|Newfoundland and Labrador|
|Motto: Quaerite prime regnum Dei|
(Latin: "Seek ye first the kingdom of God. The flag of Newfoundland and Labrador was introduced in 1980 and was designed by Newfoundland artist Christopher Pratt. The Coat of Arms of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador (formally known as The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Newfoundland and Labrador A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. " A quote from The Gospel According to St. Matthew 6:33)
|Largest city||St. St John's (ˌseɪntˈdʒanz French Saint-Jean) is the provincial capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada and located on the eastern tip The table below lists the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2006 census for Census subdivisions This list John's|
|Largest metro||St. The table below lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population using data from the Canada 2001 Census[http //www12 John's|
|Official languages||English (de facto)|
|Premier||Danny Williams (PC)|
|Federal representation||in Canadian Parliament|
|Confederation||March 31, 1949 (12th)|
|Total||405,212 km² (156,453 sq mi)|
|Land||373,872 km² (144,353 sq mi)|
|Water (%)||31,340 km² (12,100 sq mi) (7. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador is the vice-regal representative of the Queen of Canada in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador John Carnell Crosbie PC OC QC ONL (born January 30, 1931) is a retired provincial and federal The Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador is the First minister for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Daniel "Danny" Williams QC MHA (born August 4 1950 in St For pre-1949 Conservative parties see Conservative parties in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation The Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada is Canada 's legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed beginning 1 July 1867 from the Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Canadian provinces 7%)|
|Total (2008)||508,099 (est. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Canadian provinces )|
|Density||1. 35 /km² (3. 5 /sq mi)|
|Total (2006)||C$24. This article lists Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product. 897 billion|
|Per capita||C$47,520 (4th)|
|Postal||NL (formerly NF)|
|Time zone||UTC-3. This article lists Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product. This is a list of Canadian provincial and territorial postal abbreviations. ISO 3166-2CA is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to Canada. 5 for Newfoundland|
UTC -4 for Labrador(Black Tickle and North)
|Postal code prefix||A|
|Rankings include all provinces and territories|
Newfoundland and Labrador (IPA: /ˌnuːfən(d)ˈlænd ən(d) læbrəˈdɔr/) (French: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador, Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradóir, Latin: Terra Nova) is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation. Postal codes by province and territoryA Canadian postal code Newfoundland and Labrador - 35 FSAs Note As of May 2007 no postal codes yet begin with A3* A4* A6* or A7* Pitcher plants are Carnivorous plants whose prey-trapping mechanism features a deep cavity filled with Liquid known as a pitfall trap. Picea mariana ( Black Spruce) is a species of Spruce native to northern North America, from Newfoundland west to Alaska The Atlantic Puffin ( la Fratercula arctica) is a Seabird Species in the Auk family. The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed beginning 1 July 1867 from the Geographically, the province consists of the island of Newfoundland and the mainland Labrador, on Canada's Atlantic coast. Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of Modern Labrador Just like its island neighbour Newfoundland early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais, Innu and On entry into Canada in 1949, the entire province was known as Newfoundland, but since 1964, the province's government has referred to itself as the "Government of Newfoundland and Labrador", and on December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to "Newfoundland and Labrador. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's Constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area " In day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians generally still refer to the province itself as "Newfoundland" and to the region within the province as "Labrador. "
While the name "Newfoundland" is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Latin Terra Nova), Labrador comes from the Portuguese lavrador, a title meaning "landholder" held by Portuguese explorer of the region, João Fernandes Lavrador. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west João Fernandes (ʒuˈɐ̃ũ fɨɾˈnɐ̃ðɨʃ (John Joam (sometimes called João Fernandes Lavrador) was a Portuguese Explorer of the 15th century
