Newark-on-Trent shown within Nottinghamshire
|OS grid reference|
|District||Newark and Sherwood|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|European Parliament||East Midlands|
|List of places: UK • England • Nottinghamshire|
Newark-on-Trent (generally shortened to Newark) is a market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands region of England. Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government Newark and Sherwood is a local government district of eastern Nottinghamshire, England. Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of Subdivisions of England used for the purposes of Local government outside Greater London Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one The East Midlands is one of the Regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom, and a basic unit of the postal delivery system UK Postal codes are known as postcodes. UK postcodes are Alphanumeric. The NG postcode area, also known as the Nottingham postcode area, is a group of postal districts around Nottingham including areas in Derbyshire, southern The UK Telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, is the system used for assigning Telephone numbers in the United There are a number of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom. Nottinghamshire Police is the Home Office police force responsible for policing the Shire county of Nottinghamshire and the Unitary authority The fire service in the United Kingdom operates under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Nottinghamshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering Nottinghamshire (including the Unitary authority of Nottingham The East Midlands Ambulance Service (EMAS is the NHS ambulance service serving the East Midlands region of England. East Midlands is a constituency of the European Parliament. It currently elects 6 MEPs using the D'Hondt method of Party-list proportional This is a list of the 646 constituencies currently represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as at the 2005 general election Newark is a Constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. A Gazetteer of place names in the United Kingdom showing each place's County, Unitary authority or council area and its geographical coordinates List of places --> List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places This is a list of settlements in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Market town or market right is a legal term originating in the Medieval period for a European settlement that has the right to hold Markets Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire The East Midlands is one of the Regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland It is located on the River Trent, with the River Devon also running through the town. The River Trent is one of the major rivers of England. Its source is in Staffordshire between Biddulph and Biddulph Moor. The River Devon is a Tributary of the River Trent, which it joins at Newark in Nottinghamshire. Situated at the intersection of the Great North Road and the Fosse Way, Newark originally grew around Newark Castle - now ruined - and a large market place - now lined with historic buildings. The Fosse Way was a Roman road in England that linked Exeter ( Isca Dumnoniorum) in South West England to Lincoln Newark Castle, in Newark, Nottinghamshire, England, is said to have been founded by Egbert, king of the West Saxons, was partly rebuilt According to the 2001 census, it had a population of 25,376, but Newark forms a continuous built-up area with the neighbouring parish of Balderton. Balderton is a village and Civil parish in the Newark and Sherwood district of Nottinghamshire, England. The combined population of the two is 35,674.
Newark's position as one of the few bridges on the Trent in the area, its location along the Great North Road, (the A1), and later with the advance of rail transport being at the junction between the East Coast Main Line, and the route from Nottingham to Lincoln has informed its growth and development. The East Coast Main Line ( ECML) is the electrified high-speed railway link between London and Edinburgh connecting Yorkshire, North East Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. Lincoln (ˈlɪŋkən is a Cathedral city and County town of Lincolnshire, England. Originally a centre for the wool and cloth trade, it industrialised to some extent during the Victorian era, and later with an ironworks, engineering, brewing, and a sugar refinery. It was a major town standing for the Royalist cause during the Civil War, only surrendering finally when Charles I himself ordered it. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution.
