệm said that he contemplated resigning but encouragement from the populace convinced him to persist. He first encountered communists distributing propaganda while riding horseback through the region near Quang Tri. Quang Tri (Quảng Trị is a town district of Quang Tri Province in the North Central Coastal region of Vietnam. Diệm involved himself in anti-communist activities for the first time, printing his own pamphlets. In 1929 he helped to round up communist agitators in his administrative area. He was rewarded with the promotion to the governorship of Phan Thiet Province, and in 1930 and 1931 suppressed the first peasant revolts organised by the communists in collaboration with French forces. During the violent events, many villagers were raped and murdered.  In 1933, with the return of Bảo Đại to ascend the throne, Diệm was appointed by the French to be his interior minister following lobbying by Bai. Bảo Đại ( Hán tự: vi-nom [[wikt保 保]][[wikt大 大]] Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy 22 October 1913 &ndash 30 July 1997 After calling for the French to introduce a Vietnamese legislature, he resigned after three months in office when this was rejected. He was stripped of his decorations and titles and threatened with arrest. 
For the next decade, Diệm lived as a private citizen with his family, although he was kept under surveillance. He was to have no formal job for 21 years. He spent his time on reading, meditating, attending church, gardening, hunting and amateur photography. Being a conservative, Diệm was not a believer in revolutions and confined his nationalist activities to occasional trips to Saigon to meet with Phan Boi Chau. Phan Bội Châu ( December 26, 1867 – October 29, 1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese twentieth century Nationalism With the start of the Second World War in the Pacific, he attempted to persuade the invading Japanese forces to declare independence for Vietnam in 1942 but was ignored. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. He founded a secret political party, the Association for the Restoration of Great Vietnam. When its existence was discovered in the summer of 1944, the French declared Diệm to be a subversive and ordered his arrest. He fled to Saigon disguised as a Japanese officer. In 1945, the Japanese offered him the premiership of a puppet regime under Bảo Đại which they organised upon leaving the country. He declined initially, but regretted his decision and attempted to reclaim the offer. Bảo Đại had already given the post to another candidate and Diệm avoided the stigma of being a collaborationist. In September 1945 after the Japanese withdrawal, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, his Vietminh began fighting the French. For the city named after him see Ho Chi Minh City. Hồ Chí Minh (name The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam The Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, English "League for the Independence of Vietnam" was a National liberation Diệm attempted to travel to Hue to dissuade Bảo Đại from joining Ho, but was arrested by the Vietminh along the way and exiled to a highland village near the border. He might have died of malaria, dysentery and influenza had the local tribesmen not nursed him back to health. Six months later, he was taken to meet Ho in Hanoi, but refused to join the Vietminh, assailing Ho for the death of his brother Khoi. Khoi had been buried alive by Vietminh cadres. 
Diệm continued to attempt to gather support for himself on an anti-Vietminh platform. Despite having little success, Ho was sufficiently irritated to order his arrest. Diệm narrowly evaded arrest but was given respite in November 1946 when clashes between the French and Vietminh escalated into full scale war, forcing to Vietminh to divert their resources to fighting. Diệm then moved south to the Saigon region to live with Thuc. Diệm then jointly founded the Vietnam National Alliance, which called for France to grant Vietnam dominion status similar to the Commonwealth of Nations. The alliance was sufficient to generate support to fund newspapers in Hanoi and Saigon respectively. Both were shut down; the editor in Hanoi was arrested and hit men were hired to kill his Saigon counterpart. Diệm’s activities had gained him substantial publicity and when France decided to make concessions to placate nationalist agitators, they asked him to lobby Bảo Đại to join them. Diệm gave up when Bảo Đại made a deal which he felt to be soft, and returned to Hue. In the meantime, the French had started the State of Vietnam and Diệm refused Bảo Đại’s offer to become the Prime Minister. The State of Vietnam ( Vietnamese: Quốc gia Việt Nam) was a former state in Vietnam replacing the former Republic of Cochinchina (1946-1949 He then published a new manifesto in newspapers proclaiming a third force different to communism and French colonialism, but raised little interest. In 1950, the Vietminh lost patience sentenced him to death in absentia, and the French refused to protect him. Ho's cadres tried to kill him while he was traveling to visit his elder brother Ngo Dinh Thuc in the Mekong Delta, where he was the bishop of the Vinh Long diocese. Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (approximately pronounced " Ngoh Din Took ") (ŋo ɗìɲ tʰûk ( October 6 The Mekong Delta (đồng bằng sông Cửu Long “Nine Dragon river delta” is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties Diệm then left Vietnam in 1950. 