As of January 2008, the province's population is estimated to be 508,099.  People from Newfoundland are called "Newfoundlanders" (and at times "Newfies", though this can be seen as a pejorative) while people from Labrador are called "Labradorians". " Newfie " is a colloquial, and sometimes pejorative term used in Canada for someone who is from Newfoundland. Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt Newfoundland has its own dialects of the English, French, and Irish languages. Newfoundland English is a name for several Dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive Newfoundland French is a regional dialect of French that was once spoken by French colonists on the island of Newfoundland. Newfoundland Irish (Gaeilge Thalamh an Éisc is a dialect of the Irish language specific to the island of Newfoundland and widely spoken until the mid-20th century The English dialect in Labrador shares much with that of Newfoundland. Furthermore, Labrador has its own dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut. Inuktitut ( Inuktitut syllabics: iu-Cans ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ( fonts required literally "like the Inuit") is the name of the varieties of
Newfoundland has a number of historical firsts. The History of Newfoundland and Labrador starts with two separate regions the Colony of Newfoundland and the region of Labrador, then converge after 1949 with the The oldest known settlement anywhere in The Americas built by Europeans is located at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove" is an Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island It was founded around AD 1000 by Leif Ericson's Vikings. Leif Ericson ( Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson) (c 970 – c 1020 was a Norse Explorer who was probably the first European to land in A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Remnants and artifacts of the occupation can still be seen at L'Anse aux Meadows, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex The island was inhabited by the Beothuks and later the Mi'kmaq. The Beothuk (biˈɒθʊk (also spelled Boeothuck, Beothuck, Boethuk, Boeothuk, and Boethuck) were the native inhabitants of the island The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a
John Cabot became the first European since the Vikings to discover Newfoundland (but see João Vaz Corte-Real), landing at Cape Bonavista on June 24, 1497. Giovanni Caboto ( c 1450 - c 1498 known in English as John Cabot, was an Italian Navigator and explorer commonly credited as the João Vaz Corte-Real (ʒuˈɐ̃ũ vaʃ ˈkoɾt(ɨ ʁiˈaɫ (d Cape Bonavista is a headland located on the east coast of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert formally claimed Newfoundland as England's first overseas colony under Royal Prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c 1539 &ndash 9 September 1583was an English murderer Adventurer, Explorer, Member of parliament, and soldier from Devon The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy
From 1610 to 1728, Proprietary Governors were appointed to establish colonial settlements on the island. Proprietary Governors were individuals authorized to govern proprietary colonies John Guy was governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove. John Guy may refer to John Guy (cricketer (born 1934 John Guy (governor (? - 1629 John Guy (historian (born This is a list of Viceroys for the Colony, Dominion and Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Cuper's Cove, on the southwest shore of Conception Bay on Newfoundland 's Avalon Peninsula was an early English settlement in the New World Other settlements were Bristol's Hope, Renews, South Falkland and Avalon which became a province in 1623. Bristol's Hope is a Canadian community in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Renews-Cappahayden is a small fishing Town on the southern shore of Newfoundland, 83 kilometres south of St South Falkland was a colony in Newfoundland established by Henry Cary 1st Viscount Falkland in 1623 on territory in the Avalon Peninsula including the The Avalon Peninsula is a large Peninsula (10360 km²) that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638. Sir David Kirke (c 1597 &ndash 1654 was an adventurer colonizer and governor for the king of England. The island of Newfoundland was nearly conquered by New France explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in the 1690s. Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville ]] (b 16 July 1661 - d (probably 9 July 1706)founder of the colony of French Louisiana, was born at
Newfoundland received a colonial assembly in 1832; which was and still is referred to as the House of Assembly, after a fight led by reformers William Carson, Edward Morris and John Kent. The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly is one of two components of the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the other being the Lieutenant-Governor Sir William Carson (baptised 4 June, 1770 &ndash 26 February, 1843) often called "The Great Reformer" was an important Sir Edward Morris John Kent (1805 &ndash September 1, 1872) was premier of Newfoundland 1858 &ndash 1861 The new government was unstable and the electorate divided along religious and ethnic lines between the Catholic Irish and Protestant English West Country populations of the colony. Such was the degree of strife that, on 11 January 1841, The Times of London held up Newfoundland as an awful example of what Ireland might become. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. For the game see 1841 (board game. Year 1841 ( MDCCCXLI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. In 1842, the elected House of Assembly was amalgamated with the appointed Legislative Council. This was changed back in 1848 to two separate chambers. After this, a movement for responsible government began. Responsible government is a conception of a System of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster Bishop Mullock took an active part in the agitation.
