New realism was a philosophy expounded by a group of six U. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language S. based scholars in the early 20th century. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
The central feature of the new realism was a rejection of the epistemological dualism of John Locke and the older forms of realism. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge Dualism denotes a state of two parts The word's origin is the Latin duo, "two". John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. The group, including Ralph Barton Perry, Edwin Holt, and William Montague, maintained that when one is conscious of, or knows, an object, it is an error to say that there are two distinct facts -- knowledge of the object in a mind, and an extra-mental object in itself. Ralph Barton Perry (3 July 1876 in Poultney Vermont - 22 January 1957 in Boston Massachusetts) was an American philosopher Edwin Bissell Holt ( August 21, 1873 – January 25, 1946) was a professor of philosophy and psychology at Harvard from 1901–1918 William Pepperell Montague (1873-1953 was a Philosopher of the New Realist school
In an example from Edwin Holt: the question between the old realism and the new concerns knowledge that a particular cow is black. Is the blackness on that cow's hide, or in the observer's mind? "That color out there is the thing in consciousness selected for such inclusion by the nervous system's specific response,"Holt wrote. Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself
Consciousness, in the sense Holt has in mind here, is not physically identical with the nervous system which is the condition of selections. The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself The consciousness is "out there" with the hide of the cow. Consciousness is all throughout the field of sight -- and smell, and hearing -- for which the nervous system selects. For consciousness is at any moment identical with the set of facts it is said to know.
This position belongs to a broader category of views sometimes called neutral monism or, following William James, radical empiricism. Neutral monism, in Philosophy, is the metaphysical view that Existence consists of one (hence Monism) primal substance which in itself is For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation William James (January 11 1842 – August 26 1910 was a pioneering Radical empiricism is a pragmatist doctrine put forth by William James. But it hasn't worn well over the subsequent century, in part because of the quandary that resulted when its practitioners had to consider abstract ideas, such as blackness. Here, it seems very natural to locate the abstract idea in my head, and to justify it by its utility in dealing with the world. The extra-mental world includes cows, and dark nights, and pirate flags. Blackness as an abstraction is a mental tool for dealing therewith.
But that analysis was not available to the new realists, who did not want to acknowledge representational ideas at all. The nervous system is merely a system of selection. So, the idea of black must be out there, in something of the same manner as is the cow or the pirate flag, to be selected. The Jolly Roger is the name given to any of various Flags flown to identify a ship's crew as pirates The flag most usually identified as the Jolly Roger today
Generally speaking, the new realists saw this necessity and embraced something akin to Aristotle's form of realism -- black is something that the pirate flag and the hide of the cow have in common, and the nervous system selects not just those things but that commonality as a fact in the world. This runs into difficulties, though, as Arthur Lovejoy showed in his book, "The Revolt Against Dualism. Arthur Oncken Lovejoy ( October 10, 1873, Berlin &ndash December 30, 1962, Baltimore) was an influential American "
The perception of black is so dependent on context, in the visual field, in the perceivers' personal histories, and in the cultural usage of the term, that it just doesn't work to try to reduce it all to the commonalities within the objects to which we apply the word. Better, Lovejoy thought, to bring representational ideas back into the account after all.