Diệm applied for permission to travel to Rome for the Holy Year celebrations at the Vatican. After gaining French permission he left in August with Thuc, apparently destined to become a politically irrelevant figure. Before going to Europe, Diệm went to Japan, where he intended to meet Cuong De to enlist support to seize power. Cường Để Neither this nor an attempt to woo help from General Douglas MacArthur, the American supreme commander in occupied Japan, yielded meetings. General MacArthur redirects here for other meanings see General MacArthur (disambiguation. A friend managed to organise a meeting with Wesley Fishel, an American academic who had done consultancy work for the US government. Fishel was a proponent of the anti-colonial, anti-communist third force doctrine in Asia and was impressed with Diệm. He helped Diệm to organise contacts and meetings in the United States to enlist support.  It was an opportune time for Diệm, with the outbreak of the Korean War and McCarthyism helping to make Vietnamese anti-communists a sought after commodity in America. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s Diệm was given a reception at the State Department with the Acting Secretary of State James Webb. James Webb, Jim Webb or Jimmy Webb may refer to Public Service James E Possibly intimidated, he gave a weak performance in which Thuc did much of the talking. As a result, no further audiences with notable officials were afforded to him. However, he did meet Cardinal Francis Spellman, regarded as the most politically powerful cleric of his time. Francis Joseph Cardinal Spellman ( May 4, 1889 – December 2, 1967) wasthe ninth Bishop and sixth Archbishop of the Spellman had studied with Thuc in Rome in the 1930s and was to become one of Diệm's most powerful advocates. Diệm managed an audience with Pope Pius XII in Rome before further lobbying across Europe. Pope Diệm also attempted to convince Bảo Đại to make him the Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam but was turned down. Diệm returned to the United States to continue lobbying and in 1951 was able to secure an audience with Secretary of State Dean Acheson. Dean Gooderham Acheson ( April 11, 1893 — October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer as United States During the next three years he lived at Spellman's Maryknoll seminary in Lakewood Township, New Jersey and occasionally at another seminary in Ossining, New York. Lakewood Township is a township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States. Ossining is the name of two places in New York: Ossining (village New York Ossining (town New York, which contains the  Spellman helped Diệm to garner support among right wing and Catholic circles such as Joseph McCarthy. Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U Diệm toured the east of America speaking at universities, arguing that Vietnam could only be saved for the "free world" if the US sponsored a government of nationalists who were opposed to both the Vietminh and the French. He was appointed as a consultant to Michigan State University's Government Research Bureau, where Fishel worked. Michigan State University ( MSU) is a co-educational public Research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. MSU was administering government-sponsored assistance programs for cold war allies, and Diệm helped Fishel to lay the foundation for a program later implemented in South Vietnam, the Michigan State University Group. As French power in Vietnam declined, Diệm's support in America made his stock rise. 
With the fall of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 to the Vietminh, French control of Vietnam collapsed and Bảo Đại needed foreign help to sustain his State of Vietnam. For the 1992 film see Dien Bien Phu (film. For the 1954 battle see Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Realising Diệm's popularity among American policymakers, he chose Diệm's youngest brother Ngo Dinh Luyen, who was studying in Europe at the time, to be part of his delegation at the 1954 Geneva Conference to determine the future of Indochina. Ngô Đình Luyện was a brother of South Vietnam ’s first President Ngô Đình Diệm, and of Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục. Luyen represented Bảo Đại in his dealings with the Americans, who understood this to be an expression of interest in Diệm. With the backing of the Eisenhower administration, Bảo Đại named Diệm as the Prime Minister. Election 1952 See also United States presidential election 1952 Dwight D The appointment was widely condemned by French officials, who felt that Diệm was incompetent, with the Prime Minister Mendes-France declaring Diệm to be a "fanatic". The Geneva accords resulted in Vietnam being partitioned temporarily at the 17th parallel, pending elections in 1956 to reunify the country. The Vietminh controlled the north, while the French backed State of Vietnam controlled the south with Diệm as the Prime Minister. French Indochina was to be dissolved at the start of 1955. Diệm's South Vietnamese delegation chose not to sign the accords, refusing to have half the country under communist rule, but the agreement went into effect regardless. 
