A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that is not part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Church (disambiguation A religious denomination is a subgroup within a Religion that operates under a common name tradition and identity
The term NRM comprises a wide range of movements which range from loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates its adherents from mainstream society. Spirituality, in a narrow sense concerns itself with matters of the Spirit, a concept closely tied to religious belief and Faith, a transcendent reality A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Communitarianism, as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century opposing in its opinion exalted forms of Individualism while advocating phenomena Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy Mainstream is generally the common current of Thought of the Majority. Its use isn't universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied. 
As a field of scholarly endeavor, the study of New Religions emerged in Japan in the wake of the explosion of religious innovation following the Second World War. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Even the name “new religions” is a direct translation of shin shukyo, which Japanese sociologists coined to refer to this phenomenon. The term was adopted in turn by Western scholars as an alternative to the older term cult, which acquired a pejorative connotation during the 1970s, and was subsequently used indiscriminately by lay critics to disparage faiths whose doctrines they saw as unusual or heretical. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970.  A number of scholars, especially in the sociology of religion, use "new religious movement" to describe non-mainstream religions, while others use the term for benign alternative religions and reserve "cult" for groups - whether religious, psychotherapeutic, political or commercial - they believe to be extremely manipulative and exploitative. 
Although there is no one criterion or set of criteria for describing a group as a "new religious movement," use of the term usually requires that the group be both of recent origin and different from existing religions.
Debate surrounds the phrase "of recent origin": some authors use World War II as the dividing line after which anything is "new", whereas others define as "new" everything after the advent of the Bahá'í Faith (mid-19th century) or even everything after Sikhism (17th century). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century
"New" in the sense of "different from existing religions" is considered straightforward in definition but not as much in categorization. Some scholars have a more restricted approach to what counts as "different". For them, "difference" applies to a faith that, though it may be seen as part of an existing religion, meets with rejection from that religion for not sharing the same basic creed or declares itself either separate from the existing religion or even "the only right" faith. Other scholars expand their measurement of difference, considering religious movements new when, taken from their traditional cultural context, they appear in new places, perhaps in modified forms. Examples of these kinds of "new movements" would be the Western importation and establishment of Hindu or Buddhist groups. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices
NRMs vary in terms of leadership; authority; concepts of the individual, family, and gender; teachings; organizational structures; etc. These variations have presented a challenge to social scientists in their attempts to formulate a comprehensive and clear set of criteria for classifying NRMs. 
Generally, Christian denominations that are an accepted part of mainstream Christianity are not seen as new religious movements. However, to some, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Christian Scientists, Shakers, and even tent revivalists have been studied as NRMs. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Christian Science is believed by its supporters to be a system of spiritually scientific truths which are summed up in the two commandments having one God one Mind one Life Truth The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, known as the Shakers, was a Protestant religious denomination that originated in Manchester A tent revival is a gathering of Christian worshipers in a tent erected specifically for Revival meetings Healing crusades and church rallies  There are also examples of such groups being characterized as cults, generally by other evangelicals who are hostile to their proselytizing efforts. Certain other groups do not define themselves as religions but nonetheless find some scholars labeling them NRMs.
Debates among academics on the acceptability of the word cult continue. Similarly, no consensus has been reached in the definition of new religious movement among scholars.
An article on the categorization of new religious movements in U. S. print media published by The Association for the Sociology of Religion (formerly the American Catholic Sociological Society), criticizes the print media for failing to recognize social-scientific efforts in the area of new religious movements, and its tendency to use popular or anti-cultist definitions rather than social-scientific insight, and asserts that The failure of the print media to recognize social-scientific efforts in the area of religious movement organizations impels us to add yet another failing mark to the media report card Weiss (1985) has constructed to assess the media's reporting of the social sciences. The " anti-cult movement " ( ACM) is a term used by academics and others to refer to a perceived collectivity of groups and individuals who oppose cults and new religious 
NRMs are diverse in their beliefs, practices, organization, and societal acceptance. This list of new religious movements (NRMs lists groups that either identify themselves as religious ethical or spiritual organizations or are generally seen as such by religious scholars Irving Hexham and Karla Poewe have consequently proposed that there are NRMs, particularly those who have gained adherents in a number of nations, which can be understood as forming global sub-cultures.
In general, the number of people who have affiliated with NRMs worldwide is small when compared to major world religions. However, the diversity of NRMs has seen the emergence of different groups in Africa, Japan, and Melanesia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people"
In Africa, David Barrett has documented the emergence of 6,000 new indigenous churches since the late 1960s. In Japan a number of NRMs based on revitalised Shinto belief, as well as neo-Buddhist and New Age groups, have emerged, some of which originated in the late Nineteenth century in the Meiji Era and others in the aftermath of World War Two. is the native religion of Japan and was once its State religion. New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature The, or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July
Around twenty-five percent of the world's distinct cultures are found in Melanesia, spanning the island nations from Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji. Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands Vanuatu, officially the Republic of Vanuatu ( French: République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu) is an Island Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य It was here that the phenomena of Cargo Cults were first discerned by anthropologists and religious studies scholars. A cargo cult may appear in tribal societies in the wake of interaction with technologically advanced non-native Cultures The cult is focused on obtaining the material wealth Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of The Cargo Cults are interpreted as indigenous NRMs that have arisen in response to colonial and post-colonial cultural changes, including the influx of modernisation and capitalist consumerism. The idea of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard Evolutionary pattern as described in the Social evolutionism theories Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Consumerism is the equation of personal Happiness with the purchase of material possessions and consumption.