In 1854, Newfoundland was granted responsible government by the British government. The Dominion of Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 (before which the territory had the status of a British colony to 1949 Colonial Building was the seat of the Newfoundland government and the House of Assembly from January 28, 1850 to July 28, In an 1855 election, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a majority over Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Philip Francis Little Prince Edward Island (ˌprɪns ˌɛdwɚd ˈaɪlɨnd ( PEI or P Sir Hugh Hoyles For the modern Conservative Party see Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador The Conservative Party of Newfoundland was a political party in the Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. In 1861, however, Governor Bannerman dismissed the Liberals, and, in a hotly contested election marked by disorder and rioting, Hugh Hoyles formed a government which strove to incorporate all religious bodies and give out jobs and patronage on a strictly denominational basis. This process extended also, in the 1870s, to the placing of all denominational schools on the same basis that the Catholics had had since the 1840s; organised by the churches, paid for by the state. The politics of class thus replaced those of religion. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Such was the development afterwards that, by the 1890s, Blackwood's Magazine was using events in Newfoundland as an argument for Home Rule for Ireland. Blackwood's Magazine was a British Magazine and Miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980
As part of the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 1904, France abandoned the French Shore, or the west coast of the island, to which it had had rights since the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. Flag of the United Kingdomsvg|right|70px]] The Entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on The French Treaty Shore resulted from the 1713 ratification of the Treaty of Utrecht. The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch Year 1713 ( MDCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Possession of Labrador was disputed by Quebec and Newfoundland until 1927, when the British privy council demarcated the western boundary, enlarged Labrador's land area, and confirmed Newfoundland's title to it.
Newfoundland remained a colony until acquiring dominion status on September 26, 1907, along with New Zealand. A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities under sovereign authority within the British Empire and Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island It successfully negotiated a trade agreement with the United States but the British government blocked it after objections from Canada. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Dominion of Newfoundland reached its golden age under Prime Minister Sir Robert Bond of the Liberal Party. The Dominion of Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 (before which the territory had the status of a British colony to 1949 Sir Robert Bond For the modern Liberal Party see Liberal Party of Newfoundland and Labrador Several earlier groupings functioned in the Dominion of Newfoundland under the name
In 1934, the Dominion, because of financial difficulties, was obliged to give up its self-governing status and the Commission of Government took its place. The Commission of Government was a non-elected body that governed Newfoundland from 1934 to 1949 (when the former Dominion became the tenth province of Following World War II, the Commission held elections for the Newfoundland National Convention which debated the dominion's future in 1946 and 1947. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Newfoundland National Convention of 1946 was a forum established to decide the constitutional future of Newfoundland (now a province of Canada) Two referendums resulted in which Newfoundlanders decided to end the Commission, and join the Canadian Confederation in 1949. Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed beginning 1 July 1867 from the
In 1946, an election was held for the Newfoundland National Convention to decide the future of Newfoundland. The Newfoundland National Convention of 1946 was a forum established to decide the constitutional future of Newfoundland (now a province of Canada) The mechanism of the Convention was established by the British Government to make recommendations as to the constitutional options to be presented to the people of Newfoundland to be voted upon in a national referendum. The Newfoundland Referendums of 1948 were a series of two Referendums to decide the political future of the British Colony of Newfoundland. Many members only wished to decide between continuing the Commission of Government or restoring Responsible Government. Responsible government is a conception of a System of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster Joseph R. Smallwood, the leader of the confederates, moved that a third option of confederation with Canada should be included. Joseph Roberts "Joey" Smallwood PC, CC ( December 24, 1900 &ndash December 18 1991) was the main force His motion was defeated by the convention. But he did not give up, instead gathering more than 50,000 petitions from the people within a fortnight which he sent to London through the Governor.