Diệm arrived at Tan Son Nhut airport in Saigon on June 26, where only a few hundred people turned out to greet him, mainly Catholics. Tan Son Nhat International Airport (Cảng Hàng không Quốc tế Tân Sơn Nhất is Vietnam 's largest international airport in terms of area ( compared with of Diệm managed only one wave after getting into his vehicle and did not smile. He was not a man of the people and did not intend to become one, being more interested in commanding respect than popular affection. 
The accords allowed for freedom of movement between the two zones until October 1954; this was to put a large strain on the south. Operation Passage to Freedom was the term used by the United States Navy to describe its transportation of 310000 Vietnamese civilians soldiers and non-Vietnamese Diệm had only expected 10,000 refugees, but by August, there were over 200,000 waiting in Hanoi and Haiphong to be evacuated; the migration helped to strengthen Diệm's political base of support. Before the partition, the majority of Vietnam's Catholic population lived in the north. After the borders were sealed, this majority was now under Diệm's rule. The US Navy program Operation Passage to Freedom saw around one million North Vietnamese move south, most of them Catholic. Operation Passage to Freedom was the term used by the United States Navy to describe its transportation of 310000 Vietnamese civilians soldiers and non-Vietnamese The CIA's Edward Lansdale, who had been posted to help Diệm strengthen his rule, led a propaganda campaign to encourage as many refugees to move south as possible. Edward Geary Lansdale ( February 6, 1908 &ndash February 23, 1987) was a U This effort was twofold: to strengthen the Catholic population specifically and the population generally to help win the 1956 reunification elections. This included sending South Vietnamese agents into the north to spread rumours of impending doom, such as Chinese invasion and pillaging, hiring soothsayers to predict disaster under communism, and claiming that the Americans would use nuclear weapons on North Vietnam. Diệm also used slogans such as "Christ has gone south" and "the Virgin Mary had departed from the North", alleging anti-Catholic persecution under Ho Chi Minh. Over 60% of northern Catholics moved to Diệm's South Vietnam, providing him with a source of loyal support.
Diệm's position at the time was weak; Bảo Đại disliked Diệm and appointed him mainly to political imperatives. The French saw him as hostile and hoped that his rule would collapse. At the time, the French Expeditionary Corps was the most powerful military force in the south; Diệm's Vietnamese National Army was essentially organised and trained by the French. Its officers were installed by the French and the chief of staff General Nguyen Van Hinh was a French citizen; Hinh loathed Diệm and frequently disobeyed him. Nguyễn Văn Hinh was appointed the Vietnamese National Army Chief of State by Emperor Bảo Đại. Diệm also had to contend with two religious sects, the Cao Dai and Hoa Hao, who wielded private armies in the Mekong Delta, with the Cao Dai estimated to have 25,000 men. Cao Đài ( Vietnamese:) is a relatively new syncretist, Monotheistic Religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, Hòa Hảo is a religious tradition based on Buddhism, founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam The Mekong Delta (đồng bằng sông Cửu Long “Nine Dragon river delta” is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties The Vietminh was also estimated to have control over a third of the country. The situation was worse in the capital, where the Binh Xuyen organised crime syndicate boasted an army of 40,000 and controlled a vice empire of brothels, casinos, extortion rackets, and opium factories unparalleled in Asia. Binh Xuyen was a powerful Vietnamese Criminal organization active from 1945 to 1975 Bảo Đại had given the Binh Xuyen control of the national police for 1. 25 m USD, creating a situation that the Americans likened to Chicago under Al Capone in the 1920s. Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone (January 17 1899 &ndash January 25 1947 commonly nicknamed Scarface, was an Italian American Gangster who In effect, Diệm's control did not extend beyond his palace.
In August, Hinh launched a series of public attacks on Diệm, proclaiming that South Vietnam needed a "strong and popular" leader; Hinh bragged that he was preparing a coup. This was thwarted when Lansdale arranged overseas holiday invitations for Hinh's officers. Fearing Diệm's collapse, nine members of his government resigned during Hinh's abortive bid for power. Despite its failure, the French continued to encourage Diệm's enemies in an attempt to destabilize him.