At the time of their foundation, the religious traditions considered "established" or "mainstream" today were seen as new religious movements. For example, Christianity was opposed by people within Judaism and within the Roman culture as sacrilege toward existing doctrines. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Endless such activities were also conducted in other cities under ancient Rome Likewise, Protestant Christianity was originally seen—and is still considered by some today—as a new religious movement or breakaway development. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. There are those who have seen Buddhism as a breakaway innovation from Hinduism. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
Criticism of some new religious movements, a subset of which are often described by their critics as being "cults," has been a contentious issue with both sides sometimes using epithets such as "hate group" to describe the other side. Opposition to Cults and to New religious movements (NRMs comes from several sources with diverse concerns This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates Hate, Hostility, or Violence towards members of a race ethnicity religion gender sexual  Disaffected former members, stating that they are seeking redress for perceived wrongs or looking to expose perceived wrongdoings, have, in turn, had their motives called into question. They have themselves come under attack for allegedly using methods themselves that have been characterized as polemic, hostile, and verbally or emotionally abusive. Polemics (pəˈlɛmɪks/ /poʊ- is the practice of disputing or controverting religious, philosophical, or political matters Critics, both those who are ex-members and who aren't, have had their character and credibility impeached. The Church of Scientology, in particular, makes a practice of investigating its critics and publicizing any past crimes or wrongdoings. The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. The term Fair Game is used to describe various aggressive policies and practices carried out by the Church of Scientology towards people and groups it perceives as its enemies
CESNUR’s president Massimo Introvigne, writes in his article "So many evil things: Anti-cult terrorism via the Internet", that fringe and extreme anti-cult activism resorts to tactics that may create a background favorable to extreme manifestations of discrimination and hate against individuals that belong to new religious movements. CESNUR (Italian Centro Studi sulle Nuove Religioni) is a Center for Studies on New Religions, based in Turin, Italy. Massimo Introvigne (b June 14, 1955 in Rome) is the founder and managing director of the Center for Studies on New Religions ( CESNUR) an international The " anti-cult movement " ( ACM) is a term used by academics and others to refer to a perceived collectivity of groups and individuals who oppose cults and new religious Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is Critics of CESNUR, however, call Introvigne a cult apologist who defends harmful religious groups and cults. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice Somewhat in concurrence with Introvigne, professor Eileen Barker asserts in an interview that the controversy surrounding certain new religious movements can turn violent by a process called deviancy amplification spiral. Eileen Vartan Barker (born 21 April 1938 in Edinburgh UK is a Professor in Sociology, an emeritus member of the London School of Economics (LSE and Deviancy amplification spiral (also simply called deviance amplification) is a Media hype phenomenon defined by media critics as an increasing cycle of reporting on 
Aspects of the guru-shishya (teacher-disciple) tradition are commonly brought forward in disputes related to asserted abuse of authority by gurus and spiritual teachers of new religious movements. The guru-shishya tradition lineage or Parampara, is a spiritual relationship in traditional Hinduism where teachings are transmitted from a
In a paper by Anson Shupe and Susan Darnell presented at the 2000 meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, they affirm that although the International Cultic Studies Association ( ICSA, formerly known as AFF or American Family Foundation) has presented "slanted, stereotypical images and language that has inflamed persons to perform extreme actions," the extent to which the ICSA and other anti-cultist organizations are hate groups as defined by law or racial/ethnic criteria in sociology, is open for debate. The International Cultic Studies Association (ICSA formerly the American Family Foundation describes itself as an "interdisciplinary network of academicians See also Verbal violence in hate groups. A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates Hate, Hostility, or Violence towards members of a race ethnicity religion gender sexual
The Foundation against Intolerance of Religious Minorities, associated with the Adidam NRM, sees the use of terms "cult" and "cult leader" to suggest that these are to be detested, avoided at whatever cost and see this as the exercise of prejudice and discrimination against them in the same manner as "nigger" and "commie" were used in the past to denigrate blacks and Communists. Adi Da Samraj, (born Franklin Albert Jones, November 3 1939 in Jamaica Queens, New York City) is a contemporary and controversial Nigger is a Noun in the English language, most notable for its usage in a derogatory context to refer to Black people, and also as an informal The term black people usually refers to a racial group of Humans with dark Skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based