Newark (Newerca, Nouwerk) owes its origin, possibly beginning in Roman times, to its position on the great Roman road called the Fosse Way, in the valley of the Trent. The Fosse Way was a Roman road in England that linked Exeter ( Isca Dumnoniorum) in South West England to Lincoln In a document which purports to be a charter of 664, Newark is mentioned as having been granted to the Abbey of Peterborough by Wulfhere. Wulfhere (died 675 was King of Mercia from the end of the 650s until 675 A pagan Anglo-Saxon cemetery, used from the early 5th to the early 7th centuries, has been found in Millgate, in Newark, close to both the Fosse Way and the River Trent in which cremated remains were buried in pottery urns. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south 
In the reign of Edward the Confessor it belonged to Godiva and her husband Leofric, Earl of Mercia, who granted it to the monastery of Stow in 1055, who retained its incomes even after the Norman Conquest as came under the control of the Norman Bishop Remigius de Fécamp. King Edward the Confessor (c 1003 &ndash 5 January 1066 son of Ethelred the Unready, was the penultimate Anglo-Saxon King of England and the last Godiva (or Godgifu) (c 980-1067 was an Anglo-Saxon noblewoman who according to Legend, rode naked through the streets of Coventry Leofric (born 968 died 31 August or 30 September 1057) was the Earl of Mercia and founded Monasteries at Coventry and Stow (or archaically Stow-in-Lindsey) is a small village and Civil parish within the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England Remigius de Fécamp (or just Remigius) (d 1092 was a Benedictine monk who was a supporter of William the Conqueror. After his death it changed to, and remained in the hands of, the Bishops of Lincoln from 1092 until the reign of Edward VI. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine
There were burgesses in Newark at the time of the Domesday survey, and in the reign of Edward III, there is evidence that it had long been a borough by prescription. Burgess is an English word that originally meant a freeman of a Borough or Burgh. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. A borough is an Administrative division of various countries In principle the term borough designates a self-governing Township although in practice The Newark wapentake in the east of Nottinghamshire was established during the period of Anglo-Saxon rule (10-11 centuries AD). Newark was a Wapentake (equivalent to a hundred) of the historic county of Nottinghamshire, England. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south
The castle was erected by Bishop Alexander of Lincoln in 1123, and the bridge about the same time under charter from Henry I, also St. A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. Alexander of Lincoln (Latin Alexander Lincolniensis) (died in early 1148 Bishop of Lincoln, was born in Blois, France. A bridge is a Structure built to span a Gorge, Valley, Road, railroad track, River, Body of water Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman Leonard's Hospital. He also gained from the king a charter to hold a five-day fair at the castle each year. He gained a charter under King Stephen to establish a mint in the town. Stephen often referred to in history as Stephen of Blois (c 1096 &ndash 25 October, 1154) was the last Norman King of England
The town became a local centre for the wool and cloth trade, certainly by the time of Henry II a major market was established.
King John died of dysentery in Newark in 1216. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe Diarrhea containing mucus and blood Following his death as Henry III tried to bring order to the country the mercenary Robert de Gaugy refused to yield Newark Castle to the Bishop of Lincoln, its rightful owner, leading to the Dauphin of France (later King Louis VIII of France) laying an eight day siege on behalf of the king, ended by an agreement to pay the mercenary to leave. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 See also List of bishops of Lincoln and precursor offices The Bishop of Lincoln heads the ( Anglican) The Dauphin of France (Dauphin de France—strictly Dauphin of Viennois ( Dauphin de Viennois)—was the title given to the Heir apparent of the Louis VIII the Lion ( 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226
Around the time of Edward III's death (1377) records of the poll tax show that at that time the adult (over 14) population of Newark was 1,178, excluding beggars and clergy, making it one of the larger towns in the country at that time. Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages.
The church of St. Mary Magdalene, one of the largest parish churches of England, is notable for the tower and the octagonal spire (223 ft. Saint Mary Magdalen or Mary Magdalene is described both in the canonical New Testament and in the New Testament apocrypha, as a devoted A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches Octagonal is also an adjective of Octagon Octagonal (foaled 1992 in New Zealand) is a retired champion Thoroughbred A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building particularly a church Tower. high) by which it is surmounted. The central piers remain from the previous church, dating from the 11th or 12th century. The upper parts of the tower and spire were completed about 1350; the nave dates from between 1384 and 1393, and the chancel from 1489. In Romanesque and Gothic Christian Abbey, Cathedral Basilica and church Architecture, the nave is the "Chancel" is an architectural term for the space around the Altar at the Liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building
The sanctuary is bounded on the south and north by two chantry chapels, the former of which has on one of its panels a remarkable painting from the Dance of Death. Dance of Death, also variously called Danse Macabre (French Danza Macabra (Italian or Totentanz There are a few old monuments, and an exceedingly fine brass of the 14th century. There is a hole in the spire which was supposedly made by a cannon ball during the Civil War, although there is some doubt locally as to the truth of the story. This hole is visible from some parts of the town centre.