Diệm's appointment came after the French had been defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and were ready to withdraw from Indochina. The State of Vietnam referendum of 1955 determined the future Form of government of the State of Vietnam, the nation that was to become the Republic of Vietnam The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ was the climactic battle of the First Indochina War between French Union Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. At the start of 1955, French Indochina was dissolved, leaving Diệm in temporary control of the south. First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit  A referendum was scheduled for October 23, 1955 to determine the future direction of the south. It was contested by Bảo Đại, the Emperor, advocating the restoration of the monarchy, while Diệm ran on a republican platform. Bảo Đại ( Hán tự: vi-nom [[wikt保 保]][[wikt大 大]] Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy 22 October 1913 &ndash 30 July 1997 The elections were held, with Diệm's brother and confidant Ngô Đình Nhu, the leader of the family's Can Lao Party, which supplied Diệm's electoral base, organising and supervising the elections. For his wife see Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu., (October 7 1910 - November 2, 1963) was the younger brother The Cần Lao Nhân Vị Cách Mạng Ðảng, or Personalist Labor Revolutionary Party, was a secret party formed to support the Ngo Dinh Diem regime in South  Campaigning for Bảo Đại was prohibited, and the result was rigged, with Bảo Đại supporters attacked by Nhu's workers. Diệm recorded 98. 2% of the vote, including 605,025 votes in Saigon, where only 450,000 voters were registered. Diệm's tally also exceeded the registration numbers in other districts.  Three days later, Diệm proclaimed the formation of the Republic of Vietnam, naming himself President. "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia
Under the 1954 Geneva Accords, Vietnam was to undergo elections in 1956 to reunify the country. The Geneva Conference ( May 8 – July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore Peace in Diệm, noting that South Vietnam was not a party to the convention, canceled these. Criticising the Communists, he justified the electoral cancellation by claiming that the 1956 elections would be "meaningful only on the condition that they are absolutely free", despite his numerically impossible tally in the 1955 contest. 
After coming under pressure from within the country and the United States, Diệm agreed to hold elections in August 1959 to form a national legislature. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Newspapers were not allowed to publish names of independent candidates or their policies, and political meetings exceeding five people were prohibited. Candidates were disqualified for petty reasons such as acts of vandalism against campaign posters. In the rural areas, candidates who ran were threatened using charges of conspiracy with the Vietcong, which carried the death penalty. Phan Quang Dan, the government's most prominent critic, was allowed to run. Phan Quang Dan was a Vietnamese political opposition figure who was one of only two non-government politicians who won a seat in the 1959 South Despite the deployment of 8,000 ARVN plainclothes troops into his district to vote, Dan still won with a 6–1 ratio. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam ( ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam The busing of soldiers occurred across the country, and when the new assembly convened, Dan was arrested. 
Diệm's rule was authoritarian and nepotistic. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability His most trusted official was his brother, Ngô Đình Nhu, leader of the primary pro-Diệm Can Lao political party, who was an opium addict and admirer of Adolf Hitler. For his wife see Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu., (October 7 1910 - November 2, 1963) was the younger brother The Cần Lao Nhân Vị Cách Mạng Ðảng, or Personalist Labor Revolutionary Party, was a secret party formed to support the Ngo Dinh Diem regime in South Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately He modeled the Can Lao secret police's marching style and torture styles on Nazi designs.  Ngô Đình Cẩn, his younger brother, was put in charge of the former Imperial City of Huế. Ngô Đình Cẩn (1911 &ndash May 9 1964 was a younger brother and confidant of South Vietnam 's first president Ngô Đình Diệm, and an important member of Although neither Cẩn or Nhu held any official role in the government, they ruled their regions of South Vietnam, commanding private armies and secret police. Another brother, Ngô Đình Luyện, was appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom. Ngô Đình Luyện was a brother of South Vietnam ’s first President Ngô Đình Diệm, and of Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located His elder brother, Ngô Đình Thục, was the archbishop of Huế. Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (approximately pronounced " Ngoh Din Took ") (ŋo ɗìɲ tʰûk ( October 6 In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead Despite this, Thuc lived in the Presidential Palace, along with Nhu, Nhu's wife and Diệm. Diệm was nationalistic, devout Catholic, anti-Communist, and preferred the philosophies of personalism and Confucianism. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles and which can broadly be qualified as species of Humanism: Only persons are real (in Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B 