The UK, having already insisted that if Newfoundland chose confederation or a return to Responsible Government, stated it would not give Newfoundland any further financial assistance, and added the third option of having Newfoundland join Canada to the ballot. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located After much debate, the first referendum was held on June 3, 1948 to decide between continuing with the Commission of Government, returning to Responsible Government, or joining the Canadian Confederation. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The result was inconclusive, with 44. 6% supporting the restoration of Responsible Government, 41. 1% for confederation with Canada, and 14. 3% for continuing the Commission of Government. No option had won a clear majority; so under the rules of the referendum, the option which won the fewest votes was dropped and a new run-off referendum was scheduled for late July 1948. Between the first and second referendums, rumours were spread that Roman Catholics had been instructed to vote by their bishops for Responsible Government. This was not accurate; on the west coast of Newfoundland, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. George's, Bishop Michael O'Reilly and his congregation were strong supporters of confederation. Prompted by the Confederate Association, the Orange Order was incensed and called on all its members to vote for confederation. The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly The Protestants of Newfoundland outnumbered the Catholics at a ratio of 2:1. This was believed to have greatly influenced the outcome of the second referendum. A second referendum on July 22, 1948, which asked Newfoundlanders to choose between confederation and dominion status, was decided by a vote of 51% to 49% for confederation with Canada. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Newfoundland joined Canada (just before the expiry) on March 31, 1949. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Not everyone was satisfied with the results, however. Peter Cashin, an outspoken anti-Confederate, questioned the validity of the votes. Major Peter John Cashin ( March 8 1890 - May 21 1977) was a Newfoundland politician businessman and soldier He claimed that it was the "unholy union between London and Ottawa" that brought about confederation. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality.
In 1959, a local controversy arose when the provincial government pressured the Moravian Church to abandon its mission station at Hebron, Labrador, resulting in the relocation southward of the area's Inuit population, who had lived there since the mission was established in 1831. This page is about the Moravian Church globally For information about the church in a particular geographic area use the links at Organisation below Hebron is the name of a former Moravian mission that was the northernmost settlement in Labrador. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting
In the 1960s, Newfoundland developed the Churchill Falls hydro-electric facility in order to sell electricity to the United States. Churchill Falls are waterfalls named after former British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. An agreement with Quebec was required to secure permission to transport the electricity across Quebec territory. Quebec drove a hard bargain with Newfoundland, resulting in a 75-year deal that Newfoundlanders now believe to be unfair to the province because of the low and unchangeable rate that Newfoundland and Labrador receives for the electricity.
Politics of the province were dominated by the Liberal Party, led by Joseph R. For pre-1949 Liberal parties see Liberal parties in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation The Liberal Party of Newfoundland and Labrador is a political party in the Smallwood, from confederation until 1972. In 1972, the Smallwood government was replaced by the Progressive Conservative administration of Frank Moores. For pre-1949 Conservative parties see Conservative parties in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation The Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador Frank Duff Moores ( February 18, 1933 - July 10, 2005) was a Canadian politician and businessman who served as Newfoundland In 1979, Brian Peckford, another Progressive Conservative, became Premier. Alfred Brian Peckford PC (born August 27, 1942) is a former teacher politician and premier of Newfoundland. During this time, Newfoundland was involved in a dispute with the federal government for control of offshore oil resources. In the end, the dispute was decided by compromise. In 1989, Clyde Wells and the Liberal Party returned to power ending 17 years of Conservative government. Clyde Kirby Wells (born November 9, 1937) is Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal
In 1992, the federal government declared a moratorium on the Atlantic cod fishery, because of severely declining catches in the late 1980s. The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a well-known Demersal food fish belonging to the family Gadidae. The consequences of this decision reverberated throughout the provincial economy of Newfoundland in the 1990s, particularly as once-vibrant rural communities faced a sudden exodus. The economic impact of the closure of the Atlantic cod fishery on Newfoundland has been compared to the effect of closing every manufacturing plant in Ontario. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec The cod fishery which had provided Newfoundlanders on the south and east coasts with a livelihood for over 200 years was gone, although the federal government helped fishermen and fish plant workers make the adjustment with a multi-billion dollar program named "The Atlantic Groundfish Strategy" (TAGS).