In 1457 a flood swept away the bridge over the Trent and, although there was no legal requirement for anyone to replace it, the Bishop of Lincoln, John Chaworth, financed the building of a new bridge, built of oak with stone defensive towers at either end. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land a deluge
Following the break with Rome in the 16th century, the subsequent establishment of the independent Church of England, and the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII had the Vicar of Newark, Henry Lytherland executed when he refused to acknowledge the king as head of the Church. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the formal process between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The dissolution affected Newark's political landscape heavily, and even more radical changes came in 1547 when the Bishop of Lincoln exchanged ownership of the town with the Crown. See also List of bishops of Lincoln and precursor offices The Bishop of Lincoln heads the ( Anglican) Newark was incorporated under an alderman and twelve assistants in 1549, and the charter was confirmed and extended by Elizabeth I. An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions
Charles I, owing to the increasing commercial prosperity of the town, reincorporated it under a mayor and aldermen, and this charter, except for a temporary surrender under James II, continued to be the governing charter of the corporation until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm IV c76 - sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act - required members of town councils ( Municipal corporations
During the English Civil War, Newark was a mainstay of the royalist cause, Charles I having raised his standard in nearby Nottingham. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. It was attacked in February 1643 by two troops of horsemen, but beat them back. The town fielded at times as many as 600 soldiers, and raided Nottingham, Grantham, Northampton, Gainsborough, and others with mixed success, but enough to cause it to rise to national notice. Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. Grantham is a Market town within the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. This article is about Northampton in England for other places of the same name see Northampton (disambiguation Northampton ( is a large Market Gainsborough is a town within the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. At the end of 1644 it was besieged by forces from Nottingham, Lincoln and Derby, the siege was only relieved in March by Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Lincoln (ˈlɪŋkən is a Cathedral city and County town of Lincolnshire, England. Derby (pronounced "dar-bee" /dˈɑːbɪ/ is a city in the East Midlands of England. Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17
Parliament commenced a new siege towards the end of January 1645 following more raiding, but this was relieved by Sir Marmaduke Langdale after about a month. Marmaduke Langdale (1598 at Pighall &ndash August 5, 1661 at Holme-on-Spalding-Moor) was married to Ann Howard a granddaughter of Newark cavalry fought with the king's forces which were decisively defeated in the Battle of Naseby, near Leicester in June 1645. The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on The Battle of Naseby was the key battle of the first English Civil War. Leicester (ˈlɛstə is the largest city and Unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and is the traditional
The final siege began in November 1645, by which time the town's defences had been greatly strengthened. Two major forts had been constructed just outside the town, one, called the Queen's Sconce, to the south-west and another, the King's Sconce to the north-east, both close to the river, together with defensive walls and a water filled ditch 2¼ miles in length, around the town. In May 1646 the town was ordered to surrender by Charles I, which was still only accepted under protest by the town's garrison. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. After the surrender most of the defences were destroyed, including the castle which was left in essentially the state it can be seen today.
Around 1770 the Great North Road around Newark (now the A1) was raised on a long series of arches to ensure it remained clear of the regular floods it experienced. A special Act of Parliament in 1773 allowed the creation of a town hall next to the Market Place. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament. Designed by John Carr of York and completed in 1776, Newark Town Hall is now a Grade 1 listed building. In 1775 the Duke of Newcastle, at the time the Lord of the Manor and a major landowner of the area, built a new brick bridge with stone facing to replace the dilapidated one next to the castle. Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne is a title which has been created three times in British history while the title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne has been created once This is still one of the major thoroughfares in the town today.
A noted advocate of reform in the late 18th century at Newark was the local-born printer and newspaper owner Daniel Holt (1766-1799). He was imprisoned for printing a leaflet advocating parliamentary reform and selling a Thomas Paine pamphlet. An account of his life by Alan Dorling is in the Nottinghamshire Historian journal, spring/summer 2000, pages 9-15 and further details in the autumn/winter edition of 2003, pages 8-12.
J. S. Baxter, who was a schoolboy in Newark from 1830 to 1840, contributed to The hungry forties: life under the bread tax (London, 1904), a book about the Corn Laws: "Chartists and rioters came from Nottingham into Newark, parading the streets with penny loaves dripped in blood carried on pikes, crying 'Bread or blood. The Corn Laws were Import tariffs designed to support domestic British corn prices against competition from less expensive foreign-grain imports between 1815 and 1846 '"
The Victorian era saw a lot of new buildings and industry, such as Independent Chapel (1822), Holy Trinity (1836-37), Christ Church (1837), Castle Railway Station (1846), Wesleyan Chapel (1846), The Corn Exchange (1848), Methodist New Connexion Chapel (1848), W. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities N. Nicholson Trent Ironworks (1840s), Northgate Railway Station (1851), North End Wesleyan Chapel (1868), St. Leonard's Anglican Church (1873), Baptist Chapel (1876), Primitive Methodist Chapel (1878), Newark Hospital (1881), Ossington Coffee Palace (1882), Gilstrap Free Library (1883), Market Hall (1884), Unitarian Chapel (1884), The Fire Station (1889), Waterworks (1898) and the School of Science and Art (1900). Most of these buildings can still be seen today.