Diệm's rule was also pervaded by family corruption. Can was widely believed to be involved in illegal smuggling of rice to North Vietnam on the black market and opium throughout Asia via Laos, as well as monopolising the cinnamon trade, amassing a fortune stored in foreign banks. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum, synonym C zeylanicum) is a small Evergreen Tree 10–15 metres (32  With Nhu, Can competed for U. S. contracts and rice trade.  Thuc, the most powerful religious leader in the country, was allowed to solicit "voluntary contributions to the Church" from Saigon businessmen, which was likened to "tax notices".  Thuc also used his position to acquire farms, businesses, urban real estate, rental property and rubber plantations for the Catholic Church. He also used Army of the Republic of Vietnam personnel to work on his timber and construction projects. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam ( ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam The Nhus amassed a fortune by running numbers and lottery rackets, manipulating currency and extorting money from Saigon businesses. Luyen became a multimillionaire by speculating in piasters and pounds on the currency exchange using inside government information. 
Madame Nhu, the wife of his brother Nhu, was South Vietnam's First Lady, and she led the way in Diệm's programs to reform Saigon society in accordance with their Catholic values. Trần Lệ Xuân (born 1924 in Hanoi, Vietnam) popularly known as Madame Nhu but more properly Madame Ngô Đình Nhu, was considered the First Lady is a term used in the United States to describe the wife of an elected male Head of state. Brothels and opium dens were closed, divorce and abortion made illegal, and adultery laws were strengthened. For the 2008 film of this name see The Brothel. For the television series of this name see Cathouse The Series. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. An Diệm also won a street war with the private army of the Binh Xuyen organised crime syndicate of the Cholon brothels and gambling houses who had enjoyed special favors under the French and Bảo Đại. Binh Xuyen was a powerful Vietnamese Criminal organization active from 1945 to 1975 He further dismantled the private armies of the Cao Dai and Hoa Hao religious sects, which controlled parts of the Mekong Delta. Cao Đài ( Vietnamese:) is a relatively new syncretist, Monotheistic Religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, Hòa Hảo is a religious tradition based on Buddhism, founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam The Mekong Delta (đồng bằng sông Cửu Long “Nine Dragon river delta” is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties Diệm was also passionately anti-Communist. Tortures and killings of "communist suspects" were committed on a daily basis. The death toll was put at around 50,000 with 75,000 imprisonments, and Diệm's effort extended beyond communists to anti-communist dissidents and anti-corruption whistleblowers. 
As opposition to Diệm's rule in South Vietnam grew, a low-level insurgency began to take shape there in 1957. Finally, in January 1959, under pressure from southern cadres who were being successfully targeted by Diệm's secret police, Hanoi's Central Committee issued a secret resolution authorizing the use of armed struggle in the South. On 20 December 1960, under instruction from Hanoi, southern communists established the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam in order to overthrow the government of the south. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The NLF was made up of two distinct groups: South Vietnamese intellectuals who opposed the government and were nationalists; and communists who had remained in the south after the partition and regrouping of 1954 as well as those who had since come from the north, together with local peasants. While there were many non-communist members of the NLF, they were subject to the control of the party cadres and increasingly side-lined as the conflict continued; they did, however, enable the NLF to portray itself as a primarily nationalist, rather than communist, movement.
The cornerstone of Diệm's counterinsurgency effort was the Strategic Hamlet Program, which called for the consolidation of 14,000 villages of South Vietnam into 11,000 secure hamlets, each with its own houses, schools, wells, and watchtowers. The Strategic Hamlet Program was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the Communist insurgency The hamlets were intended to isolate the NLF from the villages, their source of recruiting soldiers, supplies and information.
Diệm was the subject of two failed coups. On November 11 1960 a failed Coup attempt against President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam was led by Lieutenant Colonel Vuong Van Dong and Colonel The 1962 South Vietnamese Independence Palace bombing in Saigon was an aerial attack on February 27 1962 by two dissident Republic of Vietnam Air Force The first occurred in 1960, and the second, where two air force officers revolted and bombed his palace, occurred in 1962.