In the late 1980s, the federal government, along with its Crown corporation Petro-Canada and other private sector petroleum exploration companies, committed to developing the oil and gas resources of the Hibernia oil field on the northeast portion of the Grand Banks. In the Commonwealth realms a Crown corporation is a State-controlled company or enterprise Petro-Canada () is a Canadian oil and gas firm Its headquarters are in the Petro-Canada Centre in Calgary, Alberta Hibernia is the name of a petroleum field located in the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately 315 kilometres east-southeast of St Throughout the mid-1990s, thousands of Newfoundlanders were employed on offshore exploration platforms, as well as in the construction of the Hibernia Gravity Base Structure (GBS) and Hibernia topsides.
In 1996, the former federal minister of fisheries, Brian Tobin, was successful in winning the leadership of the provincial Liberal Party following the retirement of premier Clyde Wells. Fisheries and Oceans Canada ( DFO) is the department within the government of Canada that is responsible for developing and implementing policies and programs Brian Vincent Tobin, PC (born October 21, 1954) is a Canadian politician Tobin rode the waves of economic good fortune as the downtrodden provincial economy was undergoing a fundamental shift, largely as a result of the oil and gas industry's financial stimulus, although the effects of this were mainly felt only in communities on the Avalon Peninsula.
Good fortune also fell on Tobin following the discovery of a world class nickel deposit at Voisey's Bay, Labrador. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Voisey's Bay is a Canadian Bay in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Tobin committed to negotiating a better royalty deal for the province with private sector mining interests than previous governments had done with the Churchill Falls hydroelectric development deal in the 1970s. Churchill Falls are waterfalls named after former British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. Following Tobin's return to federal politics in 2000, the provincial Liberal Party devolved into internal battling for the leadership, leaving its new leader, Roger Grimes, in a weakened position as premier. Roger D Grimes (born May 2, 1950) is a Canadian politician in Newfoundland and Labrador.
The pressure of the oil and gas industry to explore offshore in Atlantic Canada saw Newfoundland and Nova Scotia submit to a federal arbitration to decide on a disputed offshore boundary between the two provinces in the Laurentian Basin. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's The Federal Court of Canada is a defunct national court of Canada set up to resolve some types of disputes arising under the central government's legislative jurisdiction The 2003 settlement rewrote an existing boundary in Newfoundland's favour, opening this area up to energy exploration.
In 2003, the federal government declared a moratorium on the last remaining cod fishery in Atlantic Canada - in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French golfe du Saint-Laurent) the world's largest Estuary, is the outlet of North America's Great Lakes via the Saint While Newfoundland was again the province most directly affected by this decision, communities on Quebec's North Shore and in other parts of Atlantic Canada also faced difficulties. Côte-Nord ( French for "Northern Shore" area 24762706  km², or 95609 Atlantic Canada, also known as the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising four provinces located on the Atlantic coast:
Premier Grimes, facing a pending election that fall, used the Gulf cod decision and perceived federal bias against the province as a catalyst to try to rally citizens around his administration. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and Grimes called for a review of the Terms of Union by which the province had become a part of Canada and on July 2, 2003, the findings of the Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada (which Grimes had created in 2002) were released. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador announced the Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada on March 19 2002, in the It noted the following stressors in the relationship between the province and Canada:
The report called for the following:
In October 2003, the Liberals lost the provincial election to the Progressive Conservative Party, led by Danny Williams. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water Political federalism is a Political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin foedus, covenant) with a governing The Atlantic Accord is an agreement signed in 2005 between the Federal Government of Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia in which offshore The Newfoundland and Labrador general election of 2003 was held on October 21 2003to elect the 48 members of the House of Assembly of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador Daniel "Danny" Williams QC MHA (born August 4 1950 in St
From late October 2004 to early January 2006, Premier Williams argued that then Prime Minister Paul Martin had not held up his promises for a new deal on the "Atlantic Accord". Paul Edgar Philippe Martin. PC, MP (also known as Paul Martin Jr The issue is the royalties from oil: currently, 70 cents on each royalty dollar are sent back to the federal government through reductions in payments by the federal government with respect to its "equalization program". The province wants 100% of the royalties to allow the province to pull itself out of poverty on a long-term basis.