These changes and the other industrial expansion that went with them saw the population of the town grow from under 7,000 in 1800 to over 15,000 by the end of the century.
The current population of Newark is around 25,000.
The clothing, bearings, pumps, agricultural machinery, and sugar refining were the main industries in Newark in the last 100 years or so. There have been many factory closures, especially since the 1950s, as with much of Britain's manufacturing industry. The largest single employer is a bearings factory (part of the NSK group) with around 800 employees. Another notable employer in the town is Laurens Patisseries, part of the UK's largest food group Bakkavör, claims to be the largest cream cake manufacturer in the UK. Bakkavör Group hf is an Icelandic international food manufacturing company specialising in fresh prepared foods and produce
Breweries in the town in the 20th century included James Hole and Warwicks-and-Richardsons.
With its pleasant environment, including the surrounding villages, and its good transport links, the town is becoming a popular commuter town for the expanding city of Nottingham (around 20 miles away) and even increasingly for London (1 hour and 20 minutes by rail). A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential from which most of the Workforce commute out to earn their livelihood Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. Newark is also home of Newark Rugby Union Football Club, which has produced past players such as Dusty Hare, John Wells and Tom Ryder. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short William Henry "Dusty" Hare MBE (born 29 November 1952) is a former international Rugby union footballer who played. John Wells (born 12 May 1963) is a former captain and coach of the Leicester Tigers Rugby unionteam and presently forwards coach for England
Newark returned two representatives to the Unreformed House of Commons from 1673. Newark is a Constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The unreformed House of Commons is the name generally given to the British House of Commons as it existed before the Reform Act of 1832. It was the last borough to be created before the Reform Act. William E. Gladstone, later Prime Minister, was MP for Newark in 1832, and re-elected in 1835, 1837 and 1841 (twice), but possibly due to his support of the repeal of the Corn Laws and other issues he stood elsewhere after that time. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. A repeal is the Removal or Reversal of a Law. This is generally done when a law is no longer effective or it is shown that a law is having far more negative The Corn Laws were Import tariffs designed to support domestic British corn prices against competition from less expensive foreign-grain imports between 1815 and 1846
Recently, Newark elections have been central to two interesting legal cases. In 1945, a challenge to Harold Laski, the Chairman of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party, led Laski to sue the Daily Express when it reported him as saying that Labour might take power through violence if defeated at the polls. Harold Joseph Laski ( June 30, 1893 &ndash March 24, 1950) was an English Political theorist, Economist, Author The National Executive Committee or NEC is the chief administrative body of the UK Labour Party. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Daily Express is a conservative Middle-market British Tabloid Newspaper. Laski vehemently denied saying this but lost the libel action.
In the 1997 general election, Newark returned Fiona Jones of the Labour Party. Results The election was fought under new boundaries with a net increase of eight seats compared to the 1992 election Fiona Jones ( 27 February 1957 &ndash 28 January 2007) was a Labour Party politician in the United Kingdom. The defeated Liberal Democrat candidate questioned her election expenses and the police investigated and eventually prosecuted. The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the Jones and her election agent Des Whicher were convicted of submitting a fraudulent declaration of expenses, but the conviction was overturned on appeal. Had the conviction stood, Jones would have been disqualified from Parliament.
Newark's current MP is Patrick Mercer, Conservative. Patrick John Mercer OBE (born 26 June 1956) is a politician in the United Kingdom. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Mercer held the position of Shadow Minister for Homeland Security from June 2003 until March 2007, when he was forced to resign following racially contentious comments made to The Times. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. 
Newark has two railway stations linked to the national network. The East Coast Main Line runs through Newark North Gate railway station providing links to London, Leeds, Newcastle upon Tyne and Edinburgh. The East Coast Main Line ( ECML) is the electrified high-speed railway link between London and Edinburgh connecting Yorkshire, North East History It was built by the Great Northern Railway and opened as part of their "Towns" direct route from Peterborough to Doncaster London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. The Newark Castle railway station lies on the Leicester - Nottingham - Lincoln line providing cross country regional links. Leicester (ˈlɛstə is the largest city and Unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and is the traditional Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. Lincoln (ˈlɪŋkən is a Cathedral city and County town of Lincolnshire, England. These two lines cross on the level, which is the only such crossing in Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A grade separation is proposed, but no money has been found for it at present. Grade separation is the process of aligning a junction of two or more transport axes at different heights (
A comprehensive bibliography for Newark is available at the Thoroton Society website.