During the 1946–54 war against the French Union forces, the Vietminh, having gained control of parts of southern Vietnam, initiated land reform. The French Union (Union française was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system the " French Empire The Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, English "League for the Independence of Vietnam" was a National liberation During the period of war, rent collection, which hovered at around 50–70%, was impossible in some parts of the country, or the Vietminh had compelled landlords to seek safety in the city and confiscated their land, distributing it to the peasants. When Diệm came to power, he reversed these reallocations as upper-class landowners were part of his ideological support base. In the Mekong Delta, 0. 025% of landowners owned 40% of the land; most of the land was owned by absentee landlords and worked by tenant farmers. This generated resentment among the populace, as land ownership was highly valued by Vietnamese society. Diệm declared that landlords could collect no more than 25%, but this was not enforced and in some cases the rent levels were higher than those under French colonisation. Under U. S. pressure, in 1956, he limited individual land holdings to 1. 15 km², and reimbursed the landlords for the excess, which he sold to peasants. Many landlords evaded the redistribution by transferring the property to the name of family members. In addition, the ceiling limit was more than 30 times that allowed in South Korea and Taiwan, and the 370,000 acres (1,500 km²) of Catholic Church land were exempted. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. As a result, only 13% of the South Vietnam's land was redistributed, and by the end of his regime, only 10% of the tenants had received any land, at a high cost. This policy failure generated anger, and in turn sympathy to the Vietminh who had given the peasants free land. At the end of Diệm's rule, 10% of the population owned 55% of the land. 
Believing that the central highlands may be of strategic importance to the Vietcong or in a potential invasion by North Vietnam, Diệm decided to construct a Maginot Line of settlements. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam The Maginot Line (IPA, Ligne Maginot named after French Minister of Defense André Maginot, was a line of concrete Fortifications tank obstacles artillery The area, inhabited by Montagnard indigenous people, had been largely allowed local autonomy in previous times, and the locals distrusted ethnic Vietnamese. Diệm initiated a program of internal migration where 210,000 Vietnamese, mainly Catholics, were moved to Montagnard land in fortified settlements.  When the Montagnards protested, Diệm's forces confiscated their spears and bows, which they used to hunt for daily sustenance.  Since then, and to the present day, Vietnam has been faced with a Montagnard insurgent separatist movement. 
In a country where surveys of the religious composition estimated the Buddhist majority to be between 70 and 90 percent, Diệm's policies generated claims of religious bias. As a member of the Catholic Vietnamese minority, he is widely regarded by historians as having pursued pro-Catholic policies that antagonized many Buddhists. The Roman Catholic Church in Vietnam is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Curia in Rome Specifically, the government was regarded as being biased towards Catholics in public service and military promotions, as well as the allocation of land, business favors and tax concessions.  Diệm also once told a high-ranking officer, forgetting that he was a Buddhist, "Put your Catholic officers in sensitive places. They can be trusted. " Many officers in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam converted to Catholicism in the belief that their military prospects depended on it. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam ( ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam  Additionally, the distribution of firearms to village self-defense militias intended to repel Vietcong guerrillas saw weapons only given to Catholics, with Buddhists in the army being denied promotion if they refused to convert to Catholicism.  Some Catholic priests ran their own private armies, and in some areas forced conversions, looting, shelling and demolition of pagodas occurred.  Some Buddhist villages converted en masse in order to receive aid or avoid being forcibly resettled by Diệm's regime.  The Catholic Church was the largest landowner in the country, and the "private" status that was imposed on Buddhism by the French, which required official permission to conduct public Buddhist activities, was not repealed by Diệm.  The land owned by the Catholic Church was exempt from land reform.  Catholics were also de facto exempt from the corvée labor that the government obliged all citizens to perform; U. Corvée is labour often but not always unpaid that persons in power have authority to compel their subjects to perform unless commuted in some way such as by a cash payment sometimes this was S. aid was disproportionately distributed to Catholic majority villages. Under Diệm, the Catholic church enjoyed special exemptions in property acquisition, and in 1959, Diệm dedicated his country to the Virgin Mary. 