Toward the end of 2004, Williams ordered the Canadian flag to be removed from all provincial buildings as a protest against federal policies, and asked for municipal councils to consider doing the same. The National Flag of Canada, also known as the Maple Leaf, and fr l'Unifolié ( French for "the one-leafed" is a red Flag The issue, dubbed the "Flag Flap" in the media, sparked debate across the province and the rest of Canada. The flags went back up in January 2005 after much controversy nationwide and Paul Martin stating that he would not negotiate with the province if the flags were not flying. At the end of January, the federal government signed a deal to allow 100% of oil revenues to go to the province, resulting in an extra $2 billion over eight years for the province. However, this agreement has led other provinces such as Ontario and Quebec to try to negotiate their own special deals as they too claim that the federal government is taking advantage of them financially. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The "equalization program" remains a controversial issue in negotiations between Premier Williams and current Prime Minister Stephen Harper. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC eric As of 2005, four of the ten amendments to the Constitution of Canada since its patriation have been concerned with Canada's tenth province. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's Constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions Patriation is a non-legal term particularly used in Canada, to describe a process of Constitutional change also known as "bringing home" the constitution
Communities over 20,000 People
St. John's (About) 101,000 CBS (includes Keilgrews,Chamberlains,Seal Cove & Topsail)(About) 21,000 Corner Brook (About) 29,500 Mount Pearl (About) 29,000
|Official Flower||Purple Pitcher Plant|
|Official Tree||Black Spruce|
|Official Bird||Atlantic Puffin|
|Official Game Bird||Ptarmigan|
|Official Dog(s)||Newfoundland dog & Labrador Retriever|
|Provincial Anthem||Ode to Newfoundland|
|Provincial Holiday||June 24, Discovery Day|
|Patron Saint||St. John the Baptist|
|Coat of arms|
According to the 2001 Canadian census,  the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39. The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador requires its residents to register their vehicles and display licence plates. Sarracenia purpurea, commonly known as the Purple pitcher plant or Side-saddle flower, is a Carnivorous plant in the family Sarraceniaceae Picea mariana ( Black Spruce) is a species of Spruce native to northern North America, from Newfoundland west to Alaska The Atlantic Puffin ( la Fratercula arctica) is a Seabird Species in the Auk family. This article deals with the European species named "Ptarmigan" known in North America as the Rock Ptarmigan Labradorite ((CaNa(AlSi4O8 a Feldspar Mineral, is an intermediate to calcic member of the Plagioclase series The Newfoundland is a large usually black breed of Dog originally used as a Working dog in A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's "Ode to Newfoundland" is the official provincial anthem of Newfoundland and Labrador. Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people List of people of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Newfoundland and Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth to join the Confederation. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English 4%), followed by Irish (19. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate 7%), Scottish (6. The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. 0%), French (5. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( 5%), and First Nations (3. First Nations is a term of Ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people 2%). While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian," 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 StatsCan Ethnic Diversity Survey. 
Population since 1951
|1961||457,853||10. 3||26. 7||9|
|1966||493,396||7. 8||18. 9||9|
|1971||522,100||5. 8||14. 0||9|
|1976||557,720||6. 8||13. 0||9|
|1981||567,681||1. 8||8. 7||9|
|1986||568,350||0. 1||1. 9||9|
|1991||568,475||0. 02||0. 1||9|
|1996||551,790||-2. 9||-2. 9||9|
|2001||512,930||-7. 0||-9. 8||9|
|2006*||505,469||-0. 6||-7. 6||9|
*Preliminary 2006 census estimate.
The 2006 census returns showed a population of 505,469. Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help
Of the 499,830 singular responses to the census question concerning 'mother tongue' the languages most commonly reported were:
Figures shown above are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. There were also 435 responses of both English and a 'non-official language'; 30 of both French and a 'non-official language'; 295 of both English and French; 10 of English, French and a 'non-official language'; and about 14,305 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave some other unenumerated response. 
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