The white and gold Vatican flag was regularly flown at all major public events in South Vietnam.  U. S. Aid supplies tended to go to Catholics, and the newly constructed Hue and Dalat universities were placed under Catholic authority to foster a Catholic-skewed academic environment. Hue University is a university located in Huế, the former ancient capital of Vietnam, this university is one of the important regional university of Vietnam Da Lat University ( Vietnamese language: Đại học Đà Lạt; formerly Viện Đại học Đà Lạt) is a University in the city of 
The regime's relations with the U. S. worsened during 1963, as well as heightening discontent among South Vietnam's Buddhist majority.
In May, in the central city of Huế, where Diệm's elder brother was the archbishop, Buddhists were prohibited from displaying Buddhist flags during Vesak celebrations commemorating the birth of Gautama Buddha when the government cited a regulation prohibiting the display of non-government flags. ( 化 in Chữ Nôm) is the capital city of Thừa Thiên - Huế province, Vietnam. Vesak is an annual holiday observed by practicing Buddhists in many Asian countries like Thailand, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder . A few days later, Catholics were allowed to fly religious flags at another celebration where the regulation was not enforced. This led to a protest lead by Thich Tri Quang against the government, which was suppressed by Diệm's forces, killing nine unarmed civilians. Thích Trí Quang (born 1924 is a Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist Buddhist monk best known for his role in leading South Vietnam ’s Diệm and his supporters blamed the Vietcong for the deaths and claimed that the protesters were responsible for the violence.  Although the provincial chief expressed sorrow for the killings and offered to compensate the victims' families, they resolutely denied that government forces were responsible for the killings and blamed the Vietcong. 
The Buddhists pushed for a five point agreement: freedom to fly religious flags, an end to arbitrary arrests, compensation for the Hue victims, punishment for the officials responsible and religious equality. Diệm labeled the Buddhists as "damn fools" for demanding something that, according to him, they already enjoyed.
Diệm banned demonstrations, and ordered his forces to arrest those who engaged in civil disobedience. On June 3, 1500 protesters attempted to march towards Tu Dam Pagoda. Six waves of ARVN tear gas and attack dogs failed to disperse the crowds, and finally brownish-red liquid chemicals were doused on praying protesters, resulting in 67 being hospitalised for chemical injuries. A curfew was subsequently enacted.
The turning point came in June when a Buddhist monk, Thích Quảng Đức, set himself on fire in the middle of a busy Saigon intersection in protest of Diệm's policies; photos of this event were disseminated around the world, and for many people these pictures came to represent the failure of Diệm's government. (tʰɪ̌t kwɐ̂ːŋ ɗɨ̌k born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 – died June 11 1963 was a Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist (tʰɪ̌t kwɐ̂ːŋ ɗɨ̌k born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 – died June 11 1963 was a Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist  A number of other monks publicly self-immolated, and the U. This is an article on the ritualistic suicide practice For the record company see Self Immolation. S. grew increasingly frustrated with the unpopular leader's public image in both Vietnam and the United States. Diệm used his conventional anti-communist argument, identifying the dissenters as communists.
As demonstrations against his government continued throughout the summer, the special forces loyal to Diệm's brother Nhu conducted an August raid of the Xa Loi Pagoda in Saigon. The Xá Lợi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronised attacks on the Buddhist Pagodas in South Vietnam shortly after midnight on August The Xa Loi Pagoda (Chùa Xá Lợi Hán tự: 舍[[wikt 利|利]] 寺) is the largest pagoda in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The Pagodas were vandalised, monks beaten, the cremated remains of Thích Quảng Đức, which included a heart which did not disintegrate, were confiscated.  Simultaneous raids were carried out across the country, with the Tu Dam Pagoda in Hue being looted, the statue of Gautama Buddha demolished and a body of a deceased monk confiscated. Tu Dam Pagoda (Chùa Từ Đàm is a Buddhist Temple in the central city of Huế in Vietnam. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder  When the populace came to the defense of the monks, the resulting clashes saw 30 civilians killed and 200 wounded.  In all 1400 monks were arrested, and some thirty were injured across the country. The U. S. indicated their disapproval of Diệm's administration when their ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge visited the Pagoda ex post facto. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr ( July 5, 1902 &ndash February 27, 1985) was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts  No further mass Buddhist protests occurred during the remainder of Diệm's rule. 
During this time, Madame Nhu, who was the de facto first lady due to Diệm's bachelor life, inflamed the situation by mockingly applauding the suicides, referring to them as "barbecues" while Nhu stated "If the Buddhists want to have another barbecue, I will be glad to supply the gasoline. "
The pagoda raids stoked widespread public disquiet in the previously apolitical Saigon public. Students at Saigon University boycotted classes and rioted, which led to arrests, imprisonments and the closure of the university; this was repeated at Hue's University. Saigon University is a Public university in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. When high school students demonstrated, Diệm arrested them as well; over 1,000 students from Saigon's leading high school, most of them children of Saigon public servants, were sent to re—education camps. Children as young as five were also sent to these camps on charges of anti-government graffiti.
Diệm's foreign minister Vu Van Mau resigned, shaving his head like a Buddhist monk in protest. Vũ Văn Mẫu (1914 - 1998 was the last Prime Minister of South Vietnam and served under President Dương Văn Minh.  When he attempted to leave the country on a religious pilgrimage, Diệm had him jailed.
On orders from U.S. President John F. Kennedy, Henry Cabot Lodge, the American ambassador to South Vietnam, refused to meet with Diệm. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Henry Cabot Lodge Jr ( July 5, 1902 &ndash February 27, 1985) was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country Upon hearing that a coup d'etat was being designed by ARVN generals led by General Dương Văn Minh, the United States gave secret assurances to the generals that the U. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam ( ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam ( February 16 1916 &ndash August 6 2001) known popularly as “Big Minh” was a Vietnamese general and politician S. would not interfere. Dương Văn Minh and his co-conspirators overthrew the government on November 1, 1963. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The coup was very swift. On November 1, 1963, with only the palace guard remaining to defend President Diệm and his younger brother, Ngô Đình Nhu, the generals called the palace offering Diệm safe exile out of the country if he surrendered. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For his wife see Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu., (October 7 1910 - November 2, 1963) was the younger brother However, that evening, Diệm and his entourage escaped via an underground passage to Cholon, where they were captured the following morning, November 2. Cholon is the name of the Chinese district of Ho Chi Minh City (the former Saigon the largest such Chinatown district in Vietnam. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 The brothers were executed in the back of an armoured personnel carrier by Captain Nguyen Van Nhung while en route to the Vietnamese Joint General Staff headquarters. Armoured personnel carriers (APCs are Armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport Infantry on the Battlefield They usually have only a Machine Major Nguyễn Văn Nhung (died January 1964 was an officer in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN  Diệm was buried in an unmarked grave in a cemetery next to the house of the US ambassador. The phrase Unmarked grave has Metaphorical meaning in the context of cultures that mark burial sites. A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. 
Upon learning of Diệm's ouster and death, Ho Chi Minh is reported to have said, "I can scarcely believe the Americans would be so stupid. For the city named after him see Ho Chi Minh City. Hồ Chí Minh (name " The North Vietnamese Politburo was more explicit, predicting: "The consequences of the 1 November coup d'état will be contrary to the calculations of the U. S. imperialists . . . Diệm was one of the strongest individuals resisting the people and Communism. Everything that could be done in an attempt to crush the revolution was carried out by Diệm. Diệm was one of the most competent lackeys of the U. S. imperialists . . . Among the anti-Communists in South Vietnam or exiled in other countries, no one has sufficient political assets and abilities to cause others to obey. Therefore, the lackey administration cannot be stabilized. The coup d'état on 1 November 1963 will not be the last. "
After Diệm's assassination, South Vietnam was unable to establish a stable government and numerous coups took place during the first several years after his death. While the U. S. continued to influence South Vietnam's government, the assassination bolstered North Vietnamese attempts to characterize the South Vietnamese as supporters of colonialism.
|President of the Republic of Vietnam|
Dương Văn Minh
Prince Bửu Lộc
|Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam|
Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ
|NAME||Ngô Đình Diệm|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ngô Đình Diệm Jean Baptiste (full name)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||First President of the Republic of Vietnam|
|DATE OF BIRTH||3 January 1901|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Hue, Vietnam|
|DATE OF DEATH||2 November 1963|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Saigon, Vietnam|